Vegetarianism by country

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A vegetarian thali from Rajasthan, India. Since many Indian religions promote vegetarianism, Indian cuisine offers a wide variety of vegetarian delicacies.
Buddhist influenced Korean vegetarian side dishes.

This article deals with vegetarianism and veganism by country, comparing the prevalence of vegetarianism and veganism in each country when sources are available by the number of vegetarians and vegans, and listing food standards, laws and general cultural attitudes.

Some countries have strong cultural or religious traditions that promote vegetarianism, such as in India, while in other countries secular ethical concerns dominate, including animal rights and environmental protection, along with health concerns. In many countries, food labeling laws make it easier for vegetarians to identify foods compatible with their diets.[1]

Demographics[edit]

Vegetarianism as a percentage of the population
Color coded map indicating vegetarianism as a percentage of the population

Reliable data is lacking due to a lack of polling and the varying definitions of vegetarianism and veganism used in the polls. For example, the latest US poll defines "vegan" according to diets that exclude meat, eggs and dairy, rather than following the accepted definition[citation needed] of veganism as avoiding all animal products as far as possible including honey and clothing. Other polls, like the latest Australian poll, place strict vegetarians and those who follow "almost" vegetarian diets in the same category, while this poll and many others measure only vegetarianism and neglect to include veganism in the poll. Many poll results are contradicted by other poll results from the same country despite similar publication dates, implying a wide margin of error.[2]

A study from 2010[3] estimated that there are 1,45 billion vegetarians of necessity and another 75 million of choice. They make approximately 21.8% of the world’s population.

Country Vegetarian diet (%) (includes vegan diet) Approx. no. of individuals Data set year Vegan diet (%) Approx. no. of individuals Data set year Note
 Argentina 5% 2,150,000 2017[4]
 Australia 11% 2,100,000 2016[5] 2010[6] As of March 2016, 11.2% of people living in Australia agreed that "The food I eat is all, or almost all, vegetarian."
 Austria 9% 765,000 2013[7]
 Belgium 10.0% 1,130,177 2016[8]
 Brazil 14.0% 29,260,000 2018[9] 3.03%[10] 6,330,660 2018[9][10] Vegan percentage derived from vegan and vegetarian respondents only,[10] due to access bias, and calculated on top of IBOPE's survey[9]
 Canada 9.4% 3,411,000 2016[11] 2.3 835,000 2016[12]
 China 4% – 5% 54,428,000 – 68,035,000 2013[13]
 Czech Republic 1.5% 235,000 2003[14]
 Denmark 4% 220,000 2011[15]
 Finland 2% 108,000 – 329,000 2011[16] 2015[17] 0.5% 27,000 2013[18] % of vegans only an estimation
 France 5.0% 3,300,000 2018[19] 0.25% 160,000 2018[20]
 Germany 10% 8,000,000 2018[21] 1.6% 1,300,000 2018[22]
 India 31% - 42%[23] 375 000 000 - 500,000,000[24][25] 2018[26] 27% According to the 2006 Hindu-CNN-IBN State of the Nation Survey, 31% of Indians are vegetarian, while another 9% also consume eggs (ovo-vegetarian).[27]
 Israel 13% 1,046,000 2015[28][29] 5% 421,000 2014[28][29]
 Italy 7.1% – 10% 4,246,000 2009[30] 2015[31] 0.6% – 2.8% 400,000 – 1,680,000 2015[31][32]
 Japan 4.7% 18,370,300 2014[33] 2.7% 5,875,000 2014[33]
 Latvia 3% – 5% 60,000 – 100,000 2013[34] estimation
 Mexico 19% 23,370,000 2016[35] 9% 11,070,000 2016[36]
 Netherlands 5.0% 800,000

2016[37] 2017[38]

0.5% 82,000 2017[39]
 New Zealand 10.3% 463,500 2016[40]
 Norway 2% – 4% 100,000 - 200,000 2004[41] 0.2% – 0.4% 10,000 - 20,000 2004 estimation
 Poland 8% 3,072,000 2016[42] 7% 2,688,000 2016[43]
 Portugal 1.2% 120,000 2017[44] 0.6% 60,000 2018[45] survey conducted by marketing research firm Nielsen Corporation
 Russia 3% – 4% 4,380,000 – 5,840,000 2014[46][47]
 Slovenia 1.4% – 1.6% 28,922 – 33,054 2007/2008[48] 0.3% – 0.5% 6,197 – 10,329 2007/2008[48] Age group: 18-65; a representative sample; unbiased data (survey conducted by National Institute of Public Health); new data will be available soon (2018/2019/2020).
 South Korea 1.0% 500,000 2011[49][50]
 Spain 1.5% 697,000 2017[51] 0.2% 93,000 2017[51] adult population
 Sweden 10% 969,000 2014[52] 4% 388,000 2014[52] Based on a 1000 person telephone survey.
  Switzerland 14% 1,176,156 2017[53] 3% 252,033 2017[53]
 Taiwan 14.0% 3,297,011

