Vegetarianism by country

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Vegetarian restaurant buffet, Taipei, Taiwan.

Around the world, vegetarianism is viewed in different lights. In some areas, there is cultural and even legal support, such as in India and the United Kingdom, where food labelling is in place which can make it easier for vegetarians to identify foods compatible with their diets.[1] Among surveyed countries, the general trend shows vegetarianism on the rise.[2]


Country Vegetarians (%) Approx. No. of individuals [3] Source Year
 Australia 5.0% 1,105,000 (2010)[4]
 Austria 9.0% 765,000 (2013)[5]
 Brazil 8.0% 15,896,000 (2012)[6]
 Canada 4.0% 1,264,000 (2003)[7]
 China 4.0% - 5.0% 54,428,000—68,035,000 (2013)[8]
 Denmark 4.0% 220,000 (2011)[9]
 Finland 5.0% 274,000 (2014)[10]
 France 2.0% 1,306,000 (2011)[11]
 Germany 9.0% 7,371,000 (2009)[12]
 India 31.0% - 40% 392,890,000-506,960,000 (2006)[13]
 Israel 13.0% 664,000 (2015)[14]
 Italy 10.0% 6,010,000 (2009)[15]
 Japan 4.7% 5,964,300 (2014)[16]
 Netherlands 4.5% 738,000 (2008)[17]
 New Zealand 1.0% - 2.0% 39,000—78,000 (2002)[18]
 Poland 3.2% 1,228,800 (2013)[19]
 Portugal 0.3% 31,629 (2007)[20]
 Russia 3.0% - 4.0% 4,380,000—5,840,000 (2014)[21][22]
 Spain 4.0% 1,788,000 (2007)[23]
 Sweden 10.0% 970,000 (2014)[24]
  Switzerland 5.0% 375,000 (2007)[25]
 Taiwan 13.0% 2,964,000 (2007)[26]
 United Kingdom 7.0% - 11.0% 7,095,000 (2002)[27]
 United States 1.9% 6,140,000 (2014)[28]


The prevalence of vegetarianism in Africa is low and is not established in many African cultures.[29] Countries in North Africa do have a tradition of cooking in a vegetarian style, with Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia being particularly connected with this type of cooking which includes cous cous and spiced vegetables.[30] Indian immigrants to Africa, particularly in South Africa brought vegetarianism with them which has been documented as far back as 1895 in Natal Province.[31] Also, some African countries such as Ethiopia have regular weekly and special periods of religious fasting requiring observance of a vegetarian diet.[29][32]



Eating meat is still seen as a sign of prosperity in China.[8] Consumption of meat is rapidly increasing while a small but growing number of young people in large cities identify as vegan. An estimated 4 to 5 percent of Chinese are vegetarian.[8]

Native Chinese religion, generally falling under the label of Taoism (though this tends to confuse the native religion with the Daoist school of philosophy, represented by Laotzu, Chuangtzu, and others), is a form of animism. Similar to Shintoism in Japan, though the killing and eating of animals is not forbidden, it is considered impure.

Classical Chinese texts pointed to a period of abstinence from meat as well as sex and contact with other things that are considered impure (e.g. women in menstruation) before undertaking matters of great import or of religious significance.

With the influx of Buddhist influences, vegetarianism became more popular, but there is a distinction—Daoist vegetarianism is based on a perception of purity, while Buddhist vegetarianism is based on the dual bases of refraining from killing and subduing one's own subservience to the senses. Because of this, two types of "vegetarianism" came to be—one where one refrained from eating meat, the other being refraining from eating meat as well as pepper, garlic, onions, and other such strongly flavored foods. This Buddhism-influenced vegetarianism has been known and practiced by some since at least the 7th century.

