Vendor-managed inventory

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Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI) is a theory based inspired by integration in supply chain management. In recent years, various partnerships like vendor managed inventory (VMI) approach have been used in inventory management as a method to cope with the bullwhip effect such [1]. In the traditional inventory management, a retailer (sometimes called buyer) makes his own decisions regarding the order size while in VMI, a retailer shares his inventory data with a vendor (sometimes called supplier) such that the vendor is the decision-maker who determines the order size for both. Thus, the vendor is responsible for the retailer's ordering cost, while the retailer has to pay for his own holding cost. This policy can prevent stocking undesired inventories and hence can lead to an overall cost reduction. Moreover, the bullwhip effect is also reduced by employing the VMI approach in a buyer–supplier cooperation [2]. As replenishment frequencies play an important role in integrated inventory models to reduce the total cost of supply chains which many studies fail to model it in mathematical problems [3]. VMI is a family of business models in which the buyer of a product provides certain information to a supplier (vendor) of that product and the supplier takes full responsibility for maintaining an agreed inventory of the material, usually at the buyer's consumption location (usually a store). A third-party logistics provider can also be involved to make sure that the buyer has the required level of inventory by adjusting the demand and supply gaps.[4]

As a symbiotic relationship, VMI makes it less likely that a business will unintentionally become out of stock of a good and reduces inventory in the supply chain. Furthermore, vendor (supplier) representatives in a store benefit the vendor by ensuring the product is properly displayed and store staff are familiar with the features of the product line, all these while helping to clean and organize their product lines for the store. VMI can also decrease the magnitude of the bullwhip effect.

One of the keys to making VMI work is shared risk. In some cases, if the inventory does not sell, the vendor (supplier) will repurchase the product from the buyer (retailer). In other cases, the product may be in the possession of the retailer but is not owned by the retailer until the sale takes place, meaning that the retailer simply houses (and assists with the sale of) the product in exchange for a predetermined commission or profit (sometimes referred to as consignment stock). A special form of this commission business is scan-based trading, where VMI is usually applied but its use is not mandatory.[5]

This is one of the successful business models used by Walmart and many other big box retailers.[6] Oil companies often use technology to manage the gasoline inventories at the service stations that they supply (see Petrolsoft Corporation). Home Depot uses the technique with larger suppliers of manufactured goods. VMI helps foster a closer understanding between the supplier and manufacturer by using electronic data interchange formats, EDI software and statistical methodologies to forecast and maintain correct inventory in the supply chain.

Vendors benefit from more control of displays and more customer contact for their employees; retailers benefit from reduced risk, better store staff knowledge (which builds brand loyalty for both the vendor and the retailer), and reduced display maintenance outlays.

Consumers benefit from knowledgeable store staff who are in frequent and familiar contact with manufacturer (vendor) representatives when parts or service are required. Store staff have good knowledge of most product lines offered by the entire range of vendors. They can help the consumer choose from competing products for items most suited to them and offer service support being offered by the store.

At the goods' manufacturing level, VMI helps prevent overflowing warehouses or shortages, as well as costly labor, purchasing and accounting. With VMI, businesses maintain a proper inventory, and optimized inventory leads to easy access and fast processing with reduced labor costs.[7]

Classes in Vendor-Managed Inventory[edit]

The first class of VMI, bi-level VMI mathematical model, includes two levels (or echelons) in a supply chain: vendor and retailer. There are three types of VMI mathematical models developed from this class, which are single-vendor single-retailer VMI model[8], single-vendor multi-retailer VMI model[9] multi-vendor multi-retailer VMI model[10]. This class has been significantly developing. For example, single-vendor single-retailer VMI model was extended for multi-product case [11], the consignment stock (CS)[12], and discount[13].

