Vendée Globe

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Vendée Globe
VendeeGlobeRaceRoute.png
The route of the Vendée Globe race
Founded 1989
Classes IMOCA 60
Start Les Sables-d'Olonne
Finish Les Sables-d'Olonne
Type single-handed non-stop round-the-world race
Most recent champion(s) Banque Populaire VIII
Armel Le Cléac'h
Most titles Michel Desjoyeaux (2)
Official website http://www.vendeeglobe.org/en/

The Vendée Globe is a round-the-world single-handed (solo) yacht race, sailed non-stop and without assistance.[1][2] The race was founded by Philippe Jeantot in 1989,[3] and since 1992 has taken place every four years. The 2016–2017 race started on Sunday, 6 November 2016.[4]

The Vendée Globe is unique in its requirements for its round-the-world run,[not verified in body] e.g., contrasting with the likewise single-handed Velux 5 Oceans Race, which is instead sailed in stages (i.e., in legs, with stopovers).[5] The Vendée Globe is considered by many a test of extreme individual endurance, and as the ultimate in ocean racing.[6][7]

The race[edit]

History[edit]

The race was founded as the "Vendée Globe Challenge" in 1989 by French yachtsman Philippe Jeantot.[8] Jeantot had competed in the BOC Challenge (now the Velux 5 Oceans Race) in 1982–83 and 1986–87, winning both times.[8] Dissatisfied with the race's format, he decided to set up a new round-the-world non-stop race, which he felt would be the ultimate challenge for single-handed sailors.[9]

The first race was run in 1989–90, and was won by Titouan Lamazou; Jeantot himself took part, and placed fourth.[10] The next race was in 1992–93; and it has since then been run every four years.

Yachts[edit]

Hommage au Vendée Globe by Raphaël Toussaint, 1999

The race is open to monohull yachts conforming to the Open 60 class criteria. Prior to 2004, the race was also open to Open 50 boats. The Open classes are unrestricted in certain aspects, but a box rule governs parameters such as overall length, draught, appendages and stability, as well as numerous other safety features.

Course[edit]

The race starts and finishes in Les Sables-d'Olonne, in the Département of Vendée, in France; both Les Sables d’Olonne and the Vendée Conseil Général are official race sponsors.[11] The course is essentially a circumnavigation along the clipper route: from Les Sables d’Olonne, down the Atlantic Ocean to the Cape of Good Hope; then clockwise around Antarctica, keeping Cape Leeuwin and Cape Horn to port; then back to Les Sables d’Olonne.[12] The race generally runs from November to February, and is timed to place the competitors in the Southern Ocean during the austral summer.

Additional waypoints may be set in the sailing instructions for a particular race, in order to ensure safety relative to ice conditions, weather, etc.[13]

The competitors may stop at anchor, but may not draw alongside a quay or another vessel; they may receive no outside assistance, including customised weather or routing information. The only exception is that a competitor who has an early problem may return to the start for repairs and then restart the race, as long the restart is within 10 days of the official start.

The race presents significant challenges; most notably the severe wind and wave conditions in the Southern Ocean, the long unassisted duration of the race, and the fact that the course takes competitors far from the reach of any normal emergency response. A significant proportion of the entrants usually retire, and in the 1996–97 race Canadian Gerry Roufs was lost at sea.[14]

To mitigate the risks, competitors are required to undergo medical and survival courses. They must also be able to demonstrate prior racing experience; either a completed single-handed trans-oceanic race or the completion of a previous Vendée Globe. The qualifying race must have been completed on the same boat as the one the sailor will race in the Vendée Globe; or the competitor must complete an additional trans-oceanic observation passage, of not less than 2,500 miles (4,000 km), at an average speed of at least 7 knots (13 km/h), with his or her boat.