The early 20th century saw some intellectuals espousing vegetarianism as part of their program for reforming China culturally, not just politically. The anarchist thinker Li Shizeng, for instance, argued that tofu and soy products were healthier and could be a profitable export. Liang Shuming, a philosopher and reform activist, adopted a basically vegetarian diet, but did not promote one for others. In recent years, it has seen a resurgence in the cities as the emerging middle class pay attention to issues of health and diet.[33]


Further information: Vegetarian mark
Vegetarian mark: Mandatory labeling in India to distinguish vegetarian products (left) from non-vegetarian ones (right)

In 2007, UN FAO statistics indicated that Indians had the lowest rate of meat consumption in the world.[34] In India, vegetarianism is usually synonymous with lacto vegetarianism. Most restaurants in India clearly distinguish and market themselves as being either "non-vegetarian", "vegetarian", or "pure vegetarian". Vegetarian restaurants abound, usually, many vegetarian (Shakahari: plant-eater, in Sanskrit) options are available. Animal-based ingredients (other than milk and honey) such as lard, gelatin, and meat stock are not used in the traditional cuisine. India has devised a system of marking edible products made from only vegetarian ingredients, with a green dot in a green square. A mark of a brown dot in a brown square conveys that some animal-based ingredients were used. Products like honey, milk, or its direct derivatives are often categorized under the green mark.[35]

According to the 2006 Hindu-CNN-IBN State of the Nation Survey, 31% of Indians are vegetarians, while another 9% consume eggs.[13] Among the various communities, vegetarianism was most common among the Lingayat, Jain community and then Brahmins at 55%, and less frequent among Muslims (3%) and residents of coastal states. Other surveys cited by FAO[36] and USDA[37][38] estimate 40% of the Indian population as being vegetarian. These surveys indicate that even Indians who do eat meat, do so infrequently, with less than 30% consuming it regularly, although the reasons are mainly cultural.[38]

The recent growth in India's organized retail has also been hit by some controversy, because some vegetarians are demanding meatless supermarkets.[39]


In the only study conducted on adults by the Ministry of Health in 2001, 7.2% of the men and 9.8% of the women identified themselves as vegetarians. In a 2004 study on youth, 11% of the boys and 20% of the girls considered themselves vegetarians. Although vegetarianism is quite common, the estimated percentage of vegetarians in Israel may be lower — the Israeli food industry estimated it at 5%.[40] In 2010, Israel had 2.5% Vegetarians. In 2015, Israel has 8% Vegetarians and 5% Vegans publishes the Israeli departement of statistics. In an interview, a Vegan Business owner states that this is because of Judaism and the very strict Torah requirements of having a 6-8 hour break between the consumption of Meat and Milk. Tel Aviv beat out Berlin, New York and Chennai, India as U.S. food website The Daily Meal's top destination for vegan travelers. [41] [42]


According to a 2014/12 survey 4.7% of the Japanese population are vegetarian or vegan ( 2.7% vegan).[16]


Rice, chicken, fish and vegetables are the staples, mixed with a rich variety of spices, coconuts, lime and tamarind. Buddhist Chinese monastics are vegetarians. Singapore is also the HQ of the worlds first international, vegetarian, fast food chain VeganBurg.[43] The biggest community of Vegetarians and Vegans in Singapore is the Vegetarian Society (Singapore) (VSS). Vegetarian and Vegan places have a small, but active role in the Gastronomy in Singapore.


In Taiwan, 1.7 million people, or 13% of the population of Taiwan, follow a vegetarian diet at least some of the time.[26][44] There are more than 6,000 vegetarian eating establishments in Taiwan.[45] Food labelling laws for vegetarian food are the world's strictest, because around 2 million Taiwanese people use vegetarian food.[46] A popular movement of "one day vegetarian every week" has been advocated on a national level,[47] and on a local level, even government bodies are involved, such as the Taipei City Board of Education.[48]



The definition of vegetarianism throughout Europe is not uniform, creating the potential for products to be labelled inaccurately.[1]


According to a study of ISEF[5] from 2013 (n=500), 9% of Austrians are vegetarian or vegan.


