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For other uses, see Venison (disambiguation).
Venison steaks
Venison jerky strips prior to drying

Venison is a general term pertaining to the meat of a deer.[1] Venison can be used to refer to any part of the deer, so long as it can be consumed, including the flesh and internal organs. Venison, much like beef, is categorized into specific cuts, including roast, sirloin, and ribs.


The word derives from the Latin venari (to hunt or pursue).[2] This term entered English through Norman in the 11th century, following the Norman invasion of England, and the establishment of Royal Forests.


Venison originally described meat of any game animal killed by hunting,[3] and was applied to any animal from the families Cervidae (deer), Leporidae (hares), and Suidae (wild pigs), and certain species of the genus Capra (goats and ibex); however, in the northern hemisphere, the word's usage is now almost entirely restricted to the flesh of various species of deer.[citation needed]

In Southern Africa, the word venison refers to the meat of antelope.[4] There are no native Cervidae in sub-Saharan Africa.


Raw venison escalope.
Venison escalope
Reinsdyrsteik (reindeer roast), a Norwegian dish

Venison may be eaten as steaks, tenderloin, roasts, sausages, jerky and minced meat. It has a flavor reminiscent of beef, but is richer and can have a gamey note.[5] Venison tends to have a finer texture and is leaner than comparable cuts of beef.[6] However, like beef, leaner cuts can be tougher as well.

Organ meats of deer are eaten, but would not be called venison. Rather, they are called umbles (originally noumbles). This is supposedly the origins of the phrase "humble pie", literally a pie made from the organs of the deer.[7][8]

Venison is widely considered by modern nutritionists to be a very healthy meat. Since wild deer are not confined to limited spaces and eat a natural diet, their meat is natural and hormone free. Venison is higher in moisture, similar in protein and lower in calories, cholesterol and fat than most cuts of grain-fed beef, pork, or lamb.[9] When considering the environmental effects that result from raising livestock, deer meat is also a low-impact food.

Venison has enjoyed a rise in popularity in recent years,[citation needed] owing to the meat's lower fat content and other nutritional benefits.[citation needed] It can often be obtained at less cost than beef by hunting[citation needed] (in some areas of the US a doe license can cost as little as a few dollars); many families use it as a one-to-one substitute for beef, especially in the US mid-south, Midwest, Mississippi Valley and Appalachia.[citation needed] With the deer population in many areas reaching historic highs, many new people are taking up deer hunting specifically for the purpose of obtaining venison. Proper wild meat procurement requires accurate shooting, prompt field-dressing, effective skinning, and thorough butchering. In some areas, the increased demand for venison has also led to a rise in the number of deer farms.[citation needed]

Venison jerky can be purchased in some grocery stores or ordered online, and is served on some airlines.

Venison burgers are typically so lean as to require the addition of fat in the form of bacon, olive oil or cheese, or blending with beef, to achieve parity with hamburger cooking time, texture, and taste. Some deer breeders have expressed an interest in breeding for a fatter animal that displays more marbling in the meat.[citation needed]


Venison can be kosher, as deer are ruminants and possess completely split hooves, two of the requirements for mammals, and indeed is available kosher in places such as Israel, New York City, and Chicago. However, kosher venison is not available in the UK[citation needed].


Historically, venison was considered to be a status symbol among many Europeans. In England, for example, hunting rights were restricted in an effort to preserve property rights. As a result, the possession and sale of venison was tightly regulated under English law.[10] Venison is widely available in European supermarkets through the traditional hunting season, October to December. The main cuts available to European consumers are derived from the saddle and the hind leg.

North America[edit]

In the United States, venison is less common at retail due to the requirement that the animal be first inspected by USDA inspectors. There are very few abattoirs which process deer in North America, and most of this venison is destined for restaurants. Most venison sold through retail in the USA comes from New Zealand. It is available through some high end specialty grocers and some chains which focus on more 'natural' meats. Non-retail venison is often obtained through hunting and self-processing or contracting to small meat processing facilities to do the processing for the hunter, but sale of the finished meat is usually illegal.[11]

Possible health hazards[edit]

Since it is unknown whether chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy among deer (similar to mad cow disease), can pass from deer to humans through the consumption of venison, there have been some fears of contamination of the food supply.[12] Farmers have had tests developed especially for the particular species they raise to obtain better results than those used on cattle.


  1. ^ "Webster Dictionary". 
  2. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". 
  3. ^ "Venison - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". 31 August 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  4. ^ Bull, Gregory Simon (2007). Marketing fresh venison in the Eastern Cape Province using a niche marketing strategy (PDF) (M.Tech). Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. p. xcix. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  5. ^ Suzanne Driessen (November 10, 2003). "Wild Game Cookery: Venison". Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. 
  6. ^ "Nutritional and chemical composition of farmed venison - Aidoo - 2008 - Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics - Wiley Online Library". 28 June 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  8. ^ "New noumbles of Deer (recipe) - Cunnan". 10 June 2004. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  9. ^ Nutrient Database, NDB numbers 17348, 13434, 10023 and 17060
  10. ^ LaCombe, Michael (2012). Political Gastronomy: Food and Authority in the English Atlantic World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 84. 
  11. ^ Sterba, Jim (18 October 2013). "If Only Hunters Could Sell Venison". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 December 2014. 
  12. ^ Belay ED; Maddox RA; Williams ES; Miller MW; Gambetti P; Schonberger LB (June 2004). "Chronic Wasting Disease and Potential Transmission to Humans". Emerging Infectious Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 10 (6). Retrieved 2016-05-02. 

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