2015[54] 2016[55] 2017[56]

 Thailand 3.3% 2,300,000

2015[57] 2016[58] 2017[59]

 United Kingdom 7.00% 3,250,000 2018[60] 1.16% 600,000 2018[61] Although other surveys claim higher numbers (e.g. 7% vegan, 14% veg), the Vegan Society statistics are more reliable - see ref.[62]
 United States 5.0% - 8.0% 12,646,000 - 20,233,000 2018[63] 3% 7,588,000 2018[63] "Results for this Gallup poll are based on telephone interviews conducted July 1-11, 2018, with a random sample of 1,033 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia."[63]

Africa[edit]

The prevalence of strict ethical vegetarianism in Africa is reported to be low since most of the traditional food consists of meat,[64] while scientific polls are lacking. Countries in North Africa have a tradition of cooking in a vegetarian style, with Morocco, Algeria, Libya and Tunisia being particularly connected with this type of cooking which includes couscous and spiced vegetables.[65] Indian immigrants to Africa, particularly in South Africa, brought vegetarianism with them which has been documented as far back as 1895 in Natal Province.[66] Also, some African countries, for example Egypt and Ethiopia, have regular weekly and special periods of religious fasting requiring observance of a vegetarian diet.[64][67]

Asia[edit]

India[edit]

Vegetarian mark: Mandatory labeling in India to distinguish vegetarian products (left) from non-vegetarian ones (right).

In 2007, UN FAO statistics indicated that Indians had the lowest rate of meat consumption in the world.[68] India has more vegetarians than the rest of the world put together.[69] In India, vegetarianism is usually synonymous with lacto vegetarianism. Most restaurants in India clearly distinguish and market themselves as being either "non-vegetarian", "vegetarian", or "pure vegetarian". Vegetarian restaurants abound, and many vegetarian options are usually available. Animal-based ingredients (other than milk and honey) such as lard, gelatin, and meat stock are not used in the traditional cuisine. India has devised a system of marking edible products made from only vegetarian ingredients, with a green dot in a green square. A mark of a brown dot in a brown square conveys that some animal-based ingredients (meat, egg, etc.) were used. Products like honey, milk, or its direct derivatives are categorized under the green mark.[70]

According to the 2006 Hindu-CNN-IBN State of the Nation Survey, 31% of Indians are vegetarian, while another 9% also consume eggs (ovo-vegetarian).[27] Among the various communities, vegetarianism was most common among the Brahmins, Lingayat, Vaishnav Community, Jain community, and, less frequent among Muslims (3%) and residents of coastal states. Other surveys cited by FAO[71] and USDA[72][73] estimate 40% of the Indian population as being vegetarian. These surveys indicate that even Indians who do eat meat, do so infrequently, with less than 30% consuming it regularly, although the reasons are mainly cultural.[73] In states where vegetarianism is more common, milk consumption is higher and is associated with lactase persistence. This allows people to continue consuming milk into adulthood and obtain proteins that are substituted for meat, fish and eggs in other areas.[74][75] An official survey conducted by the Government of India, with a sample size of 8858 and the census frame as 2011, indicated India's vegetarian population to be 28-29% of the total population.[76] Compared to a similar survey done almost a decade earlier, India's vegetarian population has increased.[77]

According to a 2014 survey released by the registrar general of India, Rajasthan has the highest fraction of vegetarians: 74.9%. Other states with vegetarians include Haryana (69.25%), Punjab (66.75%), Gujarat (60.95%), Madhya Pradesh (50.6%), Uttar Pradesh (47.1%), Maharashtra (40.2%), Delhi (39.5%), Jammu & Kashmir (31.45%), Uttarakhand (27.35%), Karnataka (21.1%), Assam (20.6%), Chhattisgarh (17.95%), Bihar (7.55%), Jharkhand (3.25%), Kerala (3.0%), Orissa (2.65%), Tamil Nadu (2.35%), Andhra Pradesh (1.75%), West Bengal (1.4%), and Telangana (1.3%).[78]

The recent growth in India's organized retail sector has also been hit by some controversy, because some vegetarians are demanding meat-free supermarkets.[79]

In 2016, Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, announced the decision to provide students, at a few of the Institutes of Hotel Management, Catering Technology and Applied Nutrition (IHMCTANs), the option to choose only vegetarian cooking. These IHMCTANs are located at Ahmedabad, Bhopal and Jaipur. In 2018, the National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology (NCHMCT) announced that all IHMCTANs will be offering a vegetarian option from 2018 onwards[80][81][82].