Since May 2009, Belgium has the first city in the world (Ghent) with a weekly "veggie day".[49]


According to a survey by Coop Analyse published in June 2011, just under 4% of Danes considered themselves either vegetarians or vegans.[9]


In Finland approximately 2-3% of the population is vegetarian. In secondary schools and universities 10-40% of the students prefer vegetarian food. In Helsinki city schools the students are offered two options, a vegetarian and a non-vegetarian meal, four school days a week and one day a week a choice between two vegetarian meals for grades 1 to 12. Vegetarianism is most popular in secondary art schools where over half of the students can be vegetarians.[50] [51][52][53][54]


In October 2011, the European Vegetarian Union reported that the French government's Décret 2011-1227 and associated Arrêté (September 30, 2011) effectively outlaws the serving of vegan meals at any public or private school in France. Similar decrees are proposed for kindergartens, hospitals, prisons and retirement homes.[55]

Studies in the 1990s showed that one million French (1.5% of the total population) called themselves vegetarians, although more recently this number has reportedly increased to 2%.[11]


According to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Germany has over six million vegetarians.[56] A survey conducted by Institut Produkt und Markt, found that 9% of the population (7,380,000 people) are vegetarian,[12] which the Italian research institute Eurispes reports as the third highest rate of vegetarianism in the European Union (after Italy and Sweden).[15]

However, the statistically representative German National Nutrition Monitoring (NEMONIT) only found there to be slightly less than 2% vegetarians in the German population in 2012.[57]


The Italian research institute Eurispes reports that according to the European Vegetarian Union, Italy has over six million vegetarians and the highest rate of vegetarianism in the European Union, at 10% of the population.[15]


Vegetarianism is fairly common in the Netherlands. A study has shown that the number of vegetarians out of a population of nearly 16.5 million people increased from 560,000 in 2004 to 720,000 in 2006.[58][59] It is estimated that 4.5% of the Dutch population doesn't eat meat.[17][60] The number of part-time vegetarians grew rapidly as well: around 3.5 million Dutch citizens abstain from eating meat a few days a week.[59]

The sales of meat substitutes has an annual growth of around 25%, making it one of the fastest-growing markets in the Netherlands.[59] In supermarkets and stores, it is sometimes necessary to read the fine print on products in order to make sure that there are no animal-originated ingredients. Increasingly, however, vegetarian products are labeled with the international "V-label," overseen by the Dutch vegetarian association Vegetarisch Keurmerk.[61]

Veganism is uncommon in the Netherlands: the Dutch Association for Veganism estimates that there are approximately 16,000 vegans in the Netherlands, or around 0.1% of the Dutch population.[62]

According to author J. B. MacKinnon, vegetarianism was in fashion in the 1620s in the Netherlands.[63]


The Vegetarian Society of Portugal was founded c. 1908 by Amílcar de Sousa.[64] In 2007, the number of vegetarians in Portugal was estimated at 30,000, which equates to less than 0.3% of the population. In 2014, the number was estimated to be at 200,000 people. [65]

Vegan and vegetarian products like soy milk, soy yogurts, rice milk and tofu are widely available in major retailers.


A survey carried out by Lightbox in 2013 found that approximately 3.2% of the population are either vegetarian or vegan. [19]


Sources have implied that it is growing but the numbers are still small compared to Western nations.[66] 2013-2014 polls revealed that 3[21] to 4%[22] of Russian population considered themselves vegetarian.


In Spain, different sources estimate that there are between 1.5 to 2 million vegetarians. In a 2002 article El Mundo stated that there are 1.5 million vegetarians.[67] More recent sources (Asociación Vegana) estimate the number to be two million and observe that in recent years the number of people adopting a vegetarian diet has been growing.[68][69] On the other hand, a 2012 article in El Pais stated that only 0.5% of the population identifies as vegetarian, although it also noted there was increasing interest in and acceptance of vegetarianism.[70] The European Vegetarian Union puts the number at 1.800.000, or 4% of the population.[23]


A 2014 survey of 1,000 people found that the number of vegetarians had increased to 10% (4% vegans and 6% vegetarians).[24]


According to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Switzerland has the second highest rate of vegetarianism in the European Union (even though Switzerland is not in the EU, it was most likely included with the other EU countries for this study).[56] Older governmental data from 1997 suggest that 2.3% of the population never eat meat and the observed trend seemed to point towards less meat consumption.[25] Newer studies suggest that the percentage of vegetarians has risen to 5% by 2007.[25] Swissveg (previously Schweizerische Vereinigung fuer Vegetarier (SVV) is currently the biggest association for vegetarians in Switzerland.

