Venezuelans

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Venezuelans
Venezolanos
Simón Bolívar 2.jpg
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Rómulo Gallegos 1940s.jpg
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Teresa de la Parra.jpg
Carolina Herrera.jpg
Tina Ramirez.jpg
Franco de Vita en Primera Fila.jpg
Ricardo-Montaner.jpg
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Total population
World
±35,000,000
Regions with significant populations
 Venezuela: 33,221,865
 United States 220,000 - 500,000[1]
 Colombia 250,000[2]
 Italy 150,000[3]
Spain Spain 150,000 - 200,000[3]
Portugal Portugal 100,000[3]
 Canada 34,000[4]
 France 30,000[3]
 Panama 24,000[3]
 Germany 20,000[3]
 Syria 20,000[5]
 Mexico 17,000[3]
 United Kingdom 15,000[3]
 Cuba 15,000[3]
 Australia 10,000[3]
 Brazil 7,000[3]
 Argentina 6,000[3]
 Ireland 5,000[3]
 Chile 4,000[3]
 Trinidad and Tobago 3,000[3]
 Peru 3,000[3]
 Costa Rica 3,000[3]
 Ecuador 3,000[3]
 United Arab Emirates 2,500[3]
 New Zealand 2,000[3]
 Bolivia 2,000[3]
 Netherlands 1,000[3]
 Japan 1,000[6]
 Uruguay 1,000[3]
 Saudi Arabia 1,000[3]
 Poland 60[7]
Languages
Spanish and other native languages.
Religion
Predominantly Roman Catholic, small minorities of other religions. Native people are mainly animist.

Venezuelan people are from a multiethnic nation in South America called Venezuela. Venezuelans are predominantly Roman Catholic and speak Spanish. The majority of Venezuelans are the result of a mixture of Europeans and Amerindians. 49.9% of the population are Mestizos of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry and 43.6% of Venezuelans consider themselves White of European ancestry and/or Middle Eastern. Another 3.6% is Black African, or of mixed Black African and European ancestry, while 1.2% is of full Amerindian ancestry and other races (principally Asian people).[8][9]

Historical and ethnic aspects[edit]

Colombian period[edit]

Pre-Colombian times, is a historical stage where various immigrant groups begin to move the current Americas, at which writing was not used, thus being difficult to find evidence of the people who began to populate this land. However, archaeological excavations are the evidences that establish certain periods that were taking place on the continent.

In the case of Venezuela, probably the man first appeared 16,000 years ago, this due to migration flows from other indigenous cultures of America, from the south to the Amazon, from the west through Los Andes and north by the Caribbean Sea.

There are four periods of diversity that develop in the current Venezuela, which also entering a new period, it did not mean the end of the previous.

The first migrations to the continent were probably from East Asia to 15,000 years. C. These early migrants (called forth by the generic name "Indians") came at first to be located in North America, later moving to the territory of present Venezuela. Now for their offspring, it was clear verify the Asian features on their faces that will adapt to the climate and lifestyle.

During this period, various mammals were disappearing by climatic changes already beginning to take place from 5000 years ago, so the population in the mainland, starts to move towards the coast and spread to some nearby islands, trying to find new feeding alternatives.

Colonization[edit]

On August 2, 1498 (516 years), Christopher Columbus -and the Spanish colonizers in the boats- landed for the first time in American mainland and did so in the current Venezuelan territory. With the rapid colonization process despite small local indigenous rebellions, the Spaniards manage to conquer the territory, beginning during this period the most significant crossbreeding process that will define later the social profile of the country.

With the passage of time, and the introduction of the African continent, a third race (the negros) started to integrate into the population, creating heterogeneity in the faces of the society of the time.

During colonial centuries in Venezuela began to settle the "peninsular whites", coming directly from the Iberian Peninsula and which were those who held positions in the crown, representing only 15% of the population. Another group of whites who were born in Venezuela were originally called "Creole", representing 20% of the population: they were mostly from the Canary Islands and they worked mainly in petty trade. The other two smaller groups were the original inhabitants and indigenous blacks brought from Africa: they were about 5% of the population. Soon the original groups started to have interbreedings and this created a process of "fusion" between the different racial groups: The "brown" were descendants of the unions between Whites, Indians and Blacks and in the XVIII century were the largest racial and social group being more than 60% of the population.

