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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Negativicutes
Order: Vellionellales
Family: Veillonellaceae
Genus: Veillonella

Veillonella are Gram-negative bacteria (Gram stain pink) anaerobic cocci. This bacterium is well known for its lactate fermenting abilities. They are a normal bacterium in the intestines and oral mucosa of mammals. In humans they have been rarely implicated in cases of osteomyelitis and endocarditis, for example with the species Veillonella parvula.


Fermentation of lactate to propionate and acetate is by the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Little ATP is produced in this fermentation. High substrate affinity is suggested to be the reason.

3 Lactate → acetate + 2 propionate + CO2 + H2O


The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [1] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[2] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 by The All-Species Living Tree Project [3]

?V. tobetsuensis Mashima et al. (in press)

V. magna Kraatz and Taras 2008

V. criceti (Rogosa 1965) Mays et al. 1982

V. ratti (Rogosa 1965) Mays et al. 1982 emend. Kraatz and Taras 2008

V. montpellierensis Jumas-Bilak et al. 2004

V. caviae Mays et al. 1982

V. dispar (Rogosa 1965) Mays et al. 1982

V. parvula (Veillon and Zuber 1898) Prévot 1933 Mays et al. 1982 (type sp.)

V. rogosae Arif et al. 2008

V. atypica (Rogosa 1965) Mays et al. 1982

V. denticariosi Byun et al. 2007

V. rodentium (Rogosa 1965) Mays et al. 1982


Further reading[edit]

  • Mashima, Izumi (August 2014). "The influence of oral Veillonella species on biofilms formed by Streptococcus species". Anaerobe. 28: 54–61. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2014.05.003. PMID 24862495. 
  • van den Bogert,, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kleerebezem,, Michiel (2013). "Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations". FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 85 (2): 376–388. doi:10.1111/1574-6941.12127. PMID 23614882.