United Kingdom[edit]

In the United Kingdom, increasing numbers of people have adopted a vegetarian diet since the end of World War II.[71] The Food Standards Agency Public Attitudes to Food Survey 2009 reported that 3% of respondents were found to be "completely vegetarian", with an additional 5% "partly vegetarian (don't eat some types of fish or meat)".[72] Some independent market studies suggest that vegetarians constitute 7% to 11% of the UK adult population (4 million people).[27][73][74] As of 2003, the Vegetarian Society estimates that there are between three and four million vegetarians in the UK.[75] There are twice as many vegetarian women as men.[74] Despite the clear classification by the Vegetarian Society, some people in the UK misidentify as vegetarians while still eating fish, either for perceived "health reasons", or because of differing ethical perspectives on vegetarianism, while others use the term "flexitarian" or part-vegetarian.[71] As of 2009, people in the UK are now also being identified with the labels "meat-avoiders" and "meat-reducers" by marketeers, denoting people who do not self-identify as vegetarians, but are reducing or avoiding meat for reasons of health or climate change impacts, with one survey identifying 23% of the population as "meat-reducers", and 10% as "meat-avoiders", although the same survey indicated the "vast majority" in the UK still eat meat, with one-in-five liking to eat meat every day.[71] Even among professed vegetarians, a study found that 39% admitted to having eaten a kebab while under the influence of alcohol.[76] According to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the UK has the third highest rate of vegetarianism in the European Union.[56] According to research carried out in 2014, 12% of British are either vegetarian or vegan. This number rises to 20% among people aged 16–24. Also flexitarianism is becoming more and more popular in the UK.[77] Foods labelled as suitable for vegetarians or vegans are subject to provisions within the Trades Descriptions Act 1968.[78] The Food Standards Agency issues guidance on the labelling of foods as suitable for vegetarians:

The term 'vegetarian' should not be applied to foods that are, or are made from or with the aid of, products derived from animals that have died, have been slaughtered, or animals that die as a result of being eaten. Animals means farmed, wild or domestic animals, including for example, livestock poultry, game, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, amphibians, tunicates, echinoderms, molluscs, and insects.

— Food Standards Agency[79]

The FSA's definition has now passed into European law, with legislation due in 2015.

In addition to voluntary labelling, the Vegetarian Society operates a scheme whereby foods that meet its criteria can be labelled "Vegetarian Society approved".[80] Under this scheme, a product is vegetarian if it is free of meat, fowl, fish, shellfish, meat or bone stock, animal or carcass fats, gelatin, aspic, or any other ingredient resulting from slaughter, such as rennet.[81] Cheese is often labelled as well, making it possible to identify cheeses that have been made with rennet derived from non-animal sources. Many hard cheeses in continental Europe contain rennet derived from animal sources.[82]

North America[edit]


In Canada, vegetarianism is usually synonymous with ovo-lacto vegetarianism. However, vegetarians are sometimes wrongly assumed to be pescetarians or pollotarians. Approximately 4.0% of adults are vegetarians as of 2003.[7] 2015 survey conducted by Vancouver Humane Society and administered by polling company Environics, "shows that 33 percent of Canadians, or almost 12 million, are either already vegetarian or are eating less meat." Broken down, the figure includes 8% of respondents that are already veg or mostly veg, as well as 25% of Canadians who say they are trying to eat less meat. The online poll, which surveyed 1507 Canadian adults, found that younger Canadians (between 18-34) are most likely to be veg, while older Canadians are more likely to say they are eating less meat.[83]

United States[edit]

In 1838, a resolution commending an exclusive diet of starchy vegetables and fruits with limited milk consumption as "preferable to any other" was brought forward to the American Health Convention,[84] but it is unclear whether this resolution was adopted.[85] In 1971, 1 percent of U.S. citizens described themselves as vegetarians.[86] A 2013 Public Policy Polling survey of 500 respondents found 13% of Americans identify as either vegetarian (6%) or vegan (7%).[87] However, a much larger 2014 survey by Harris Interactive and the Humane Research Council found that only 221 of 11,399 adult survey respondents (1.9%) identified as either vegetarian or vegan. The survey also showed that 10.2% of adult respondents identified as former vegetarians or former vegans.[88] A 2008 Harris Interactive poll found 3.2% of American adults following a vegetarian diet and 0.5% identifying as vegans.[89] A 2000 Zogby Poll found that 2.5% of respondents reported not eating meat, poultry, or fish; while 4.5 percent reported not eating meat.[90]