This process is currently responsible for the majority of Venezuelans who are of mestizo (mixed) race.

Current ethnic groups[edit]

The current ethnic data show that about 49.9% of the population is mestizo, or of mixed ancestry: European, 42.2% are whites of European descent or the Middle East. Another 3.5% are black or of African descent, while 2.7% is of Amerindian descent; the rest (1.1%) from other races, mainly Asians. These figures were obtained during the population census in the year 2011.

The country has a diverse population that reflects its rich history and the people that have lived here since antiquity to the present. The historic amalgam of different principal groups form the basis of the current demographics of Venezuela: the European immigrants, the Amerindian peoples, African, Asian, Middle Eastern and other recent immigrants.

Many of the indigenous peoples were absorbed by the mestizo population, but the remaining 500,000 currently represent more than 85 different cultures.

European immigrants were mainly Spanish colonists, but another large and growing number are descendants of Europeans (Portuguese, Italians, Germans and Americans) who migrated to the region in mid-twentieth century during the oil growth in the country. Small amounts are descendants of French, English and Polish, as they emigrated during World War II and the Cold War.

Black Africans were brought as slaves, mostly coastal lowlands, beginning early in the sixteenth century and continuing into the nineteenth century. Other immigrant populations are Asian and Middle East, particularly Lebanon, Syria and Chinese, some Jews from southern Spain, Israel and Central European, Chinese, Dominicans, Haitians, Cubans, Peruvians, Argentines, Uruguayans, Chileans, Ecuadorians and Colombia, this being the greatest social impact due to a large number of displaced individuals who entered the Venezuelan territory during the armed conflict in that country; which generated a high supply of labor, personnel and domestic economy informal.8 9

In cities such as Caracas, Maracaibo, Maracay, Valencia, Dairy, Cabudare, Colonia Tovar, Punto Fijo, Porlamar, and the Andean states most Europeans, mainly Spanish, Italian, Portuguese - and their descendants are concentrated.

Finally indigenous Amerindians comprise 1% of the population.

Ethnic-somatic characteristics[edit]

Currently, according to the critic D'Ambrosio and other academics,[10] about 70% of Venezuelans are mestizos (called Criollos: the 40% of them are with mostly white features, 20% with mostly black features and 10% with mostly Indians features), 20% are white, 8% are black and 2% Indians.

Notably, according to these scholars, is the fact that virtually there are no pure blacks in Venezuela, and also those with the darkest skin, found especially in the area of Barlovento, are actually "dark mulatto." Also in the interior, more than 100 km offshore the presence of black or mulatto people is negligible.

On the other hand, the existence of Venezuelan white with blue eyes and blond hair is almost zero, being limited to a few descendants of the European immigration that happened in the years of Perez Jimenez. The only Venezuelan town where there is a consistent number of them is the Colonia Tovar (and even a few can be found in Mérida).

In addition, according to a genetic autosomal DNA study conducted in 2008 by the University of Brasilia (UNB), the composition of the population of Venezuela is: 60.60% of the EU contribution, 23% of Native American contribution and 16% of Africa's contribution.

Demography[edit]

The population of approximately 28 million people (in 2006[11]) made Venezuela the sixth-most populous country in Latin America (after Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, and Peru).

More than ninety percent of the Venezuelans live in urban areas – a figure significantly higher than the world average. The literacy rate (98 percent) in Venezuela is also well above the world average, and the rate of population growth slightly exceeds the world average. A large proportion of Venezuelans are young, largely because of recent decreases in the infant mortality rate. While 30 percent of the people are 14 years of age or younger, just 4 percent are aged 65 or older.

Ethnic groups[edit]

The country has a diverse population that reflects its colourful history and the peoples that have populated here from ancient times to the present. The historic amalgam of the different main groups forms the basics of Venezuela's current demographics: European immigrants, Amerindian peoples, Africans, Asians, Middle Easterners and other recent immigrants.