A 2018 study from Economic and Political Weekly by US-based anthropologist Balmurli Natrajan and India-based economist Suraj Jacob suggests that the percentage of vegetarians may be closer to 20%; the study argues that meat-eating behavior is underreported because consumption of meat, especially beef, is "caught in cultural, political, and group identity struggles in India".[83]

China[edit]

In China, consumption of meat is rapidly increasing while a small but growing number of young people in large cities are vegan.[13] An estimated 4 to 5 percent of Chinese are vegetarian.[13] However, in a survey conducted by SJTU researchers, only 0.77 percent of respondents labeled themselves vegetarian.

Native Chinese, generally falling under the label of Taoism (though this tends to confuse the native religion with the Daoist school of philosophy, represented by Laotzu, Chuangtzu, and others), is a form of animism. Similar to Shintoism in Japan, though the killing and eating of animals is not forbidden, it is considered impure.

Classical Chinese texts pointed to a period of abstinence from meat before undertaking matters of great importance or of religious significance.

With the influx of Buddhist influences, vegetarianism became more popular, but there is a distinction—Daoist vegetarianism is based on a perception of purity, while Buddhist vegetarianism is based on the dual bases of refraining from killing and subduing one's own subservience to the senses. Because of this, two types of "vegetarianism" came to be—one where one refrained from eating meat, the other being refraining from eating meat as well as garlic, onions, and other such strongly flavored foods. This Buddhism-influenced vegetarianism has been known and practiced by some since at least the 7th century.

The early 20th century saw some intellectuals espousing vegetarianism as part of their program for reforming China culturally, not just politically. The anarchist thinker Li Shizeng, for instance, argued that tofu and soy products were healthier and could be a profitable export. Liang Shuming, a philosopher and reform activist, adopted a basically vegetarian diet, but did not promote one for others. In recent years, it has seen a resurgence in the cities among the emerging middle class.[84]

Israel[edit]

A study by the Israeli Ministry of Health in 2001 found that 7.2% of men and 9.8% of women were vegetarian. Although vegetarianism is quite common, the actual percentage of vegetarians in Israel may be lower — the Israeli food industry estimated it at 5%.[85] In 2010, one study found that 2.6% of Israelis were vegetarians or vegans.[86]

According to a 2015 poll by the newspaper ''Globe'' and Channel 2, 8% of the Israeli population were vegetarians and 5% were vegans. 13% consider turning vegan or vegetarian. Tel Aviv beat out Berlin, New York and Chennai, India as U.S. food website The Daily Meal's top destination for vegan travelers.[86][87]

Japan[edit]

According to a 2014/12 survey 4.7% of the Japanese population are vegetarian or vegan (2.7% vegan). NOTE: The referenced web survey included 1,188 valid responses and is not representative of the population of Japan.[33]

Malaysia[edit]

A vegetarian restaurant in Johor, Malaysia.

Vegetarian diets are categorized as lacto vegetarianism, ovo-lacto vegetarianism, and veganism in general. The reasons for being vegetarian include influence from friends and family members, concern about global warming, health issues and weight management, religion and mercy for animals, in descending order of significance.[88]

Singapore[edit]

Rice, mushrooms, vegetables are some of the dietary staples, mixed with a rich variety of spices, coconut, lime and tamarind. Buddhist Chinese monastics are vegetarians or vegans. Singapore is also the headquarters of the world's first international, vegetarian, fast food chain, VeganBurg.[89] The bigger communities of vegetarians and vegans in Singapore are Vegetarian Society (VSS) and SgVeganCommunity. Vegetarian and vegan places have an active role in the gastronomy of Singapore.

