Art by Mike Mayhew
|First appearance||as "The Alien Costume": The Amazing Spider-Man #252 (May 1984)
Symbiote Origin Story: Secret Wars #8 (December 1984)
as Venom: The Amazing Spider-Man #300 (May 1988)
|Created by||Randy Schueller (original idea)
Mike Zeck (alien costume design)
Todd McFarlane (Venom's appearance)
|Alter ego||Peter Parker
|Notable aliases||Spider-Man, The Black Suit, Alien Costume|
Venom, or the Venom Symbiote, is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, commonly in association with Spider-Man. Venom was originally depicted as a supervillain when he made his full first appearance in The Amazing Spider-Man #300 (May 1988), but the character has since evolved into the role of an antihero. Venom is a symbiote, a sentient alien, with a gooey, almost liquid-like form. As with real world symbiotes, it requires a host, usually human, to bond with for its survival. After bonding, the symbiote endows its enhanced powers upon the host. When the Venom Symbiote bonds with a human, that new dual-life form refers to itself as "Venom."
The Venom Symbiote's first known host was Spider-Man, who eventually separated himself from the creature when he discovered its true nature. The Symbiote went on to merge with other hosts, most notably Eddie Brock, its second and most infamous host, with whom it first became Venom and one of Spider-Man's archenemies. According to S.H.I.E.L.D., it is considered one of the greatest threats to humanity, alongside Magneto, Doctor Doom, and Red Skull.
Comics journalist and historian Mike Conroy writes of the character: "What started out as a replacement costume for Spider-Man turned into one of the Marvel web-slinger's greatest nightmares." Venom was ranked as the 22nd Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time in IGN's list of the top 100 comic villains. IGN also ranked Mac Gargan's incarnation of Venom as #17 in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers", while the Flash Thompson incarnation was ranked as #27. The character was listed as #33 on Empire Magazine 's 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Powers and abilities
- 3 Other versions
- 4 In other media
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Conception and creation
The original idea of a new costume for Spider-Man that would later become the character Venom was conceived of by a Marvel Comics reader from Norridge, Illinois named Randy Schueller. Marvel purchased the idea for $220.00 after the editor-in-chief at the time, Jim Shooter, sent Schueller a letter acknowledging Marvel's desire to acquire the idea from him, in 1982. Schueller's design was then modified by Mike Zeck, becoming the Symbiote costume.
Shooter came up with the idea of switching Spider-Man to a black-and-white costume, possibly influenced by the intended costume design for the new Spider-Woman, with artists Mike Zeck and Rick Leonardi, as well as others, designing the black-and-white costume. Writer/artist John Byrne states on his website that the idea for a costume made of self-healing biological material was one he originated when he was the artist on Iron Fist to explain how that character's costume was constantly being torn and then apparently repaired by the next issue, explaining that he ended up not using the idea on that title, but that Roger Stern later asked him if he could use the idea for Spider-Man's alien costume. Stern in turn plotted the issue in which the costume first appeared but then left the title. It was writer Tom DeFalco and artist Ron Frenz who had established that the costume was a sentient alien being and also that it was vulnerable to high sonic energy during their run on The Amazing Spider-Man that preceded Michelinie's.
The symbiote first appeared in Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #8 (May 1984), in which writer Jim Shooter and artist Mike Zeck depicted the heroes and villains of the Marvel Universe transported to another planet called Battleworld by a being called the Beyonder. After Spider-Man's costume is ruined from battles with the villains, he is directed by Thor and the Hulk to a room at the heroes' base where they inform him a machine can read his thoughts and instantly fabricate any type of clothing. Choosing a machine he believes to be the correct one, Spider-Man causes a black sphere to appear before him, which spreads over his body, dissolving the tattered old costume and covering his body to form a new black and white costume. To Spider-Man's surprise, the costume can mimic street clothes and provides a seemingly inexhaustible and stronger supply of webbing.