Many children [in the United States] whose parents follow vegetarian diets follow them because of religious or ethical beliefs, for animal rights, or for the environment or other reasons.[91] In the government's first estimate[92] of how many children avoid meat, the number is about 1 in 200.[93][94] Also, the CDC survey included children ages 0 to 17 years. Possibly, older children are more likely to follow a vegetarian diet, so differences in age could explain some of the difference in results between the surveys.[91]

U.S. vegetarian food sales (meat replacements such as soy milk and textured vegetable protein) doubled between 1998 and 2003, reaching $1.6 billion in 2003.[95]

By U.S. law, food packaging is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, and generally must be labeled with a list of all its ingredients.[96][97] However, there are exceptions. For example, certain trace ingredients that are "ingredients of ingredients" do not need to be listed.[98]



In Australia, some manufacturers who target the vegetarian market will label their foods with the statement "suitable for vegetarians"; however, for foods intended for export to the UK, this labelling can be inconsistent because flavourings in ingredients lists do not need to specify if they come from animal origin. As such, natural flavour could be derived from either plant or animal sources.

Animal rights organisations such as Animal Liberation promote vegan and vegetarian diets. "Vegetarian Week" runs from 1–7 October every year,[99] and food companies are taking advantage of the growing number of vegetarians by producing meat-free alternatives of popular dishes, including sausages and mash and Spaghetti Bolognese.[100]

A 2000 Newspoll survey (commissioned by Sanitarium) shows 44% of Australians report eating at least one meat-free evening meal a week, while 18% said they prefer plant-based meals.

According to a 2010 Newspoll Survey, 5% of Australians identify themselves as vegetarians with 2% actually eating a diet defined by the survey as vegetarian.[4]

New Zealand[edit]

Similar to Australia, in New Zealand the term vegetarian refers to individuals who eat no animal meat such as pork, chicken, and fish; they may consume animal products such as milk and eggs. In contrast, the term vegan is used to describe those who do not eat any by-products of animals.[101] In 2002 New Zealand's vegetarians made up a minority of 1-2% of the country’s 4.5 million people.[18] In New Zealand there is a strong enough movement for vegetarianism that it has created significant enough demand for a number of vegetarian and vegan retailers to set up.[102]

As New Zealand and Australia work together to form common food standards (as seen in the Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code), there is also a lot of ambiguity surrounding the "natural flavour" ingredients.[103]

South America[edit]


In 2004, Marly Winckler, President of the Brazilian Vegetarian Society claimed that 5% of the population is vegetarian.[104] According to a 2012 survey undertaken by the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics, 8% of the population, that is, 15.2 million people, identified themselves as vegetarian.[6] The city of São Paulo has the most vegetarians in absolute terms (792,120 people), while Fortaleza has the highest percentage, at 14% of the total population.[105]

Marly Winckler claims that the central reasons for the deforestation of the Amazon are expansive livestock raising (mainly cattle) and soybean crops, most of it for use as an animal feeding, and a minor percentage for edible oil processing (being direct human consumption for use as food nearly negligible),[106] claims that are widely known to have a basis.[107][108][109][110]