The second class is multi-level VMI mathematical model such as a single manufacturer-single vendor multi-retailer (SM-SV-MR) VMI model[14]. Those studies fail to model replenishment frequencies cannot classified here. As replenishment frequencies play an important role in integrated inventory models to reduce the total cost of supply chains which many studies fail to model it in mathematical problems.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sadeghi, Javad (2015-02-22). "A multi-item integrated inventory model with different replenishment frequencies of retailers in a two-echelon supply chain management: a tuned-parameters hybrid meta-heuristic". OPSEARCH. 52 (4): 631–649. doi:10.1007/s12597-015-0198-5. ISSN 0030-3887.
  2. ^ "Optimizing an inventory model with fuzzy demand, backordering, and discount using a hybrid imperialist competitive algorithm". Applied Mathematical Modelling. 40 (15–16): 7318–7335. 2016-08-01. doi:10.1016/j.apm.2016.03.013. ISSN 0307-904X.
  3. ^ "Optimizing a bi-objective inventory model of a three-echelon supply chain using a tuned hybrid bat algorithm". Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review. 70: 274–292. 2014-10-01. doi:10.1016/j.tre.2014.07.007. ISSN 1366-5545.
  4. ^ "What Is Vendor Managed Inventory?", Datalliance, Retrieved Aug. 16, 2016
  5. ^ "Vendor Managed Inventory: Three Steps in Making it Work", NC State University Suppy Chain Resource Cooperative, Retrieved Aug. 16, 2016
  6. ^ Sila Çetinkaya & Chung-Yee Lee, "Stock Replenishment and Shipment Scheduling for Vendor-Managed Inventory Systems ", Management Science, Volume 46 Issue 2, February 2000, pp. 217-232. Accessed 9 June 2014
  7. ^ "Insider's Tips to Packaging Issues", CGR Products, Retrieved Aug. 16, 2016
  8. ^ Yao, Yuliang; Evers, Philip T.; Dresner, Martin E. (2007). "Supply chain integration in vendor-managed inventory". undefined. Retrieved 2018-10-15.
  9. ^ "Optimizing a hybrid vendor-managed inventory and transportation problem with fuzzy demand: An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm". Information Sciences. 272: 126–144. 2014-07-10. doi:10.1016/j.ins.2014.02.075. ISSN 0020-0255.
  10. ^ "Optimizing a multi-vendor multi-retailer vendor managed inventory problem: Two tuned meta-heuristic algorithms". Knowledge-Based Systems. 50: 159–170. 2013-09-01. doi:10.1016/j.knosys.2013.06.006. ISSN 0950-7051.
  11. ^ javad, sadeghi,; ahmad, sadeghi,; mohammad, Saidi mehrabad, (2011-09-29). "A parameter-tuned genetic algorithm for vendor managed inventory model for a case single-vendor single-retailer with multi-product and multi-constraint". Journal of Optimization in Industrial Engineering. 0 (9). ISSN 2251-9904.
  12. ^ "A one-vendor multi-buyer integrated production-inventory model: The 'Consignment Stock' case". International Journal of Production Economics. 118 (1): 225–232. 2009-03-01. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2008.08.044. ISSN 0925-5273.
  13. ^ "Optimizing an inventory model with fuzzy demand, backordering, and discount using a hybrid imperialist competitive algorithm". Applied Mathematical Modelling. 40 (15–16): 7318–7335. 2016-08-01. doi:10.1016/j.apm.2016.03.013. ISSN 0307-904X.
  14. ^ "Optimizing a bi-objective inventory model of a three-echelon supply chain using a tuned hybrid bat algorithm". Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review. 70: 274–292. 2014-10-01. doi:10.1016/j.tre.2014.07.007. ISSN 1366-5545.

Literature[edit]

  • Tempelmeier, H. (2006). Inventory Management in Supply Networks—Problems, Models, Solutions, Norderstedt:Books on Demand. ISBN 3-8334-5373-7.
  • Franke, P. D. (2010). Vendor-Managed Inventory for High Value Parts—Results from a survey among leading international manufacturing firms. ISBN 978-3-7983-2211-0

External links[edit]