Taiwan[edit]

In Taiwan, 1.7 million people, or 13% of the population of Taiwan, follow a vegetarian diet at least some of the time.[90][91] There are more than 6,000 vegetarian eating establishments in Taiwan.[92] The country's food labelling laws for vegetarian food are the world's strictest, because around 2 million Taiwanese people eat vegetarian food.[93] A popular movement of "one day vegetarian every week" has been advocated on a national level,[94] and on a local level, even government bodies are involved, such as the Taipei City Board of Education.[95]

Thailand[edit]

In Thailand, 2.3 million people, or 3.3% of the population of Thailand, follow a vegetarian diet at least some of the time.[96] There are more than 908 vegetarian eating establishments in Thailand.[dead link][97]].

Europe[edit]

The definition of vegetarianism throughout Europe is not uniform, creating the potential for products to be labelled inaccurately.[1]

Austria[edit]

According to a study of ISEF[98] from 2013 (n=500), 9% of Austrians are vegetarian or vegan.

Belgium[edit]

Since May 2009, Belgium has had the first city in the world (Ghent) with a weekly "veggie day".[99]

Denmark[edit]

According to a survey by Coop Analyse published in June 2011, just under 4% of Danes considered themselves either vegetarians or vegans.[15]

Finland[edit]

There is no recent data about amount of vegetarians or vegans in Finland. In 2015, according to a survey by meat producers' association Lihatiedotusyhdistys, 6% of the population, or 329,000 people, did not eat meat.[17] In 2014, the percentage was 5%; it was 10% among 25–34 year old people. The survey did not ask about eating fish.[100] Otherwise, it is estimated that 2–3% of Finns are vegetarians[16] and 0.5% vegans.[18] By combining the data of three surveys (a sample of 24,000 people) published in 2008, 3.3% of Finns identified themselves vegetarians but only 0.66% actually followed a vegetarian diet. 1.4% ate fish but not meat. 0.18% were vegans or lacto-vegetarians.[101]

In most of the cities's schools the students are offered two options, a vegetarian and a non-vegetarian meal, on four school days a week, and one day a week they have a choice between two vegetarian meals, for grades 1 to 12. In secondary schools and universities, from 10 to 40 percents of the students preferred vegetarian food in 2013.[102][103] Vegetarianism is most popular in secondary art schools where in some schools over half of the students were vegetarians in 2013.[104]

France[edit]

Studies in the 1990s showed that one million French (1.5% of the total population) called themselves vegetarians, although more recently this number has reportedly increased to 2%.[105]

Germany[edit]

According to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Germany has over six million vegetarians.[106] A survey conducted by Institut Produkt und Markt found that 9% of the population (7,380,000 people) are vegetarian.[107]

However, the statistically representative German National Nutrition Monitoring (NEMONIT) only found there to be slightly less than 2% vegetarians in the German population in 2012.[108]

Italy[edit]

FUTURE IS VEGAN - graffiti in Turin

The Italian research institute Eurispes estimates that 10% of Italians are vegetarian and 1.1% are vegan.[30]

Netherlands[edit]

It was estimated in 2008 that 4.5% of the Dutch population does not eat meat.[109]

A study has shown that the number of vegetarians out of a population of nearly 16.5 million people increased from 560,000 in 2004 to 720,000 in 2006.[110][111] The number of "part-time vegetarians" grew rapidly as well; around 3.5 million Dutch citizens abstain from eating meat a few days a week.[111]

It was reported in 2006 that sales of meat substitutes had an annual growth of around 25%, which made it one of the fastest-growing markets in the Netherlands.[111] In supermarkets and stores, it is sometimes necessary to read the fine print on products in order to make sure that there are no animal-originated ingredients. Increasingly, however, vegetarian products are labeled with the international "V-label," overseen by the Dutch vegetarian association Vegetarisch Keurmerk.[112] Veganism is uncommon in the Netherlands: the Dutch Association for Veganism estimates that there are approximately more than 100,000 vegans in the Netherlands, or around 0.59% of the population.[113]

Poland[edit]

According to a survey carried out in Poland by Mintel in 2017, 8% of respondents are vegetarian, while 7% identify themselves as vegans.[114]

The capital of Poland, Warsaw, was listed 3rd on the list of Top Vegan Cities In The World published by HappyCow in 2017.[115]

Portugal[edit]

In 2007, the number of vegetarians in Portugal was estimated at 30,000, which equates to less than 0.3% of the population. In 2014, the number was estimated to be 200,000 people.[116]

Vegan and vegetarian products like soy milk, soy yogurts, rice milk and tofu are widely available in major retailers, and across the country.