As in Canada, vegetarianismo (Portuguese pronunciation: [veʒiˌtaɾjɐ̃ˈnizmu]) is usually synonymous with lacto-ovo-vegetarianism and vegetarians are sometimes wrongly assumed to be pescetarians and/or pollotarians who tolerate the flesh of fish or poultry, respectively. Nevertheless, veganism, and freeganism, are very common among Brazilian anarchists, punks and members of other groups in the counterculture and/or left-wing movements. Other beliefs generally associated with Brazilian vegetarians are Eastern philosophies and religions, New Age and Spiritism, while it is also commonly said to be related to the emo and indie youth subcultures as influence from the local punks. Brazilian vegetarians reportedly tend to be urban, of middle or upper class[104] and live in the Central-Southern half of the country. Since the 1990s, and especially since the 2000s, several vegetarian and vegan restaurants appeared in the metropolitan regions of São Paulo, Porto Alegre, Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro.[111]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b UK Government Food Standards Agency. "Guidance on vegetarian and vegan labelling". Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  2. ^ Sarah Von Alt. "Veganism: Taking the World by Storm". Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  3. ^ Calculated by given percentage and country population at given year
  4. ^ a b 2010 Australian survey from Newspoll results summary
  5. ^ a b [1]
  6. ^ a b "IBOPE 2012: 15,2 milhões de brasileiros são vegetarianos". IBOPE. October 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  7. ^ a b American Dietetic, Association; Dietitians Of, Canada (2003). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets.". Canadian journal of dietetic practice and research : a publication of Dietitians of Canada = Revue canadienne de la pratique et de la recherche en dietetique : une publication des Dietetistes du Canada 64 (2): 62–81. doi:10.3148/64.2.2003.62. PMID 12826028. 
  8. ^ a b c Magistad, Mary Kay. Public Radio International, 27 June 2013, "Vegan lunch: Going meatless in Beijing". Accessed 26 January 2014.
  9. ^ a b "Mange "opfatter" sig selv som vegetarer". Coop Analyse. Coop Analyse. 22 June 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2015. 
  10. ^ "Suomalaisten lihan kulutus säilyi vakaana vuonna 2014". Lihatiedotus. Lihatiedotusyhdistys ry. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  11. ^ a b Haurant, Sandra (26 October 2011). "French government 'banning vegetarianism' in school canteens". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 September 2012. 
  12. ^ a b "How many Veggies ... ?". European Vegetarian Union. Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  13. ^ a b The food habits of a nation The Hindu
  14. ^
  15. ^ a b c Bazzi, Adrianna (12 February 2009). "Vegetariano un italiano su dieci". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 16 June 2011. 
  16. ^ a b "Animal Rights Center Japan survey results, Hachidory Vegan website information page .". Animal Rights Center Japan. Retrieved 2015-06-01. 
  17. ^ a b Becker, Sander. "Een dag geen vlees is een dag niet geleefd" (in Dutch). Trouw. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  18. ^ a b "Living a Good Life : To be a vegetarian in New Zealand" P. Bidwell, New Zealand Vegetarian Society.
  19. ^ a b [2]
  20. ^
  21. ^ a b "ФОМ: "Кто такие вегетарианцы?"". 
  22. ^ a b " "Более 10% населения мира - вегетарианцы. Как Вы относитесь к этой системе питания?"". 
  23. ^ a b "EVU! - How many Veggies". 2007-11-18. Retrieved 2013-12-23. 
  24. ^ a b
  25. ^ a b c "Wie viele Vegetarier gibt es in der Schweiz?". 2001. Retrieved 3 July 2011. 
  26. ^ a b Greens Are Good For You, Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan), 25 September 2007
  27. ^ a b Factors affecting food choice in relation to fruit and vegetable intake: a review J. Pollard, S. F. L. Kirk and J. E. Cade
  28. ^ Asher, Kathryn (01 Dec 2014). "Study of Current and Former Vegetarians and Vegans" (PDF). Retrieved 01 Feb 2016.  Check date values in: |access-date=, |date= (help); External link in |website=, |publisher= (help)
  29. ^ a b "The vegetable will set you free - embracing vegetarianism and flexitarianism in Africa". Mail & Guardian Africa. Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  30. ^ "The Vegetarian Table: North Africa". Global Gourmet. Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  31. ^ "A Band of Vegetarian Missionaries". International Vegetarian Union. The Vegetarian (London). Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  32. ^ "The best countries to be vegetarian". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  33. ^ Vegetarianism now a popular diet. 2006-05-17