Previous results[edit]

1989–1990[edit]

Titouan Lamazou, winner of the 1989–1990 Vendée Globe

The inaugural race was led from early on by the eventual winner, Titouan Lamazou, on Ecureuil d'Aquitaine II.[15] Philippe Jeantot, the race's founder, had problems with breakdowns, and then unfavourable winds, which held him back from the race lead.[citation needed] Philippe Poupon's ketch Fleury Michon X capsized in the Southern Ocean; and Poupon was rescued by Loïck Peyron, who finally finished second, in what was generally a successful first run of the race.[16]

Table: Order of Finish, 1989-1990 Vendée Globe[10]

Sailor Yacht Time
France Titouan Lamazou Ecureuil d'Aquitaine II 109d 08h 48' 50"
France Loïck Peyron Lada Poch 110d 01h 18' 06"
France Jean-Luc Van Den Heede 36.15 MET 112d 01h 14' 00"
France Philippe Jeantot Crédit Agricole IV 113d 23h 47' 47"
France Pierre Follenfant TBS-Charente Maritime 114d 21h 09' 06"
France Alain Gautier Generali Concorde 132d 13h 01' 48"
France Jean-François Coste Cacharel 163d 01h 19' 20"
Did not finish
France Patrice Carpentier Le Nouvel Observateur damaged auto-pilot (Falklands)
United States Mike Plant Duracell received help (New Zealand)
South Africa Bertie Reed Grinaker damaged rudder
France Jean-Yves Terlain UAP dismasted
France Philippe Poupon Fleury Michon X capsized
United States Guy Bernardin O-Kay toothache

1992–1993[edit]

The second race attracted a great deal of media coverage.[citation needed] American Mike Plant, one of the entrants in the first Vendée race, was lost at sea on the way to the race, his boat found capsized near the Azores.[17]

The race set off into extremely bad weather in the Bay of Biscay, and several racers returned to the start to make repairs before setting off again (the only stopover allowed by the rules).[citation needed] Four days after the start, British sailor Nigel Burgess was found drowned off Cape Finisterre, having presumably fallen overboard.[citation needed] Alain Gautier and Bertrand de Broc led the race down the Atlantic; however, keel problems forced de Broc to abandon in New Zealand.[citation needed] Gautier continued with Philippe Poupon close behind, but a dismasting close to the finish held Poupon back, allowing Jean-Luc Van Den Heede to take second place.[18]

Table: Order of Finish, 1992-1993 Vendée Globe[19]

Sailor Yacht Time
France Alain Gautier Bagages Superior 110d 02h 22' 35"
France Jean-Luc Van Den Heede Groupe Sofap-Helvim 116d 15h 01' 11"
France Philippe Poupon Fleury-Michon X 117d 03h 34' 24"
France Yves Parlier Cacolac d'Aquitaine 125d 02h 42' 24"
Hungary Nándor Fa K&H Banque Matav 128d 16h 05' 04"
Spain José Luis de Ugarte Euskadi Europ 93 BBK 134d 05h 04' 00"
France Jean-Yves Hasselin PRB / Solo Nantes 153d 05h 14' 00"
Did not finish
France Switzerland Bernard Gallay Vuarnet Watches rigging problems
Italy Vittorio Malingri Everlast / Neil Pryde Sails lost rudder
France Bertrand de Broc Groupe LG keel problems
United Kingdom Alan Wynne-Thomas Cardiff Discovery medical reasons
France Loïck Peyron Fujicolor III sail failure
France Thierry Arnaud Maître Coq / Le Monde unprepared[20]
United Kingdom Nigel Burgess Nigel Burgess Yachts lost at sea
Did not start
United States Mike Plant Coyote lost at sea prior to departure[17]

1996–1997[edit]

Another heavy-weather start in the Bay of Biscay knocked Nándor Fa and Didier Munduteguy out of the race early, and several others returned to the start for repairs before continuing.[citation needed] The rest of the fleet raced to the Southern Ocean, where a second attrition began: Yves Parlier and Isabelle Autissier broke rudders,[citation needed] leaving Christophe Auguin to lead the way into the south.[citation needed]

Heavy weather took a serious toll on the sailors in the far Southern Ocean. Raphaël Dinelli's boat capsized, and he was rescued by Pete Goss.[21] Then, within a few hours of one another, two other boats capsized, with both rescues performed by Australian rescue teams.[citation needed] Finally, contact was lost with Canadian sailor Gerry Roufs; his body was never found, but his boat was found five months later off the Chilean Coast.[14]

The race was won by Christophe Auguin.[22] Catherine Chabaud, sixth and last, was the first woman to finish the race.[23]

Pete Goss was later awarded the Légion d'honneur for his rescue of Dinelli.[21] The capsize of several boats in this race prompted tightening up of the safety rules for entrants, particularly regarding boat safety and stability.[24]

The book Godforsaken Sea by Derek Lundy profiles the 1996–1997 running of the race.[25]

