Vehicular communication systems

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Vehicular communication systems are computer networks in which vehicles and roadside units are the communicating nodes, providing each other with information, such as safety warnings and traffic information. They can be effective in avoiding accidents and traffic congestion. Both types of nodes are dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) devices. DSRC works in 5.9 GHz band with bandwidth of 75 MHz and approximate range of 300 metres (980 ft).[1] Vehicular communications is usually developed as a part of intelligent transportation systems (ITS).

History[edit]

The beginnings of vehicular communications go back to the 1970s. Work began on projects such as Electronic Route Guidance System (ERGS) and CACS in the United States and Japan respectively.[2] While the term Inter-Vehicle Communications (IVC) began to circulate in the early 1980s.[3] Various media were used before the standardization activities began, such as lasers, infrared, and radio waves.

The PATH project in the United States between 1986 and 1997 was an important breakthrough in vehicular communications projects.[4] Projects related to vehicular communications in Europe were launched with the PROMETHEUS project between 1986 and 1995.[5] Numerous subsequent projects have been implemented all over the world such as the Advanced Safety Vehicle (ASV) program,[6] CHAUFFEUR I and II,[7] FleetNet,[8] CarTALK 2000,[9] etc.

In the early 2000s, the term Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) was introduced as an application of the principles of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) to the vehicular field. The terms VANET and IVC do not differ and are used interchangeably to refer to communications between vehicles with or without reliance on roadside infrastructure, although some have argued that IVC refers to direct V2V connections only.[10] Many projects have appeared in EU, Japan, USA and other parts of the world for example, ETC,[11] SAFESPOT,[12] PReVENT,[13] COMeSafety,[14] NoW,[15] IVI.[16]

Several terms have been used to refer to vehicular communications. These acronyms differ from each other either in historical context, technology used, standard, or country (vehicle telematics, DSRC, WAVE,[17] VANET, IoV, 802.11p, ITS-G5,[18] V2X). Currently, cellular based on 3GPP-Release 16[19] and WiFi based on IEEE 802.11p have proven to be potential communication technologies enabling connected vehicles. However, this does not negate that other technologies for example, VLC, ZigBee, WiMAX, microwave, mmWave are still a vehicular communication research area.[20]

Many organizations and governmental agencies are concerned with issuing standards and regulation for vehicular communication (ASTM, IEEE, ETSI, SAE, 3GPP, ARIB, TTC, TTA,[21] CCSA, ITU, 5GAA, ITS America, ERTICO, ITS Asia-Pacific[22]). 3GPP is working on standards and specifications for cellular-based V2X communications,[23] while IEEE is working through the study group Next Generation V2X (NGV) on the issuance of the standard 802.11bd.[24]

Safety benefits[edit]

The main motivation for vehicular communication systems is safety and eliminating the excessive cost of traffic collisions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), road accidents annually cause approximately 1.2 million deaths worldwide; one fourth of all deaths caused by injury. Also about 50 million persons are injured in traffic accidents. If preventive measures are not taken road death is likely to become the third-leading cause of death in 2020 from ninth place in 1990.[25] A study from the American Automobile Association (AAA) concluded that car crashes cost the United States $300 billion per year.[26] It can be used for automated traffic intersection control.[1]

However the deaths caused by car crashes are in principle avoidable. The U.S. Department of Transportation states that 21,000 of the annual 43,000 road accident deaths in the US are caused by roadway departures and intersection-related incidents.[27] This number can be significantly lowered by deploying local warning systems through vehicular communications. Departing vehicles can inform other vehicles that they intend to depart the highway and arriving cars at intersections can send warning messages to other cars traversing that intersection. They can also notify when they intend to change lanes or if there is a traffic jam.[28] Studies show that in Western Europe a mere 5 km/h decrease in average vehicle speeds could result in 25% decrease in deaths.[29]

Vehicle-to-vehicle[edit]

Over the years, there have been considerable research and projects in this area, applying VANETs for a variety of applications, ranging from safety to navigation and law enforcement. In December 2016, the US Department of Transportation proposed draft rules that would gradually make V2V communication capabilities to be mandatory for light-duty vehicles.[30] The technology is not completely specified, so critics have argued that manufacturers "could not take what’s in this document and know what their responsibility will be under the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards".[30] PKI (public key infrastructure) is the current security system being used in V2V communications.[31]

Conflict over spectrum[edit]

V2V is under threat from cable television and other tech firms that want to take away a big chunk of the radio spectrum currently reserved for it and use those frequencies for high-speed internet service. In the USA, V2V's current share of the radio spectrum was set aside by the government in 1999, but has gone unused. The automotive industry is trying to retain all it can, saying that it desperately needs the spectrum for V2V. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has taken the side of the tech companies, with the National Transportation Safety Board supporting the position of the automotive industry. Internet service providers (who want to use the spectrum) claim that autonomous cars will render V2V communication unnecessary. The US automotive industry has said that it is willing to share the spectrum if V2V service is not slowed or disrupted; and the FCC plans to test several sharing schemes.[32]

With governments in different locales supporting incompatible spectra for V2V communication, vehicle manufacturers may be discouraged from adopting the technology for some markets. In Australia for instance, there is no spectrum reserved for V2V communication, so vehicles would suffer interference from non-vehicle communications.[33] The spectra reserved for V2V communications in some locales are as follows:

Locale Spectra
USA 5.855-5.905 GHz[33]
Europe 5.855-5.925 GHz[33]
Japan 5.770-5.850 GHz; 715-725 MHz[33]
Australia 5.855-5.925 GHz[34]

Key players[edit]

Intelligent Transportation Society of America (ITSA) aims to improve cooperation among public and private sector organizations. ITSA summarizes its mission statement as "vision zero" meaning its goal is to reduce the fatal accidents and delays as much as possible.