Writer Tom DeFalco and artist Ron Frenz subsequently established that the costume was a sentient alien symbiote and also that it was vulnerable to both flame and high sonic energy during their run on The Amazing Spider-Man. It was in that storyline that the costume would envelop Peter Parker while he slept, and go out at night to fight crime, leaving Parker inexplicably exhausted in the morning. Parker had the costume examined by Reed Richards, who discovered that it was alive, and when Parker realized it was trying to permanently bond to Parker's body, he rejects it, and it is contained by the Fantastic Four. The Symbiote escapes and attacks Parker, who uses the sound waves from a cathedral's church bell to repel it.
David Michelinie would later write the backstory of Eddie Brock as the alien's new host that would become the villain Venom, using the events of Peter David's 1985 "Sin Eater" storyline in Spectacular Spider-Man as a basis for Brock's origin. Venom's existence was first indicated in Web of Spider-Man #18 (Sept. 1986), when he shoved Peter Parker in front of a subway train without Parker's spider-sense warning him, though only Brock's hand was seen on-panel. The next indication of Venom's existence was in Web of Spider-Man #24 (March 1987), when Parker had climbed out of a high story window to change into Spider-Man, but found a black arm coming through the window and grabbing him, again without being warned by his spider-sense. Venom made his cameo appearance on the last page of The Amazing Spider-Man #299 (April 1988), when he terrorized Parker's wife, Mary Jane Watson, and made his full appearance in The Amazing Spider-Man #300 (May 1988). Spider-Man would confront him in the following issue, when Brock reveals that he was a Daily Globe reporter who worked on the Sin-Eater case, and that his career was ruined when it was discovered that the man Brock announced as the Sin Eater was a compulsive confessor. Forced to eke out a living writing lurid stories for venomous tabloids, Brock blamed Spider-Man for his predicament. He took up bodybuilding to reduce stress. It failed to do so, and Brock sank into a suicidal depression. Seeking solace at the church where Spider-Man repelled the symbiote, the symbiote, sensing Brock's hatred for Spider-Man, bonded with the disgraced reporter. Brock took on the name Venom in reference to the sensationalistic material he was forced to traffic in following his fall from grace.
Over the years, as the Symbiote gained more intelligence and moved to additional human hosts, the name began to apply to the Symbiote as well as its hosts. As Venom, Brock fights Spider-Man many times, winning on several occasions. Venom repeatedly tries to kill Peter Parker/Spider-Man—both when the latter was in and out of costume. Thus Parker is forced to abandon his "black costume," which the Symbiote had been mimicking, after Venom confronts Parker's wife Mary Jane.
Venom escapes from the supervillain prison, The Vault, to torment Spider-Man and his family. The Symbiote is finally rendered comatose after being subdued by Styx's plague virus, and Eddie Brock is subsequently placed in Ryker's Island Prison. When the Symbiote recovers and returns to free Brock, it leaves a spawn to bond with Brock's psychotic serial-killer cellmate Cletus Kasady, who becomes Carnage. Meanwhile, Venom and Spider-Man fight on a deserted island, and Spider-Man strands Venom there after faking his own death. Soon after, however, Spider-Man brings Venom back to New York in order to stop Carnage's killing spree. After being incarcerated once again, Venom is used to create five new Symbiotes, which are all paired with human hosts.
As well as helping Eddie Brock to seek continued revenge against Spider-Man, the Symbiote also aids Brock in a sporadic career as a vigilante. He and the Symbiote occasionally share a desire to protect innocent people from harm, even if it means working side-by-side with the hated Spider-Man. This is especially true when Venom combats the entity he believes to be his spawn, Carnage. When Spider-Man helps Venom save Brock's ex-wife Ann Weying, the two form a temporary truce, though this falls apart after Weying's suicide.