Table: Order of Finish, 1996-1997 Vendée Globe[26]

Sailor Yacht Time
France Christophe Auguin Geodis 105d 20h 31' (new record)
France Marc Thiercelin Crédit Immobilier 113d 08h 26'
France Hervé Laurent Groupe LG-Traitmat 114d 16h 43'
France Éric Dumont Café Legal-Le Goût 116d 16h 43'
United Kingdom Pete Goss Aqua Quorum 126d 21h 25'
France Catherine Chabaud Whirlpool-Europe 2 140d 04h 38'
Did not finish
France Isabelle Autissier PRB broken rudder
France Yves Parlier Aquitaine Innovations broken rudder
France Bertrand de Broc Pommes Rhône Alpes capsized
United Kingdom Tony Bullimore Exide Challenger capsized
France Thierry Dubois Amnesty International capsized
Hungary Nándor Fa Budapest collision
France Didier Munduteguy Club 60è Sud dismasted
France Raphaël Dinelli Algimouss capsized
Belgium Patrick de Radiguès Afibel beached
Canada Gerry Roufs Groupe LG2 lost at sea[14]

2000–2001[edit]

Michel Desjoyeaux, the only sailor to win the Vendée Globe twice

This race was the first major test of the new safety rules, introduced following the tragedies the previous races.[citation needed] Overall, it was a success; although some boats were again forced to retire from the race, none were lost.[citation needed] This race also featured the youngest entrant ever; Ellen MacArthur, who at 24 years old managed to put together a serious campaign with her custom-built boat Kingfisher.[27]

Yves Parlier was the first to establish a lead, and headlines were made by Dominique Wavre of Switzerland on 10 December 2000 when his 430 nautical miles broke the 24-hour record for distance sailed single-handed.[27] Parlier was soon under attack by Michel Desjoyeaux, who then moved into the lead.[27] Parlier dismasted while pushing to catch up and lost contact with race organizers, resulting in MacArthur's being diverted to provide assistance.[27] MacArthur resumed racing when contact with Parlier was restored, and managed to maintain fourth place.[27]

Desjoyeaux extended his lead to 600 miles (970 km) by Cape Horn, and MacArthur had closed steadily, moving up to second place.[27] By the mid-Atlantic she had caught up, and while negotiating the calms and variable winds of the Doldrums, the two traded the lead position several times.[27]

MacArthur's chance to win was lost when she struck a semi-submerged container and was forced to make repairs.[27] Desjoyeaux and PRB, flying the French flag, would go on to win the race at 93d 3h 57', with MacArthur and Kingfisher under the flag of Great Britain finishing second at 94d 4h 25', and Roland Jourdain and Sill Matines La potagère, also under French flag, finishing third at 96d 1h 2'.[citation needed] MacArthur pulled in to a rapturous reception, as "the youngest ever competitor to finish, the fastest woman around the planet—and only the second solo sailor to get around the globe in less than 100 days."[27] Parlier, meanwhile, had anchored off New Zealand, and managed to fabricate by himself a new carbon-fibre mast from his broken one, and continuing racing, gained an official place.[28][29]

Table: Order of Finish, 2000–2001 Vendée Globe[30]

Sailor Yacht Time
France Michel Desjoyeaux PRB 93d 3h 57' (new record)
United Kingdom Ellen MacArthur Kingfisher 94d 4h 25'
France Roland Jourdain Sill Matines La potagère 96d 1h 2'
France Marc Thiercelin Active Wear 102d 20h 37'
Switzerland Dominique Wavre Union bancaire Privée 105d 2h 45'
France Thomas Coville Sodébo 105d 7h 24'
United Kingdom Mike Golding Team Group 4 110d 16h 22'
France Switzerland Bernard Gallay Voilà.fr 111d 16h 7'
United Kingdom Josh Hall Gartmore 111d 19h 48'
France Joé Seeten Chocolats du Monde 115d 16h 46'
France Patrice Carpentier VM Matériaux 116d 0h 32'
Italy Simone Bianchetti Aquarelle.com 121d 1h 28'
France Yves Parlier Aquitaine Innovations 126d 23h 36
France Didier Munduteguy DDP / 60e Sud 135d 15h 17'
Italy Pasquale de Gregorio Wind Telecommunicazioni 158d 2h 37'
Did not finish
France Catherine Chabaud Whirlpool dismasted
France Thierry Dubois Solidaires electronic problems
France Raphaël Dinelli Sogal Extenso damaged rudder
Russia Fyodor Konyukhov Modern Univ./Humanities retired
Spain Javier Sansó Old Spice retired
France Éric Dumont Euroka Services damaged rudder
United Kingdom Richard Tolkien This Time – Argos – Help For Autistic Children rig damage
Switzerland Bernard Stamm Armor-Lux/foies Gras steering problem
Belgium Patrick de Radiguès Libre Belgique beached