  34. ^ Meat Consumption per person, 2007, UN FAO
  36. ^ 2.3 Growth and Concentration in India FAO Document Repository
  37. ^ Passage to India USDA
  38. ^ a b The Elephant Is Jogging: New Pressures for Agricultural Reform in India
  39. ^ Bloodless coup as Indian vegetarians flex muscle July 14, 2007 The Age
  40. ^ "צמחונות להמונים (Hebrew)". Mako. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  41. ^ "In the land of milk and honey, Israelis turn vegan". Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  42. ^ "Warum in Israel die meisten Veganer der ganzen Welt leben". FAZ. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  43. ^ "More choices for vegetarians". Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  44. ^ Vegetarian entrepreneur succeeds with Web site, guidebook. The China Post (2009-11-16). Retrieved on 2011-01-06.
  45. ^ Blogger: Aanmelden om te lezen. Retrieved on 2011-01-06.
  46. ^ Taiwan to enact world's strictest law on veggie food labeling|Earth Times News. (2009-06-08). Retrieved on 2011-01-06.
  47. ^ 台灣周一無肉日 救己救地球 – 日常保健 – 中時健康網 – 健康萬花筒. Retrieved on 2011-01-06.
  48. ^ 台湾教育部提倡学校每周一素!. Retrieved on 2011-01-06.
  49. ^ "Belgian city plans 'veggie' days", Chris Mason, BBC, May 12, 2009
  50. ^ "
  51. ^ [3]
  52. ^ [4]
  53. ^ [5]
  54. ^ [6]
  55. ^ Renato Pichler "The French Government Outlaws Vegetarianism in Schools", European Vegetarian Union (EVU), 14 October 2011.
  56. ^ a b c Anne-Sophie Hottiaux, Agri-Food Trade Commissioner. Exporting to the EU. Canadian Consulate, Düsseldorf, Germany: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Retrieved 16 June 2011. 
  57. ^ "Lebensmittelverzehr der Deutschen kaum verändert, Aber: Anzahl der Vegetarier verdoppelt". Max Rubner-Institut (MRI), Bundesforschungsinstitut für Ernährung und Lebensmittel. Retrieved 16 June 2015. 
  58. ^ "Population counter". Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2008-04-24. 
  59. ^ a b c "Antonie kamerling en marly van der velden meest sexy vegetariërs" (in Dutch). Wakker Dier. 2006-03-20. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  60. ^ "Vegetarisme"
  61. ^ "Vegetarisch Keurmerk"
  62. ^ "Wat is veganisme?" (in Dutch). Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  63. ^ MacKinnon, J. B. (2013). The Once and Future World. Vintage Canada. 
  64. ^ Vegetarianism in Portugal: a century of history European Vegetarian Union (English)
  65. ^
  66. ^ "Russia’s Vegetarians Thrive, Despite Prejudice | The St. Petersburg Times | The leading English-language newspaper in St. Petersburg". Retrieved 2015-07-26. 
  67. ^ "Ser vegetariano y vivir en España" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2013-12-23. 
  68. ^ "Idea Sana Navidad vegetariana" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2013-12-23. 
  69. ^ "Cocina vegetariana. Especial Gastronomía. EL CORREO DIGITAL" (in Spanish). 1997-12-01. Retrieved 2013-12-23. 
  70. ^ "Comer en verde | Sociedad | EL PAÍS" (in Spanish). 2012-05-07. Retrieved 2013-12-23. 
  71. ^ a b c "The rise of the non-veggie vegetarian". BBC. 2009-11-05. Archived from the original on 2009-11-05. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
  72. ^ GfK Social Research (2009). Public Attitudes to Food survey 2009 (PDF). Food Standards Agency. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  73. ^ Survey looking into 'Attitudes towards purchasing organic foods and vegetarianism by demographic sub group, 1992, by Mintel, London
  74. ^ a b Perfil de mercado. Reino Unido. Entorno demográfico, social y económico (Spanish)
  75. ^ The Vegetarian Society. "The History of vegetarianism in the UK". Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  76. ^ Jones, Dan (9 October 2015). "Kebabs, the true test for staunch veggies". London Evening Standard. p. 15. 
  77. ^>
  78. ^ Food Standards Agency. "Guidance on the use of the terms 'vegetarian' and 'vegan' in food labelling". Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  79. ^ "Guidance on the use of the terms ‘vegetarian’ and ‘vegan’ in food labelling", Food Standards Agency, 6 April 2006
  80. ^ The Vegetarian Society. "Vegsoc Approved". Retrieved 2010-02-14. 
  81. ^ "The Seedling Symbol: The original and only one to trust", The Vegetarian Society (last accessed 2006/08/14)
  82. ^ The Vegetarian Society. "Information Sheet: Cheese & Rennet". Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  83. ^ "Almost 12 Million Canadians Now Vegetarian Or Trying To Eat Less Meat!". Vancouver Humane Society. June 1, 2015. Retrieved June 11, 2015. 