Many of the indigenous peoples were absorbed into the Mestizo population, but the remaining 500,000 currently represent over eighty-five distinct cultures. The European immigrants were mostly Spanish colonists, but a high number of other Europeans brought by the past high growth (Portuguese, Italian, and German migrated to the region in the middle 20th century by the Petroleum Growth, and in much smaller numbers French, English and Polish communities immigrated during the Second World War and the Cold War.

Black Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the 16th century, and continuing into the mid 19th century. Other immigrant populations include Asians and Middle Easterners, particularly Lebanese, Syrians, and Chinese.

About 49.9% of the population is Mestizo, or of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry, while 43.6% consider themselves white of European ancestry and/or Middle Eastern ancestry. Another 3.6% is black, or of mixed black African and European ancestry, while 1.2% is of full Amerindian ancestry or other races ( principally Asian people).

In cities like Caracas, Maracaibo, Maracay, Valencia, Lecheria, Cabudare, Colonia Tovar, Punto Fijo, Porlamar-La Asunción, and the Andean States is concentrated the majority of the Europeans (mainly Spanish, Italians, Portuguese) and their descendants, emigrated in Venezuela after World War II.[12]

Pure indigenous Amerindians comprise 1 percent of the population.[13] There are 101 languages listed for Venezuela in the Ethnologue database, of which 80 are spoken today as living languages.

Indigenous peoples[edit]

Before the Spanish colonization of the region that would become the country of Venezuela, the territory was the home to many different indigenous peoples. Today more than fifty different indigenous ethnic groups inhabit Venezuela. Most of them speak languages belonging to the Chibchan, Arawakan and Cariban languages families.

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Venezuela

The National Institute for Statistics (INE) does not collect religious statistics, and accurate reports are hard to obtain. Based on various studies, more than 95% of the population adheres to Christianity,[14] in which a huge segment of the population, between 81% and 90%, practices Roman Catholicism. About 1% of Venezuelans practice indigenous religions.

Under 1% practice Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Despite strong numbers of adherents, around 60% of respondents to a poll by El Tiempo report that they do not practice their faith actively.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Detailed Tables – American FactFinder
  2. ^ http://www.canalrcnmsn.com/noticias/venezolanos_se_encuentran_emigrando_hacia_colombia
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x http://www.ultimasnoticias.com.ve/infografias/venezolanos-en-el-exterior.aspx
  4. ^ ¿ Cuántos venezolanos hay en Canadá y en Québec?
  5. ^ http://www.syria-today.com/index.php/january-2009/105-society/375-suweida-sways-to-the-sound-of-salsa->
  6. ^ Approximate of venezuelans living in Japan
  7. ^ http://mlodzisocjalisci.salon24.pl/318549,rozmowa-z-szefem-misji-dyplomatycznej-wenezueli-w-polsce
  8. ^ "Resultado Básico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011 (Mayo 2014)" (PDF). Ine.gov.ve. p. 29. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  9. ^ http://www.ine.gob.ve/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=95&Itemid=26 Venezuelan population by 30/Jun/2014 is 30,206,2307 according National Institute of Stadistics
  10. ^ D'Ambrosio, B. L'emigrazione italiana nel Venezuela. Edizioni "Universitá degli Studi di Genova". Genova, 1981 Aspectos etnico-somaticos de la poblacion venezolana en 1981 (in Spanish)
  11. ^ Venezuela, The World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, updated 12 December 2006.
  12. ^ According to the 2011 Census, these places has concentrated more "white" population than other ethnic population. Check on the link "TABULADOS BÁSICOS POR ENTIDAD FEDERAL Y MUNICIPIOS" for more specific info
  13. ^ "Intute  – World Guide  – Venezuela". Retrieved 2007-03-08. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Religious Intelligence  – Country Profile: Venezuela (Bolivarian Republico of Colombia)". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-10-03. 
  15. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2005, by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State, November 8, 2005.