2004–2005[edit]

Vincent Riou, winner of the 2004-2005 Vendée Globe

The start of the 2004 race was watched by an estimated 300,000 people,[citation needed] which took place in mild weather.[citation needed] A fast start was followed by a few minor equipment problems, allowing the first racers to cross the equator just after 10 days.[citation needed] This was three days faster than the previous race, with all of the starters still sailing.[citation needed]

Attrition began on entry into the Roaring Forties: Alex Thomson diverted to Cape Town to make unassisted repairs and continue racing.[citation needed] The fleet encountered a number of other problems. Hervé Laurent retired with serious rudder problems, Thomson abandoned, and Conrad Humphreys anchored to make unassisted rudder repairs.[citation needed] Gear problems and abandonments continued, then the fleet ran into an area of ice, and Sébastien Josse hit an iceberg head-on.[31]

The lead changed several times as the fleet re-entered the Atlantic.[citation needed] The race remained close right to the finish, which saw three boats finish within 29 hours.[32]

Table: Order of Finish, 2004–2005 Vendée Globe[33]

Sailor Yacht Time
France Vincent Riou PRB 87d 10h 47' 55" (new record)
France Jean Le Cam Bonduelle 87d 17h 20' 8"
United Kingdom Mike Golding Ecover 88d 15h 15' 13"
Switzerland Dominique Wavre Temenos 92d 17h 13' 20"
France Sébastien Josse VMI 93d 0h 2' 10"
France Jean-Pierre Dick Virbac-Paprec 98d 3h 49' 38"
United Kingdom Conrad Humphreys Hellomoto 104d 14h 32' 24"
France Joé Seeten Arcelor Dunkerque 104d 23h 2' 45"
United States Bruce Schwab Ocean Planet 109d 19h 58' 57"
France Canada Benoît Parnaudeau Max Havelaar / Best Western 116d 1h 6' 54"
France Anne Liardet ROXY 119d 5h 28' 40"
France Raphaël Dinelli AKENA Vérandas 125d 4h 7' 14"
France Karen Leibovici Benefic 126d 8h 2' 20"
Did not finish
France Marc Thiercelin Pro-Form technical problems
France Roland Jourdain Sill Véolia keel problems
United Kingdom Alex Thomson Hugo Boss hole in the deck
France Patrice Carpentier VM Matériaux broken boom
Australia Nick Moloney Skandia lost the keel
France Hervé Laurent UUDS rudder problem
Austria Norbert Sedlacek Brother keel problems

2008–2009[edit]

Foncia, the winning boat of the 2008-2009 Vendée Globe

The 2008 Vendée Globe began on 9 November 2008. The problems encountered by Jean Le Cam—losing his keel bulb and capsizing in the Southern Ocean—had a major impact on the order of finish.[citation needed] Vincent Riou diverted and found his boat, circling to try and toss a rope to Le Cam who had exited a security hatch to hang onto the rudder.[citation needed] After three failed attempts, Riou went in closer, managing to rescue Le Cam but also damaging his mast. Riou retired, but was awarded third place on redress, as he was third when diverted to assist the boat in distress.[34]

The 2008 Vendée Globe was won by Michel Desjoyaux, who set a new record at 84d 3h 9' 8".[35]

Table: Order of Finish, 2008–2009 Vendée Globe[36]

