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The Velthuis system of transliteration is an ASCII transliteration scheme for the Sanskrit language from and to the Devanagari script. It was developed by Frans Velthuis, a scholar living in Groningen, Netherlands, who created a popular, high-quality software package in LaTeX for typesetting Devanāgarī. It is based on using the ISO 646 repertoire to represent mnemonically the accents used in standard scholarly transliteration.[1] It does not use diacritics as compared to IAST. It does not use capital letters as compared to Harvard-Kyoto or ITRANS schemes.

See Devanagari transliteration for more information on comparing this and other such transliteration schemes.

The scheme is also used for the transliteration of other Indic scripts and languages such as Bengali[2] and Pali.[3][4] Moreover, it is also used to transliterate the Roman characters with diacritics used to transliterate Indic scripts in contexts (such as emails) wherein the fonts with these characters cannot be used.[5]

Transliteration scheme[edit]

The Velthuis transliteration[6][7][8] scheme is as given in the tables below.


Devanagari IAST Velthuis
a a
ā aa
i i
ī ii
u u
ū uu
e e
ai ai
o o
au au
अं(added as anusvāra) .m
अः .h
अँ(chandrabindu) /
्(virāma/halant) &
ऽ(avagraha:elision during sandhi) .a
Om O

Consonants (in combination with inherent vowel a)[edit]

Devanagari IAST Velthuis
ka ka
kha kha
ga ga
gha gha
ṅa "na
ca ca
cha cha
ja ja
jha jha
ña ~na
ṭa .ta
ṭha .tha
ḍa .da
ḍha .dha
ṇa .na
ta ta
tha tha
da da
dha dha
na na
pa pa
pha pha
ba ba
bha bha
ma ma
ya ya
ra ra
la la
va va
śa "sa
ṣa .sa
sa sa
ha ha

Irregular Consonant Clusters[edit]

Devanagari IAST Velthuis
क्ष kṣa
त्र tra tra
ज्ञ jña j~na
श्र śra "sra

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ Wujastyk, Dominic. "Transliteration of Devanagari". Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  2. ^ Typesetting Bengali in Ω using Velthuis Transliteration or Unicode Text by Lakshmi K. Raut, 2006, accessed 17.9.2016.
  3. ^ Method 3. The Velthuis scheme: double the vowels, punctuate the consonants, on Access to Insight, accessed 17.9.2016.
  4. ^ Alphabet with diacritics in Wikipedia article Pali, accessed 17.9.2016
  5. ^ Method 3. The Velthuis scheme: double the vowels, punctuate the consonants, on Access to Insight, accessed 17.9.2016.
  6. ^ "Alphabet in Sanskrit". Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  7. ^ "Official Velthuis Package Sanskrit map". Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  8. ^ "Comparison of Input Methods".
  9. ^ Mapping table with 7 methods of Harvard-Kyoto, ITRANS, Velthuis, SLP, WX-system and IAST, Devanagari used by ILTP-DC for Sanskrit.
  10. ^ Aksharamukha transliteration tool. Akshara Mukha is an Asian script (two way) converter freeware. It converts between 20 different South Asian & East Asian scripts. It also supports 5 major Latin transliteration conventions such as IAST, ISO, Harvard-Kyoto, ITRANS & Velthuis. You can access the project from here. While using the tool, 'source' can be set to for example: ITRANS or Harvard-Kyoto, and 'target' can be set to a particular script like Devanagari-Hindi.(When you are using a north Indian script, tick the box: Remove ‘a’.) It can work in reverse too, for example from Hindi to Latin by ISO transliteration.