From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Script type
CreatorFrans Velthuis
LanguagesSanskrit, Bengali, Pali
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and  , see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

The Velthuis system of transliteration is an ASCII transliteration scheme for the Sanskrit language from and to the Devanagari script. It was developed in about 1983 by Frans Velthuis, a scholar living in Groningen, Netherlands, who created a popular, high-quality software package in LaTeX for typesetting Devanāgarī.[1] The primary documentation for the scheme is the system's clearly-written software manual.[1] It is based on using the ISO 646 repertoire to represent mnemonically the accents used in standard scholarly transliteration.[2] It does not use diacritics as IAST does. It may optionally use capital letters in a manner similar but not identical to the Harvard-Kyoto or ITRANS schemes.manual para 4.1

See Devanagari transliteration for more information on comparing this and other such transliteration schemes.

The scheme is also used for the transliteration of other Indic scripts and languages such as Bengali[3] and Pali.[4][5] Moreover, it is also used to transliterate the Roman characters with diacritics used to transliterate Indic scripts in contexts (such as emails) wherein the fonts with these characters cannot be used.[6]

Transliteration scheme[edit]

The Velthuis transliteration[7][8][9] scheme is as given in the tables below.


Devanagari IAST Velthuis Velthuis

permitted alternative

a a
ā aa A
i i
ī ii I
u u
ū uu U
e e
ai ai
o o
au au
अं (added as anusvāra) .m
अः .h
अँ (chandrabindu) / ~m
् (virāma/halant) &
ऽ (avagraha:elision during sandhi) .a
Om O

Consonants (in combination with inherent vowel a)[edit]

Devanagari IAST Velthuis Velthuis

permitted alternative

ka ka
kha kha Ka
ga ga
gha gha Ga
ṅa "na
ca ca
cha cha Ca
ja ja
jha jha Ja
ña ~na
ṭa .ta
ṭha .tha .Ta
ḍa .da
ḍha .dha .Da
ṇa .na
ta ta
tha tha Ta
da da
dha dha Da
na na
pa pa
pha pha Pa
ba ba
bha bha Ba
ma ma
ya ya
ra ra
la la
va va
śa "sa
ṣa .sa
sa sa
ha ha
ḷa .la

Irregular Consonant Clusters[edit]

Devanagari IAST Velthuis
क्ष kṣa
त्र tra tra
ज्ञ jña j~na
श्र śra "sra

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ Pandey, Anshuman; Velthuis, Frans (2019). Devanāgarī for TeX. Version 2.17.1 (PDF).
  2. ^ Wujastyk, Dominik. "Transliteration of Devanagari". Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  3. ^ Typesetting Bengali in Ω using Velthuis Transliteration or Unicode Text by Lakshmi K. Raut, 2006, accessed 17.9.2016.
  4. ^ Method 3. The Velthuis scheme: double the vowels, punctuate the consonants, on Access to Insight, accessed 17.9.2016.
  5. ^ Alphabet with diacritics in Wikipedia article Pali, accessed 17.9.2016
  6. ^ Method 3. The Velthuis scheme: double the vowels, punctuate the consonants, on Access to Insight, accessed 17.9.2016.
  7. ^ "Alphabet in Sanskrit". Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  8. ^ "Official Velthuis Package Sanskrit map". Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  9. ^ "Comparison of Input Methods".
  10. ^ Mapping table with 7 methods of Harvard-Kyoto, ITRANS, Velthuis, SLP, WX-system and IAST, Devanagari used by ILTP-DC for Sanskrit.
  11. ^ Aksharamukha transliteration tool. Akshara Mukha is an Asian script (two way) converter freeware. It converts between 20 different South Asian & East Asian scripts. It also supports 5 major Latin transliteration conventions such as IAST, ISO, Harvard-Kyoto, ITRANS & Velthuis. You can access the project from here. While using the tool, 'source' can be set to for example: ITRANS or Harvard-Kyoto, and 'target' can be set to a particular script like Devanagari-Hindi.(When you are using a north Indian script, tick the box: Remove ‘a’.) It can work in reverse too, for example from Hindi to Latin by ISO transliteration.