Sailor Yacht Time
France Michel Desjoyeaux Foncia 84d 3h 9' 8" (new record)
France Armel Le Cléac'h Brit Air 89d 9h 39' 35"
France Marc Guillemot Safran 95d 3h 19' 36"
United Kingdom Samantha Davies Roxy 95d 4h 39' 1"
United Kingdom Brian Thompson Bahrain Team Pindar 98d 20h 29' 55"
United Kingdom Dee Caffari Aviva 99d 1h 10' 57"
France Arnaud Boissières Akena Verandas 105d 2h 33' 50"
United Kingdom Steve White Toe In The Water 109d 0h 36' 55"
United States Rich Wilson Great American III 121d 0h 41' 19"
France Raphaël Dinelli Fondation Ocean Vital 125d 2h 32' 24"
Austria Norbert Sedlacek Nauticsport-Kapsch 126d 5h 31' 56"
Did not finish
France Vincent Riou PRB day 59: dismasted. Redress Given: 3rd place
France Roland Jourdain Veolia Environnement day 85: lost keel
France Jean Le Cam VM Matériaux day 58: lost keel bulb, capsized
United Kingdom Jonny Malbon Artemis day 56: delaminated mainsail
France Jean-Pierre Dick Paprec-Virbac 2 day 53: lost port rudder
Canada Derek Hatfield Algimouss Spirit of Canada day 50: broken spreaders
France Sébastien Josse BT day 50: broken rudder system
France Yann Eliès Generali day 40: fractured femur
United Kingdom Mike Golding Ecover 3 day 38: dismasted
France Jean-Baptiste Dejeanty Groupe Maisonneuve day 37: faulty halyards, broken auto-pilot
France Loïck Peyron Gitana Eighty day 36: dismasted
Switzerland Bernard Stamm Cheminées Poujoulat day 36: ran aground
Switzerland Dominique Wavre Temenos day 35: damaged keel box
Spain Unai Basurko Pakea Bizkaia day 28: faulty starboard rudder box
France Jérémie Beyou Delta Dore day 17: damaged rig
United Kingdom Alex Thomson Hugo Boss day 6: cracked hull
France Yannick Bestaven Energies Autour du Monde day 4: dismasted
France Marc Thiercelin DCNS day 4: dismasted
France Kito de Pavant Groupe Bel day 4: dismasted

2012–2013[edit]

The 2012 Vendée Globe started on 10 November 2012. The race saw the 24-hour singlehanded distance record repeatedly reset by several competitors. Armel Le Cléac’h (Banque Populaire) set a new race record for shortest time to the longitude of the Cape of Good Hope,[37] and François Gabart (Macif) set new race records for shortest time to the longitude of Cape Leeuwin in Australia and to Cape Horn. On 27 January 2013, Gabart set a new Vendée Globe record with just over 78 days to complete the circumnavigation. The interval of 3h 17’ between the arrivals of the first and second contenders is also the shortest in the race's history.[38]

Table: Order of Finish, 2012–2013 Vendée Globe[39]

Sailor Yacht Time
France François Gabart Macif 78d 2h 16' 40" (new record)
France Armel Le Cléac’h Banque Populaire 78d 5h 33' 52"
United Kingdom Alex Thomson Hugo Boss 80d 19h 23' 43"
France Jean-Pierre Dick Virbac-Paprec 3 86d 3h 3' 40"
France Jean Le Cam SynerCiel 88d 0h 12’ 58"
United Kingdom Mike Golding Gamesa 88d 6h 36' 26"
Switzerland Dominique Wavre Mirabaud 90d 3h 14' 42"
France Arnaud Boissières Akena Vérandas 91d 2h 09' 02"
France Bertrand De Broc Votre Nom autour du Monde avec EDM Projets 92d 17h 10' 14" (incl. 12h time penalty for unsealing and using emergency water supply)
France Tanguy De Lamotte initiatives cœur 98d 21h 56' 10"
France Italy Alessandro Di Benedetto Team Plastique 104d 02h 34' 30"
Did not finish
Spain Javier Sanso Acciona 100% EcoPowered day 84: capsized
Switzerland Bernard Stamm Cheminées Poujoulat day 51: disqualified after receiving assistance, however he completed the course in 88d 10h 27' 50"
France Vincent Riou PRB day 14: broken outrigger stay resulting from collision
Poland Zbigniew Gutkowski Energa day 11: electrical issues resulting in autopilot not being able to work
France Jérémie Beyou Maître CoQ day 9: broken keel ram
United Kingdom Samantha Davies Savéol day 5: dismasted
France Louis Burton Bureau Vallée day 3: collision
France Kito de Pavant Groupe Bel day 2: collision
France Marc Guillemot Safran day 1: damaged keel

2016–2017[edit]

Edmond de Rotschild, a new foiling yacht that took part in the race

The 2016 - 17 race started from Les Sables d'Olonne on November 6, 2016; it was the eighth competition, with 29 skippers from ten countries.[40] It will last three months and travel around the three great capes - the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), Cape Leeuwin (Australia) and Cape Horn (Chile).

