Vehicular ad hoc network

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Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are created by applying the principles of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) – the spontaneous creation of a wireless network for data exchange – to the domain of vehicles.[1] VANETs were first mentioned and introduced [2] in 2001 under "car-to-car ad hoc mobile communication and networking" applications, where networks can be formed and information can be relayed among cars. It was shown that vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside communications architectures will co-exist in VANETs to provide road safety, navigation, and other roadside services. VANETs are a key part of the intelligent transportation systems (ITS) framework. Sometimes, VANETs are referred as Intelligent Transportation Networks[3]

While, in the early 2000s, VANETs were seen as a mere one-to-one application of MANET principles, they have since then developed into a field of research in their own right. By 2015,[4](p3) the term VANET became mostly synonymous with the more generic term inter-vehicle communication (IVC), although the focus remains on the aspect of spontaneous networking, much less on the use of infrastructure like Road Side Units (RSUs) or cellular networks.


VANETs support a wide range of applications – from simple one hop information dissemination of, e.g., cooperative awareness messages (CAMs) to multi-hop dissemination of messages over vast distances. Most of the concerns of interest to mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are of interest in VANETs, but the details differ.[5] Rather than moving at random, vehicles tend to move in an organized fashion. The interactions with roadside equipment can likewise be characterized fairly accurately. And finally, most vehicles are restricted in their range of motion, for example by being constrained to follow a paved highway.

Example applications of VANETs are:[4](p56)

  • Electronic brake lights, which allow a driver (or an autonomous car or truck) to react to vehicles braking even though they might be obscured (e.g., by other vehicles).
  • Platooning, which allows vehicles to closely (down to a few inches) follow a leading vehicle by wirelessly receiving acceleration and steering information, thus forming electronically coupled "road trains".
  • Traffic information systems, which use VANET communication to provide up-to-the minute obstacle reports to a vehicle's satellite navigation system[6]
  • Road Transportation Emergency Services[7] - where VANET communications, VANET networks, and road safety warning and status information dissemination are used to reduce delays and speed up emergency rescue operations to save the lives of those injured.
  • On-The-Road Services[8] - it is also envisioned that future transportation highway would be one that is "information-driven" and "wirelessly-enabled". When one drives on the road, VANETs can help the driver to discover services (shops, gas stations, etc) on that street, and even be notified of any sale going on at that moment. Drivers can also book a cinema ticket while driving their way to the cinemas.


VANETs can use any wireless networking technology as their basis. The most prominent are short range radio technologies[4](p118) like WLAN (either standard Wi-Fi and ZigBee. In addition, cellular technologies or LTE can be used for VANETs.The latest technology for this wireless networking is visible light communication[VLC](Infrared transmission and reception).

VANET simulations[edit]

Prior to the implementation of VANETs on the roads and into cars, realistic simulations[9] of VANETs using simulators are necessary.


Major standardization of VANET protocol stacks is taking place in the U.S., in Europe, and in Japan, corresponding to their dominance in the automotive industry.[4](p5)

In the U.S., the IEEE 1609 WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments) protocol stack builds on IEEE 802.11p WLAN operating on seven reserved channels in the 5.9 GHz frequency band. The WAVE protocol stack is designed to provide multi-channel operation (even for vehicles equipped with only a single radio), security, and lightweight application layer protocols. Within the IEEE Communications Society, there is a Technical Subcommittee on Vehicular Networks & Telematics Applications (VNTA). The charter of this committee is to actively promote technical activities in the field of vehicular networks, V2V, V2R and V2I communications, standards, communications-enabled road and vehicle safety, real-time traffic monitoring, intersection management technologies, future telematics applications, and ITS-based services.

In Europe, ETSI ITS G5 builds on a variant of the same radio technology with some adaptations operating on up to five reserved channels in the 5.9 GHz frequency band. The ETSI ITS G5 protocol stack is designed to provide multi-radio multi-channel operation, security, and a complex hierarchy of higher layer protocols integrating a broad range of basic services.

In Japan, ARIB STD-T109 builds on a variant of the same radio technology operating on a single frequency in the 700 MHz band. The protocol stack provides TDMA operation to split use between road side services and pure vehicle to vehicle communication.

See also[edit]


Further reading[edit]

  • Satyajeet, D; Deshmukh, A R; Dorle, S S. "Heterogeneous Approaches for Cluster based Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET)" (PDF). International Journal of Computer Applications. 134 (12): 1–8. doi:10.5120/ijca2016908080. 
  • K. Hammoudi, H. Benhabiles, M. Kasraoui, N. Ajam, F. Dornaika, K. Radhakrishnan, K. Bandi, Q. Cai, S., Liu. "Developing vision-based and cooperative vehicular embedded systems for enhancing road monitoring services. In Elsevier Procedia Computer Science, Volume 52, Issue C, pp. 389–395 doi 10.1016/j.procs.2015.05.003
  • Gandhi J., Jhaveri, R.H. "Energy Efficient Routing Approaches in Ad hoc Networks: A Survey", In: Proceeding of Second International Conference on INformation systems Design and Intelligent Applications (INDIA 2015), Springer (India), 31 (2), pp. 751–760, Jan 2015, India doi:10.1007/978-81-322-2250-7_75
  • Arkian, HR.; Atani, RE.; Pourkhalili, A.; Kamali, S. "A stable clustering scheme based on adaptive multiple metric in vehicular ad-hoc networks" (PDF). Journal of Information Science and Engineering. 31 (2): 361–386. 
  • R.Azimi, G. Bhatia, R. Rajkumar, P. Mudalige, "Vehicular Networks for Collision Avoidance at Intersections", Society for Automotive Engineers (SAE) World Congress,April,2011, Detroit, MI, USA. - URL
  • Kosch, Timo ; Adler, Christian ; Eichler, Stephan ; Schroth, Christoph ; Strassberger, Markus : The Scalability Problem of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks and How to Solve it. In: IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine 13 (2006), Nr. 5, S. 6.- URL
  • Schroth, Christoph ; Strassberger, Markus ; Eigner, Robert ; Eichler, Stephan: A Framework for Network Utility Maximization in VANETs. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM International Workshop on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) : ACM SIGMOBILE, 2006.- 3rd ACM International Workshop on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET).- Los Angeles, USA, p. 2
  • C. Toh - "Future Application Scenarios for MANET-based Intelligent Transportation Systems", Proceedings of IEEE Future Generation Communication and Networking (FGCN) Conference, Vol.2 Pg 414-417, 2007.
  • Rawat, D. B.; Popescu, D. C.; Yan, G.; Olariu, S. (2011). "Enhancing VANET Performance by Joint Adaptation of Transmission Power and Contention Window Size". IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. 22 (9): 1528–1535. doi:10.1109/tpds.2011.41. 
  • Eichler, Stephan ; Ostermaier, Benedikt ; Schroth, Christoph ; Kosch, Timo: Simulation of Car-to-Car Messaging: Analyzing the Impact on Road Traffic. In: Proceedings of the 13th Annual Meeting of the IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS) : IEEE Computer Society, 2005.- 13th Annual Meeting of the IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS).- Atlanta, USA, p. 4.- URL
  • Gozalvez, J.; Sepulcre, M.; Bauza, R. "IEEE 802.11p Vehicle to Infrastructure Communications in Urban Environments". IEEE Communications Magazine. 50 (5): 176–183. doi:10.1109/mcom.2012.6194400. 

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