Romania[edit]

Followers of the Romanian Orthodox Church keep fast during several periods throughout the ecclesiastical calendar amounting to a majority of the year. In the Romanian Orthodox tradition, devotees keep to a diet without any animal products during these times. As a result, vegan foods are abundant in stores and restaurants; however, Romanians may not be familiar with a vegan or vegetarian diet as a full-time lifestyle choice.[117]

Russia[edit]

2013-2014 polls revealed that 3[46] to 4%[47] of the Russian population considered themselves vegetarian.[118]

Spain[edit]

According to the report of «The Green Revolution», made by the Lantern consulting, 7.8% of spanish popultation over the age of 18 considers themselves as vegetarians but include some animal product or add sometimes some animal protein in its diet (Semi-vegetarian). Two third of them are women and 51.2% live in cities with +100.000 dwellers.[51]

The number of restaurants and food stores catering exclusively, or partially, to non-meat eaters and non-animal product eaters has more than doubled since 2011, with a total of 800 on record by the end of 2016, The Green Revolution claims.[119]

Sweden[edit]

A 2014 survey of 1,000 people found that the number of vegetarians had increased to 10% (4% vegans and 6% vegetarians).[52] The same survey found that 17% in the age group 15-24 were vegetarians.

Switzerland[edit]

1997 government figures suggested that 2.3% of the population never ate meat, and the observed trend seemed to point towards less meat consumption.[120] A 2007 study suggested that the percentage of vegetarians had risen to 5%.[120]

United Kingdom[edit]

The Food Standards Agency Public Attitudes to Food Survey 2009 reported that 3% of respondents were found to be "completely vegetarian", with an additional 5% "partly vegetarian (do not eat some types of fish or meat)".[121] The UK's National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) reported in 2014 that its four-year study found 2.6% of adults and 1.9% of children were vegetarian.[122] The "How many vegans?" survey conducted in May 2016 by the Vegan Society found that 3.25% of UK residents were vegetarian or vegan, while 1.05% were vegan.[123] Some less formal market studies suggest that vegetarians constitute 7% to 11% of the UK adult population (4 million people).[124][125][126] There are twice as many vegetarian women as men.[126] According to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the UK has the third highest rate of vegetarianism in the European Union.[106] Publicity campaigns such as Veganuary have led to a rise in partially vegetarian ("flexitarian") diets, with half of the UK population eating meat 3 times or fewer per week (as of 2018) and a rise in sales for meat substitute products such as Quorn.[127]

Despite the clear classification by the Vegetarian Society, some people in the UK misidentify as vegetarians while still eating fish, either for perceived "health reasons", or because of differing ethical perspectives on vegetarianism, while others use the terms "flexitarian" or "part-vegetarian".[128] As of 2009, people in the UK are now also identified with the labels "meat-avoiders" and "meat-reducers" by marketers, denoting people who do not self-identify as vegetarians, but are reducing or avoiding meat for reasons of health or climate change impacts, with one survey identifying 23% of the population as "meat-reducers", and 10% as "meat-avoiders".[128]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

In Canada, vegetarianism is usually synonymous with ovo-lacto vegetarianism. However, vegetarians are sometimes wrongly assumed to be pescetarians or pollotarians. Approximately 4.0% of adults were vegetarians as of 2003.[129] In 2018, a survey conducted by Dalhousie University, led by Canadian researcher Sylvain Charlebois suggested that 7.1% of Canadian adults considered themselves as being vegetarians.[130][131]

United States[edit]

In 1971, 1 percent of U.S. citizens described themselves as vegetarians.[132] In 2008 Harris Interactive found that 3.2% are vegetarian and 0.5% vegan.[133] U.S. vegetarian food sales (dairy replacements such as soy milk and meat replacements such as textured vegetable protein) doubled between 1998 and 2003, reaching $1.6 billion in 2003.[134]

According to a report in 2017, the number of consumers claiming to be vegan has risen to 6% in the US.[135] In 2015, a Harris Poll National Survey of 2,017 adults aged 18 and over found that eight million Americans, or 3.4%, ate a solely vegetarian diet, and that one million, or 0.4%, ate a strictly vegan diet.[136]

Many American children whose parents follow vegetarian diets follow them because of religious, environmental or other reasons.[137] In the government's first estimate[138] of how many children avoid meat, the number is about 1 in 200.[139][140] The CDC survey included children ages 0 to 17 years.