The symbiote is temporarily stolen by U.S. Senator Steward Ward, who hopes to better understand his own alien infection by researching the symbiote before it returns to Brock. Now, however, it dominates its host, Brock, rather than vice versa. Eventually, Eddie Brock and the Symbiote go their separate ways as the Symbiote grows tired of having a diseased host and Eddie rejects its growing bloodlust, leading him to sell the Symbiote at a super villain auction.
The creature that would become Venom was born to a race of extraterrestrial symbiotes, which lived by possessing the bodies of other life-forms. The parasites would endow their victims with enhanced physical abilities, at the cost of fatally draining them of adrenaline.[volume & issue needed] According to the 1995 "Planet of the Symbiotes" storyline, the Venom Symbiote was deemed insane by its own race after it was discovered that it desired to commit to its host rather than use it up. The Symbiote was then imprisoned on Battleworld to ensure it did not pollute the species' gene pool.[volume & issue needed]
The Venom Symbiote approaches Mac Gargan, the villain formerly known as Scorpion, and offered him new abilities as the second Venom. Gargan bonded with the creature, which would later give him an extra edge as part of Norman Osborn's Sinister Twelve. As the Avengers dealt with the rest of the Twelve, Spider-Man swiftly defeated Gargan, even with these additional powers, which Spider-Man suggests is attributed to the fact that Mac Gargan does not hate Spider-Man as much as Eddie Brock did. Gargan later became a member of a sub-group of the Thunderbolts, which was drafted by the Avengers to hunt down the members of the fugitive New Avengers. It was then revealed that he had been outfitted with electrical implants by the government to keep the Symbiote in check. When in the Venom persona, Gargan retained very little of his original personality and was controlled almost completely by the Symbiote, which drove him to cannibalism. When the Symbiote was dormant in his body, he expressed nausea and fear of the organism. During a fight with "Anti-Venom" (Eddie Brock), he and his Symbiote were separated, and the Venom Symbiote was nearly destroyed. Blobs of it still existed in his bloodstream, however, so Osborn injected Gargan with a vaccine for Anti-Venom's healing powers, which restored the Symbiote by causing the remaining pieces of it to expand rapidly. Gargan dons a Scorpion battle armor over the Symbiote while it heals, causing him to become what Spider-Man calls "Ven-orpion" although when the Symbiote is fully restored it shatters the armor.[volume & issue needed]
After ingesting a chemical given to him by Norman Osborn, Venom transforms into a more human appearance similar to the Black-Suited Spider-Man. Osborn introduces him as The Amazing Spider-Man, a member of the Dark Avengers, while unveiling the team. After the Siege of Asgard, Gargan and most of the Dark Avengers were taken into custody. While being held on the Raft, the Venom Symbiote was forcefully removed from him, ending his career as Venom.
On December 9, 2010, Marvel Comics announced a new "black ops" Venom owned by the government. The new Venom will be featured in a new series called Venom in March 2011. The birth of the new Venom can be seen in The Amazing Spider-Man #654 in February 2011. On January 28, 2011, the identity of "black ops" Venom was revealed to be Flash Thompson. Flash is hired by the government to be a special agent wearing the Venom symbiote. Flash is only allowed to wear the suit for up to 48 hours, or risk a permanent bonding with the symbiote. The Government is also equipped with a "kill switch" designed to take Flash out if he loses control. Along with the alien, Flash is equipped with a "Multi-Gun" designed to change into any type of gun Flash needs. Flash has battled Jack-o-Lantern, fought to stop Anti-Vibranium, and fought Kraven the Hunter in the Savage Land.