  84. ^ Proceedings of the American Health Convention. Boston: Office of the Graham Journal. 30 May 1838. p. 2. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  85. ^ "Proceedings of the American Health Convention". The North American Review (Boston: Otis, Broaders, & Co.) 47 (101): 382. October 1838. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  86. ^ "The War on Meat: How Low-Meat and No-Meat Diets are Impacting Consumer Markets". Euromonitor International. 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2014-02-26. Back in 1971, only 1% of US citizens described themselves as vegetarians 
  87. ^ Jensen, Tom (26 February 2013). "Food issues polarizing America". Public Policy Polling. Retrieved 28 February 2013. 
  88. ^ Asher, Kathryn (2014-12-02). "Study of Current and Former Vegetarians and Vegans initial findings • December 2014" (PDF). Humane Research Council. Retrieved 2015-10-22. Only a very small proportion (2%) of the U.S. population (aged 17+) is considered to be a current vegetarian/vegan.  line feed character in |title= at position 51 (help); line feed character in |quote= at position 98 (help)
  89. ^ Vegetarianism In America
  90. ^ Feffer, Loren Butler. "Vegetarianism" Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. Vol. 8. 3rd ed. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 1 pp. 10 vols.
  91. ^ a b Mangels, Reed. "Nutrition Hotline: this issue's Nutrition Hotline considers the number of children in the United States who are vegetarian, examines why the amount of calcium in greens varies among sources, and advises vegans with herpes zoster about foods containing lysine and arginine." Vegetarian Journal 28 (July-Aug. 2009): p2(2). Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Oct. 2009.
  92. ^ [7]
  93. ^ Erbe, Bonnie. "More Children Refuse to Eat Meat Than You'd Think, and for the Right Reasons. " U.S. News & World Report Online. (Jan 13, 2009): NA. Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale.
  94. ^ "Pass the tofu: 1 in 200 kids is vegetarian". Associated Press. January 12, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-13. 
  95. ^ Tatge, Mark, "Vegetarian foods plant stronger sales: No signs of slowing down for growing industry", MSNBC, Sept. 17, 2004
  96. ^ International Food Information Council (IFIC) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (April 2010) [November 2004]. "Food Ingredients and Colors". Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  97. ^ U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Food Labeling Guide". Retrieved 2010-03-26. 
  98. ^ U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Food Labeling Guide". Retrieved 2010-03-26. 
  99. ^ "Food For Thought", May. 06, 2008, "National Vegetarian Week" on NVW
  100. ^ Vegetarian meals and recipes from Vegie Delights Sanitarium Health Food Company
  101. ^ The New Zealand Vegetarian Society (NZVS)"What Is a Vegetarian" Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  102. ^ "New Zealand Vegetarian and Vegan Retailers". Vegetarians. Retrieved 20 May 2015. 
  103. ^ Australia-New Zealand Co-operation. "Food safety: food regulations". Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  104. ^ a b "IVU Online News". International Vegetarian Union. November 2004. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  105. ^ "Dia Mundial do Vegetarianismo: 8% da população brasileira afirma ser adepta do estilo" [World Vegetarian Day: 8% of the Brazilian population claims to be adept of this lifestyle] (in Portuguese). Ibope. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  106. ^ (Portuguese) Vegetarianism: an ethical and philosophical position – interview with Marly Winkler
  107. ^ Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) (2004)
  108. ^ Steinfeld, Henning; Gerber, Pierre; Wassenaar, T. D.; Castel, Vincent (2006). Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 92-5-105571-8. Retrieved August 19, 2008. 
  109. ^ Margulis, Sergio (2004). Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon (PDF). World Bank Working Paper No. 22 (Washington D.C.: The World Bank). ISBN 0-8213-5691-7. Retrieved September 4, 2008. 
  110. ^ Barreto, P.; Souza Jr. C.; Noguerón, R.; Anderson, A. & Salomão, R. 2006. Human Pressure on the Brazilian Amazon Forests. Imazon. Retrieved September 28, 2006. (The Imazon web site contains many resources relating to the Brazilian Amazon.)
  111. ^ "Vegetarian Restaurants in Brazil". Retrieved 2011-05-30.