Many universities are pursuing research and development of vehicular ad hoc networks. For example, University of California, Berkeley is participating in California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH).[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Home". leearmstrong.com. Archived from the original on 2012-11-19. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
  2. ^ Hartenstein, H.; Laberteaux, K.P. (2008). "A tutorial survey on vehicular ad hoc networks". IEEE Communications Magazine. 46 (6): 164–171. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2008.4539481. ISSN 0163-6804. S2CID 3160950.
  3. ^ Tsugawa, S. (2003). "Inter-vehicle communications and their applications to intelligent vehicles: an overview". Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, 2002. IEEE. Versailles, France: IEEE. 2: 564–569. doi:10.1109/IVS.2002.1188011. ISBN 978-0-7803-7346-4. S2CID 62061334.
  4. ^ "Home | California Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology". path.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2021-08-13.
  5. ^ Williams, M. (1988). "PROMETHEUS-The European research programme for optimising the road transport system in Europe". IEE Colloquium on Driver Information: 1/1–1/9.
  6. ^ "Background of the development of ASV (Advanced Safety Vehicle)". www.mlit.go.jp. Retrieved 2021-08-13.
  7. ^ "Promote Chauffeur II - TRIMIS - European Commission". TRIMIS. 2009-10-12. Retrieved 2021-08-13.
  8. ^ Franz, W. J.; Eberhardt, R.; Luckenbach, T. (2001). "FLEETNET - INTERNET ON THE ROAD". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ Reichardt, D.; Miglietta, M.; Moretti, L.; Morsink, P.; Schulz, W. (2003). "CarTALK 2000: safe and comfortable driving based upon inter-vehicle-communication". Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, 2002. IEEE. Versailles, France: IEEE. 2: 545–550. doi:10.1109/IVS.2002.1188007. ISBN 978-0-7803-7346-4. S2CID 60703429.
  10. ^ Sichitiu, Mihail; Kihl, Maria (2008). "Inter-vehicle communication systems: a survey". IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. 10 (2): 88–105. doi:10.1109/COMST.2008.4564481. ISSN 1553-877X. S2CID 18052278.
  11. ^ "ETC(Electronic Toll Collection System) - Global standard ETC started". www.mlit.go.jp. Retrieved 2021-08-13.
  12. ^ "Safespot". www.safespot-eu.org. Retrieved 2021-08-13.
  13. ^ "PReVENT :: Home". www.prevent-ip.org. Retrieved 2021-08-13.
  14. ^ "Communications for eSafety - TRIMIS - European Commission". TRIMIS. 2013-06-24. Retrieved 2021-08-13.
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  16. ^ "Public Roads - The Intelligent Vehicle Initiative: Advancing 'Human-Centered' Smart Vehicles , Sept/Oct 1997 -". www.fhwa.dot.gov. Retrieved 2021-08-13.
  17. ^ "ITS Standards Program | Fact Sheets | ITS Standards Fact Sheets". www.standards.its.dot.gov. Retrieved 2021-08-13.
  18. ^ "Work Programme - Work Item Detailed Report". portal.etsi.org. Retrieved 2021-08-14.
  19. ^ "Release 16". www.3gpp.org. Retrieved 2021-08-14.
  20. ^ Alalewi, Ahmad; Dayoub, Iyad; Cherkaoui, Soumaya (2021). "On 5G-V2X Use Cases and Enabling Technologies: A Comprehensive Survey". IEEE Access. 9: 107710–107737. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3100472. hdl:20.500.12210/55004. ISSN 2169-3536. S2CID 236939427. CC-BY icon.svg Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  21. ^ "Welcome to TTA - Telecommunications Technology Association of Korea". www.tta.or.kr. Retrieved 2021-08-14.
  22. ^ "ITS asia-pacific". itsasia-pacific.com. Retrieved 2021-08-14.
  23. ^ "V2X". www.3gpp.org. Retrieved 2021-08-14.
  24. ^ "IEEE P802.11 - TASK GROUP BD (NGV) - GROUP INFORMATION UPDATE". www.ieee802.org. Retrieved 2021-08-14.
  25. ^ M. Peden; Richard Scurfield; D. Sleet; D. Mohan; et al. "World report on road traffic injury prevention" (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
  26. ^ "Crashes Vs. Congestion -- What's the Cost to Society?" (PDF). American Automobile Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  27. ^ "Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII)". its.dot.gov. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
  28. ^ Boehmlaender, Dennis; Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Yano, Vitor; Lauerer, Christian; Brandmeier, Thomas; Zimmer, Alessandro (2015). "Advantages in Crash Severity Prediction Using Vehicle to Vehicle Communication". 2015 IEEE International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops. IEEE: 112–117. doi:10.1109/dsn-w.2015.23. ISBN 978-1-4673-8044-7. S2CID 13183260.
  29. ^ "The world health report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
  30. ^ a b Bigelow, Pete. "Feds Want V2V Communication in New Cars Starting in 2021". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2017-01-29.
  31. ^ Harding, J (2014). "Vehicle-to-vehicle communications: Readiness of V2V technology for application" (PDF). nhtsa.gov.
  32. ^ "Cars are ready to talk to one another – unless we use their airwaves for Wi-Fi". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2021-11-28.
  33. ^ a b c d Austroads. "Austroads' Submission to the '2014 Review of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989" (PDF). Department of Infrastructure and Development (Australia). Retrieved 2017-01-29.
  34. ^ "Radiocommunications (Intelligent Transport Systems) Class Licence 2017". Federal Register of Legislation. Retrieved 2018-10-09.
  35. ^ "UC Berkeley-Audi Pact Places Smart-Engine Research on Bay Area Roads". berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2008-02-29.

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