Venera 7

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Venera 7
Venera 1962 diagramm.jpg
Venera diagram
Mission type Venus lander
COSPAR ID 1970-060A
SATCAT № 4489
Mission duration 120 days
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft 4V-1 No.630
Manufacturer Lavochkin
Launch mass 1,180 kilograms (2,600 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date 17 August 1970, 05:38:22 (1970-08-17UTC05:38:22Z) UTC
Rocket Molniya-M
Launch site Baikonur 31/6
End of mission
Last contact 15 December 1970, 06:00 (1970-12-15UTC07Z) UTC
Orbital parameters
Reference system Heliocentric
Venus lander
Landing date 15 December 1970, 05:37:10 UTC

The Venera 7 (Russian: Венера-7 meaning Venus 7) (manufacturer's designation: 3V (V-70)) was a Soviet spacecraft, part of the Venera series of probes to Venus. When it landed on the Venusian surface, it became the first spacecraft to land on another planet and first to transmit data from there back to Earth.[1]

Launch[edit]

The probe was launched from Earth on August 17, 1970, at 05:38 UTC. It consisted of an interplanetary bus based on the 3MV system and a lander.[2] During the flight to Venus two in-course corrections were made using the bus's on-board KDU-414 engine.[2]

Landing[edit]

It entered the atmosphere of Venus on December 15, 1970.[2] The lander remained attached to the interplanetary bus during the initial stages of atmospheric entry[2] to allow the bus to cool the lander to −8 °C for as long as possible.[2] The lander was ejected once atmospheric buffeting broke the interplanetary bus's lock-on with Earth.[2] The parachute opened at a height of 60 km and atmospheric testing began with results showing the atmosphere to be 97% carbon dioxide.[2] The parachute appeared to fail during the descent, resulting in a descent more rapid than planned.[2] As a result the lander struck the surface of Venus at about 16.5 metres per second (54 ft/s) at 05:37:10 UTC.[2] Landing coordinates are 5°S 351°E / 5°S 351°E / -5; 351.[3]

The probe appeared to go silent on impact[2] but recording tapes kept rolling.[4] A few weeks later, upon a review of the tapes, another 23 minutes of very weak signals were found on them.[4] The spacecraft had landed on Venus and probably bounced onto its side, leaving the medium gain antenna not aimed correctly for strong signal transmission to Earth.[4]

The probe transmitted information to Earth for 53 minutes, which included 20 minutes from the surface. It was found that the temperature at the surface of Venus was 475 °C (887 °F) ° ± 20 ° C and the pressure was 90 ± 15 atmospheres.[2][5] The pressure corresponded to approximately 900 m below sea level. The probe provided information about the surface of Venus, which could not be seen through a thick veil of atmosphere. The spacecraft definitively confirmed that on the surface of Venus man is not able to survive and excluded the possibility that there is any liquid water on Venus.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Science: Onward from Venus". TIME. 8 February 1971. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Reeves, Robert (1994). The Superpower Space Race: An Explosive Rivalry through the Solar System. Plenum Press. pp. 211–215. ISBN 0-306-44768-1. 
  3. ^ Patrick Moore, The data book of astronomy. CRC Press, 2000, p. 92.
    See Table 5-5, Missions to Venus, 1961-2000. Landing near Navka Planitia
  4. ^ a b c Larry Klaes, THE SOVIETS AND VENUS, PART 1, 1993.
  5. ^ Итоги работы станции "Венера-7"

External links[edit]