Ann Weying first appears in The Amazing Spider-Man #375. She is Eddie Brock's ex-wife and a successful lawyer. Weying assists Spider-Man by sharing some of Brock's history. Later, she follows Spider-Man to the amusement park where Venom had Peter's (fake) parents. She confronts Brock and manages to convince him to end his feud. After Sin-Eater shoots Ann as part of a crusade against social injustice, Ann becomes She-Venom when the Venom Symbiote temporarily bonds with her to save her life. She-Venom lashes out against the men who had hurt her, and Brock becomes afraid for her (and of her) and compels the symbiote to return to him. Ann is left distraught at her actions while bonded. Later Ann is arrested on a false charge as part of a trap for Venom. She manages to warn Brock who sends the symbiote to her, allowing her to become She-Venom and escape custody. Some time later, Ann, traumatized by her experiences with Venom and the symbiote, commits suicide after seeing Spider-Man pass by her window in a black costume, believing it is Brock returning for her.
The story follows U.S. Army communication specialist Patricia Robertson. During a supply run to an Ararat Corporation owned outpost she discovers everyone at the installation dead except for one scientist. It is revealed that the Ararat Corporation is run by an alien colony of miniature spider robots led by an entity named Bob, that have infiltrated the American government. The Ararat Corporation has cloned Venom to facilitate the extermination of humanity, but the clone ravages its hosts. The clone is responsible for the death of the outpost crew.
Robertson finds an ally in the Suit, a mysterious individual made of the same miniature robots as Bob, revealed to have been accidentally brought to Earth by Reed Richards. The suit modifies Robertson while she is unconscious to allow her to control the clone if it bonds with her. The Suit sabotages Wolverine, the clones favored host, forcing it to bond with Robertson. One of Bob's agents convinces Robertston to kill the real Venom to save humanity, causing her to free the incarcerated Venom. She and Venom fight, but Venom escapes. Bob remotely deactivates the technology allowing Robertson to control the clone forcing her to rely on willpower. Later, Robertson and Venom again fight, and Venom absorbs the clone. Venom decides to carry out the clone's mission given to it by the Ararat corporation. The series did not continue and the plot remained unresolved as of 2012.
Angelo Fortunato first appeared in Marvel Knights Spider-Man #7 and was killed in issue #8. Angelo is the son of Don Fortunato, a prominent Mafia capo. His frail physique and shy attitude leave Angelo frequently bullied and humiliated by his father. Don attends a supervillain auction and purchases the Venom symbiote from Brock for $100 million. Brock warns Angelo of the symbiote, but Angelo rebuffs that he has nothing to lose. After bonding with the symbiote, Angelo discovers the secret identity of Spider-Man, and attempts to kill him to prove his worth. Spider-Man ultimately defeats Angelo and when he tries to escape, the symbiote abandons Angelo for his cowardice while he is leaping between buildings, leaving him to fall to his death.
Angelo appears in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance as a Marvel Knights skin for Venom. In the Game Boy Advance version of Spider-Man 3, Eddie Brock dies in a similar manner to Fortunato, having the Symbiote abandon him in mid-fall.
In Deadpool's Secret Secret Wars #3, it's revealed that Deadpool wore the symbiote costume before Spider-Man put it on in the original Secret Wars event, and it implies that the reason for the symbiote's aggressive behavior towards taking over Spider-Man was a result of its bondage with Deadpool driving it insane.
Powers and abilities
Though it requires a living host in order to survive, the Venom Symbiote has been shown to be adept at fending for itself independent of a host. The Symbiote is capable of shapeshifting abilities, including the ability to form spikes or expand its size, as well as mimic the appearance of other humanoids after it has obtained a host. The organism can additionally use its shape-shifting abilities to conceal itself by altering its coloration or by becoming completely invisible. It also contains a small "dimensional aperture," allowing its hosts to carry items without adding mass to the costume. The Symbiote also exhibits telepathic abilities, primarily when it needs to communicate with its host.
Because of its contact with Spider-Man, the Symbiote grants all of its subsequent hosts that hero's powers and cannot be detected by his spider-sense. As Spider-Man's fighting style is partly dependent on his spider-sense, his effectiveness was somewhat hampered when he battled Eddie Brock. Retaining its memory from the time it was bonded with Spider-man, Venom is also capable of producing webbing similar to Spider-man's own variety created from itself.