By U.S. law, food packaging is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, and generally must be labeled with a list of all its ingredients.[141][142] However, there are exceptions. For example, certain trace ingredients that are "ingredients of ingredients" do not need to be listed.[143]

Mexico[edit]

According to a Nielsen survey from 2016, Mexico is the country with the highest number of vegans (9%) and vegetarians (19%) in Latin America.[144] There are hundreds of vegan & vegetarian restaurants across the country. [145]

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

In Australia, some manufacturers who target the vegetarian market label their foods with the statement "suitable for vegetarians"; however, for foods intended for export to the UK, this labelling can be inconsistent because flavourings in ingredients lists do not need to specify if they come from animal origin. As such, "natural flavour" could be derived from either plant or animal sources.

Animal rights organisations such as Animal Liberation promote vegan and vegetarian diets. "Vegetarian Week" runs from 1–7 October every year,[146] and food companies are taking advantage of the growing number of vegetarians by producing meat-free alternatives of popular dishes, including sausages and mash and spaghetti Bolognese.[147]

A 2000 Newspoll survey (commissioned by Sanitarium) shows 44% of Australians report eating at least one meat-free evening meal a week, while 18% said they prefer plant-based meals.

According to a 2010 Newspoll survey, 5% of Australians identify themselves as vegetarians, with 2% actually eating a diet defined by the survey as vegetarian.[148]

Roy Morgan Research in August 2016 reported, "Between 2012 and 2016, the number of Australian adults whose diet is all or almost all vegetarian has risen from 1.7 million people (or 9.7% of the population) to almost 2.1 million (11.2%), the latest findings from Roy Morgan Research reveal."[149]

New Zealand[edit]

Similar to Australia, in New Zealand the term "vegetarian" refers to individuals who eat no animal meat such as pork, chicken, and fish; they may consume animal products such as milk and eggs. In contrast, the term "vegan" is used to describe those who do not eat or use any by-products of animals.[150] In 2002 New Zealand's vegetarians made up a minority of 1-2% of the country’s 4.5 million people.[151] By 2011 Roy Morgan Research claimed the number of New Zealanders eating an "all or almost all" vegetarian diet to be 8.1%, growing to 10.3% in 2015 (with men providing the most growth, up 63% from 5.7% to 9.3%).[40] In New Zealand there is a strong enough movement for vegetarianism that it has created significant enough demand for a number of vegetarian and vegan retailers to set up.[152]

As New Zealand and Australia work together to form common food standards (as seen in the Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code), there is also a lot of ambiguity surrounding the "natural flavour" ingredients.[153]

South America[edit]

According to a Nielsen survey on Food preferences from 2016, vegetarians make up 8% and vegans 4% of the population across Latin America. [154] Across the continent there are thousands of Vegan & Vegetarian restaurants. [155]

Brazil[edit]

In 2004, Marly Winckler, President of the Brazilian Vegetarian Society, claimed that 5% of the population was vegetarian.[156] According to a 2012 survey undertaken by the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics, 8% of the population, or 15.2 million people, identified themselves as vegetarian.[157] The city of São Paulo had the most vegetarians in absolute terms (792,120 people), while Fortaleza had the highest percentage, at 14% of the total population.[158] A new survey undertaken by the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics in 2018 showed that the proportion of the population identifying as vegetarian raised to 14% (a 75% increase relative to 2012), representing 29 million people.[159]

Marly Winckler claims that the central reasons for the deforestation of the Amazon are expansive livestock raising (mainly cattle) and soybean crops, most of it for use as animal feed, and a minor percentage for edible oil processing (being direct human consumption for use as food nearly negligible),[160] claims that are widely known to have a basis.[161][162][163][164]

As in Canada, vegetarianismo (Portuguese pronunciation: [veʒiˌtaɾjɐ̃ˈnizmu]) is usually synonymous with lacto-ovo-vegetarianism, and vegetarians are sometimes wrongly assumed to be pescetarians and/or pollotarians who tolerate the flesh of fish or poultry, respectively. Nevertheless, veganism, and freeganism, have now become mainstream in the country, being present in nearly every family.[165] Brazilian vegetarians reportedly tend to be urban, of middle or upper class[156] and live in the Central-Southern half of the country. Since the 1990s, and especially since the 2010s, hundreds of vegan and vegetarian restaurants have appeared in many cities like São Paulo, Brasília, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte, Recife, Florianópolis, Campinas, João Pessoa, Caxias do Sul, Salvador, Sorocaba, Santo André, Fortaleza, São Caetano do Sul and Ubatuba.[166]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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