Venezuelan diaspora

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Venezuelan diaspora
Venezuelan diaspora map.svg
World map showing countries with the largest Venezuelan populations
Location
of diaspora:
CauseSocial issues, political repression, crime, economic downturn, corruption, censorship and others.[27][28][29]

The Venezuelan diaspora refers to Venezuelan citizens living outside Venezuela. In times of economic and political crisis since the 2010s, Venezuelans have often fled to other American countries to establish a more sustainable life.

History[edit]

19th century[edit]

In 1827, a group of Jews moved from Curaçao and settled in Coro, Venezuela.[30] In 1855, rioting in the area forced the entire Jewish population, 168 individuals, back to Curaçao.[30] Assimilation of Jews in Venezuela was difficult, though small communities could be found in Puerto Cabello, Villa de Cura, Carupano, Rio Chico, Maracaibo, and Barquisimeto.[30]

20th century[edit]

During World War II, the Venezuelan government broke relations with the Axis powers in 1942, with many groups consisting of hundreds of German-Venezuelans leaving Venezuela to be repatriated into Nazi Germany.[31]

In the early 1980s, the Venezuelan government had invested much into the country's infrastructure and communications, though by the mid-1980s when Venezuela faced economic difficulties and inequality increased, some Venezuelans emigrated.[32] Again, at the peak of Venezuela's socioeconomic difficulties in the late 1990s, Venezuelans began to emigrate once more, with some attempting to enter the United States legally and illegally.[33]

21st century[edit]

Bolivarian diaspora[edit]

During the Bolivarian Revolution, many Venezuelans have sought residence in other countries. According to Newsweek, the "Bolivarian diaspora is a reversal of fortune on a massive scale" as compared to the 20th century, when "Venezuela was a haven for immigrants fleeing Old World repression and intolerance".[28] El Universal explained how the "Bolivarian diaspora" in Venezuela has been caused by the "deterioration of both the economy and the social fabric, rampant crime, uncertainty and lack of hope for a change in leadership in the near future".[27]

In 1998, the year Chavez was first elected, only 14 Venezuelans were granted U.S. asylum. By September 1999, 1,086 Venezuelans were granted asylum according to the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.[34] It has been calculated that from 1998 to 2013, over 1.5 million Venezuelans (between 4% and 6% of the Venezuela's total population) left the country following the Bolivarian Revolution.[35] Former Venezuelan residents have been driven by lack of freedom, high levels of insecurity, and inadequate opportunities in the country.[35][36] It has also been reported that some parents in Venezuela encourage their children to leave the country because of the insecurities Venezuelans face.[36][37] This has led to significant human capital flight in Venezuela.[27][35][38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Venezuela's Nicolás Maduro survives 2019 despite U.S. insistence he'd fall". Axios. Retrieved 20 December 2019. We have more than 1.7 million refugees, that’s the official number and I think it’s under-reported. Bogota has 375,000 — that’s like the size of New Orleans
  2. ^ Leon, Adriana (19 October 2017). "Driven by unrest and violence, Venezuelans are fleeing their country by the thousands". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  3. ^ "Venezolanos en Perú: Migración se redujo en más de 90% en julio, según Migraciones". Perú.21 (in Spanish). 14 August 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  4. ^ "Brazil recalls diplomats, officials from Venezuela". Al Jazeera. 6 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  5. ^ "UNHCR welcomes Brazil's decision to recognize thousands of Venezuelans as refugees". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. United Nations. 6 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  6. ^ Eluniversal.com
  7. ^ "Cómo los venezolanos se están convirtiendo en el chivo expiatorio por las protestas en Sudamérica". BBC News. 28 November 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  8. ^ Arostegui, Martin (18 February 2018). "Spain Has Pivotal Role in Pressuring Venezuela's Maduro". Voice of America. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
  9. ^ a b "Refugees and migrants from Venezuela top 4 million: UNHCR and IOM". UNHCR. UNHCR, IOM. 7 June 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Últimas Noticias (2014), Venezolanos en el exterior".
  11. ^ a b "El desgarrador éxodo de los venezolanos, en números". Infobae (in Spanish). 3 September 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  12. ^ ""Más de 90 mil venezolanos ingresaron a RD por diferentes aeropuertos en 2019". Listin Diario. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "United Nations Population Division: Department of Economic and Social Affairs". United Nations Population Division. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  14. ^ "¿ Cuántos venezolanos hay en Canadá y en Québec?". Archived from the original on 2007-11-21. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
  15. ^ "REPORTE DE FLUJOS MIGRATORIOS EN CENTROAMÉRICA, NORTEAMÉRICA Y EL CARIBE" (PDF). International Organization for Migration. June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  16. ^ "Venezolanos en Paraguay: Hay 828 con radicación y 58 piden refugio". Última Hora (in Spanish). 15 January 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  17. ^ Ebus, Bram (13 November 2018). "Venezuelan migrants live in shadows on Caribbean's sunshine islands". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  18. ^ "En 2019 crecerá un 30% la llegada de venezolanos". El País (in Spanish). 20 December 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  19. ^ "As crisis deepens, more Venezuelans are emigrating to Lebanon".
  20. ^ "En 2019 crecerá un 30% la llegada de venezolanos". El País (in Spanish). 20 December 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  21. ^ "Over 5000 Venezuelan migrants in Guyana". Guyana Times. 27 February 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  22. ^ "Guatemala exigirá visa a los migrantes venezolanos". El Nacional (in Spanish). 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  23. ^ "Más de 4 mil venezolanos llegaron a Bolivia en 2018, el doble que en 2017". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 15 February 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  24. ^ Approximate of Venezuelans living in Japan
  25. ^ "Venezolanos en El Salvador respaldan a Juan Guaidó y exigen la salida de Maduro". EFE (in Spanish). 30 April 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  26. ^ "Venezolanos residentes en Honduras piden a sus compatriotas no dejar la lucha". La Prensa (in Spanish). 23 January 2019.
  27. ^ a b c Olivares, Francisco (13 September 2014). "Best and brightest for export". El Universal. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  28. ^ a b "Hugo Chavez is Scaring Away Talent". Newsweek. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  29. ^ "Ten percent of Venezuelans are taking steps for emigrating". El Universal. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  30. ^ a b c Krusch, David. "The Virtual Jewish World: Venezuela". Jewish Virtual Library. American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  31. ^ "More Germans Quit Venezuela: Page 22". The New York Times. 27 December 1942.
  32. ^ Jones, Richard C (April 1982). "Regional Income Inequalities and Government Investment in Venezuela". Regional Income Inequalities and the Journal of Developing Areas. 16 (3): 373.
  33. ^ Paulin, David (6 April 1997). "Venezulans in US fleeing poverty: Rising crime, inflation spur emigration: A, 10:3". The Boston Globe.
  34. ^ Brown, Tom (16 July 2007). "Venezuelans, fleeing Chavez, seek U.S. safety net". Reuters. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  35. ^ a b c Maria Delgado, Antonio (28 August 2014). "Venezuela agobiada por la fuga masiva de cerebros". El Nuevo Herald. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  36. ^ a b "El 90% de los venezolanos que se van tienen formación universitaria". El Impulso. 23 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  37. ^ Montilla K., Andrea (4 July 2014). "Liceístas pasan de grado sin cursar varias materias". El Nacional. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  38. ^ "Venezuela, migraciones y desplazamientos humanos". 23 May 2003.

External links[edit]