This edition of the race was the first to feature foiling boats, monohulls equipped with hydrofoils. The race is closely watched to see the durability of foils in such circumstances.[41]

The winner of this edition is Armel Le Cléac'h, finishing on January 19th 2017 in a time of 74 days, three hours and 35 minutes.[42]

Table: Registrants, 2016–2017 Vendée Globe[43]

Sailor Yacht Time
France Armel Le Cléac'h Banque Populaire VIII § 74d 03h 35' 46" (current record) [44]
United Kingdom Alex Thomson Hugo Boss § 74d 19h 35' 15" [45]
France Jérémie Beyou Maître CoQ § 78d 06h 38' 40" [46]
France Jean-Pierre Dick StMichel-Virbac § 80d 01h 45' 45" [47]
France Yann Eliès Quéguiner - Leucémie Espoir 80d 03h 11' 09" [48]
France Jean Le Cam Finistère Mer Vent 80d 04h 41' 54" [49]
France Louis Burton Bureau Vallée 87d 19h 45' 49" [50]
Hungary Nándor Fa Spirit Of Hungary 93d 22h 52' 09" [51]
France Éric Bellion Comme un Seul Homme 99d 04h 56' 20" [52]
France Arnaud Boissières La Mie Câline 102d 20h 24' 09" [53]
France Fabrice Amedeo Newrest - Matmut 103d 21h 01' 00" [54]
Switzerland Alan Roura La Fabrique 105d 20h 10' 32" [55]
United States Rich Wilson Great American IV 107d 00h 48' 18" [56]
New Zealand/United States Conrad Colman 100% Natural Energy
Spain Didac Costa One Planet One Ocean
Netherlands Pieter Heerema No Way Back §
France Romain Attanasio Famille Mary - Etamine Du Lys
France Sébastien Destremau TechnoFirst - FaceOcean
Did not finish
Republic of Ireland Enda O’Coineen Kilcullen Voyager - Team Ireland day 56: Dismasted 180 nm SE of New Zealand[57]
France Paul Meilhat SMA day 49: Hydraulic-keel fissured[58]
France Thomas Ruyant Le Souffle Du Nord Pour Le Projet Imagine day 44: Damaged hull due to collision with an UFO [59]
France Stéphane Le Diraison Compagnie Du Lit - Boulogne Billancourt day 41: Dismasted 950 nautical miles away from Australia [60]
France Sébastien Josse Edmond De Rothschild § day 30: Damage port foil - South of Australia
France Kito de Pavant Bastide Otio day 30: Damaged keel - North of Crozet Islands
Japan Kojiro Shiraishi Spirit Of Yukoh day 27: Damaged masthead - South of Cape of Good Hope
France Tanguy De Lamotte Initiatives-Cœur day 23: Damaged masthead - North of Cape Verde Islands
France Morgan Lagravière Safran § day 19: Damaged rudder - South Atlantic
France Vincent Riou PRB day 17: Damaged keel - South Atlantic
France Bertrand De Broc MACSF day 14: Damaged keel

§ - boat equipped with hydrofoils

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ SSN Staff (13 November 2016). "Vendée Globe: Thomson Leads into the Doldrums". Scuttlebutt Sailing News. Retrieved 13 November 2016. 
  2. ^ VendéeGlobe.org Staff (13 November 2016). "Home Page, Vendée Globe 2016-2017 [race]". vendeeglobe.org. Retrieved 13 November 2016. 
  3. ^ BBC Staff (27 January 2013). "Vendee Globe 2012-13: Francois Gabart Breaks Solo Record [BBC Sport: Sailing]". Retrieved 13 November 2016. 
  4. ^ Boyd, James (9 December 2014). "30 Skippers for the Next Vendée Globe?". The Daily Sail. Retrieved 13 November 2016. 
  5. ^ Velux 5 Oceans Media (15 October 2010). "Velux 5 Oceans- The Race in Context - 28 Years of History and Drama". Sail World. Retrieved 13 November 2016. What is now known as the Velux 5 Oceans Race, the singlehanded around the world race with stopovers has been sailed for almost 30 years… The race was split into four legs, with stops in Cape Town, Sydney and Rio de Janeiro before finishing in back in Newport. 
  6. ^ Museler, Chris (9 November 2008). "Racers in Vendée Globe Start Nonstop Solo Quest". New York Times. Retrieved 8 December 2008. Compared with other global ocean races […] the Vendée Globe is considered the most extreme sailing event in the world 
  7. ^ "Vendée Globe: Sailing's Everest". The Independent. 11 November 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  8. ^ a b The Museum of Yachting (14 November 2016) [1990]. "Philippe Jeantot, 1952-". The Single-Handed Sailors' Hall of Fame. Newport, RI: The Museum of Yachting. Retrieved 14 November 2016 – via Windlass Creative [Sally Anne Santos]. [Quote:] Inducted to Single-Handed Sailors' Hall of Fame, 1990. 
  9. ^ "Introduction". Vendée Globe. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2016. [third-party source needed]
  10. ^ a b "Edition 1989/1990 : Une grande course est née". Vendée Globe (in French). Archived from the original on 22 October 2004. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  11. ^ VendéeGlobe.org Staff (13 November 2016). "Partners - Vendée Globe 2016-2017". vendeeglobe.org. Retrieved 13 November 2016. [third-party source needed]
  12. ^ Nielsen, Peter (11 May 2016). "Inside the Vendée Globe". Sail Magazine. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  13. ^ Laven, Kate (3 December 2012). "Vendee Globe 2012-13: Dicing with ice as fleet heads into desolate Southern Ocean". The Telegraph. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c Evans, Jeremy (1 April 2008). Sailing. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. p. 317. ISBN 9781405334723. Tragically, another life was lost as French Canadian Gerry Roufs was lost at sea 
  15. ^ "Yachting's 1990 Honor Roll". Yachting. 170 (4). April 1991. ISSN 0043-9940. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  16. ^ Byrne, Dan (27 January 1990). "'Roaring 40s' Claim 3 Sailboats". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  17. ^ a b Lloyd, Barbara (26 November 1992). "Solo Sailor Is Presumed To Be Dead". New York Times. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  18. ^ "French Toast Tough Vendée Globe Fleet". Yachting. 174 (1). July 1993. ISSN 0043-9940. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  19. ^ "Edition 1992/1993 : L'édition des premiers drames". Vendée Globe (in French). Archived from the original on 22 October 2004. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  20. ^ Agnus, Christophe; Lautrou, Pierre-Yves (13 October 2004). Le roman du Vendée-Globe (in French). Grasset. ISBN 9782246675990. 
  21. ^ a b "Hero sailor Yachtsman of the Year". BBC. 10 January 1998. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  22. ^ "Open 60 Class Review". Yachting. 181 (4). April 1997. ISSN 0043-9940. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  23. ^ "Solo yachtswoman and journalist Catherine Chabaud wins Woman of the Year award". Euronews. 14 May 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  24. ^ Finot, Jean-Marie (March 1999). "60' Open, the conditions of safety, past evolution, current state, future". finot.com. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  25. ^ Lundy, Derek (2000). Godforsaken Sea: The True Story of a Race Through the World's Most Dangerous Waters. New York, NY: Anchor. ISBN 0385720009. 
  26. ^ "Edition 1996/1997 : Le Globe ne tourne plus rond". Vendée Globe (in French). Archived from the original on 22 October 2004. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i BBC Staff (9 February 2001). "Vendee Globe: The Full Story [BBC Sport: Sailing]". Retrieved 13 November 2016. 
  28. ^ Clarey, Christopher (16 March 2001). "Despite Mishaps, French Sailor Is Near Finish in Vendee Globe Race: A Battered but Unbowed Arrival". New York Times. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  29. ^ Martinez, Thierry. "Yves Parlier - Vendée Globe - Exclusive Images". thmartinez.com. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  30. ^ "Edition 2000/2001 : Le Globe Express". Vendée Globe (in French). Archived from the original on 22 October 2004. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  31. ^ "Not so calm before the storm". The Independent. 2 April 2006. Retrieved 8 December 2016. [Josse] came 5th in the 2005 Vendée Globe, despite hitting an iceberg. 
  32. ^ Berlin, Peter (4 February 2005). "Sailing: Around the world (alone) in 87 days". New York Times. 
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Coordinates: 46°29′42″N 1°47′19″W / 46.4951°N 1.7886°W / 46.4951; -1.7886