Venom exhibits some immunities to the supernatural powers of others such as the Penance Stare of Ghost Rider or Spider-Man's extrasensory spider-sense. Venom with all his force is able to lift 13 tons. Some incarnations of the Venom Symbiote have shown it able to replicate itself. This ability is shown in the 2005-2006 miniseries Spider-Man: Reign, when Venom recreates his own Symbiote to combat his loneliness. This ability is also used by Venom in Spider-Man: Web of Shadows when he discovers the ability to copy his Symbiote and uses it to take over Manhattan.
The Venom Symbiote is vulnerable to fire and sonic waves, causing it great pain and exhaustion if it sustains enough exposure. It can sense and track all of its offspring symbiotes except Carnage, who learned how to block this ability shortly after bonding with Cletus Kasady and confronting Venom/Eddie Brock for the first time.
As a fictional character, Venom has appeared in a number of media, from comic books to films and television series. Each version of the work typically establishes its own continuity, and sometimes introduces parallel universes, to the point where distinct differences in the portrayal of the character can be identified. This article details various versions of Venom depicted in works including Marvel Comics' Ultimate universe and What If issues.
In other media
- Venom appeared in the Spider-Man animated series, with Spider-Man voiced by Christopher Daniel Barnes and Eddie Brock voiced by Hank Azaria. At the end of "The Alien Costume: Part Two", Brock becomes Venom after Spider-Man rejects the symbiote. At the end of "The Alien Costume: Part Three", Venom was defeated. Venom's last appearance was in Season Three, where he teams up with Spider-Man and Iron Man against Carnage, Dormammu and Baron Mordo.
- The Eddie Brock incarnation of Venom appears as an antagonist in Spider-Man Unlimited, voiced by Brian Drummond.
- Venom appears in The Spectacular Spider-Man, with Spider-Man voiced by Josh Keaton and Eddie Brock voiced by Benjamin Diskin. In the episode "The Uncertainly Principle", the symbiote arrives on Earth by stowing away on the space shuttle. After being rejected by Spider-Man, it bonds with Eddie in the episode "Intervention", and is ultimately defeated in the episode "Nature vs. Nurture". Venom reappeared in the Season Two episodes "First Steps", "Growing Pains" and "Identity Crisis", where he attempts to expose Spider-Man's secret identity but his plans are foiled.
||This article's plot summary may be too long or excessively detailed. (March 2015)|
- Venom appears in the Ultimate Spider-Man animated series as a recurring story element, with Harry Osborn voiced by Matt Lanter and Goblin-Venom voiced by Steven Weber. In the episode "Venom", Doctor Octopus creates the Venom symbiote from a sample of Spider-Man's blood. After it escapes from its creators, it temporarily fuses with a number of characters: Flash Thompson, Nova, Power Man, Iron Fist and finally Spider-Man. Harry uses the organism in the episode "Back in Black" to dress in the Black Suit Spidey and attracts positive public attention. However, Harry gradually turns into Venom until Spider-Man electrifies the suit off Harry. In the episode "Venomous", the Venom symbiote takes control of Harry again but Spider-Man and the other heroes are able to free him thank to an Anti-Venom. Venom reappears in the episode "Rise of the Goblin" with Harry still as its host. Harry manages to shake off the Venom suit via electricity, providing Green Goblin to take the suit and vowing to find someone more deserving. In the episode "Carnage", Green Goblin kidnaps and forcibly injects Peter Parker with the Goblin/Venom formula which transforms the boy into Carnage. When Carnage defeats Spider-Man's team and attempts to kill them, Harry stops Carnage then rebonds with the symbiote which reverts into its original Venom form. Venom finds and attacks Green Goblin, intending to kill his father. However, Peter manages to convince Harry to get rid of the symbiote to which S.H.I.E.L.D. manages to capture to ensure that it won't cause any more harm. In the episode "Venom Bomb", Green Goblin unleashes a small piece of the Venom symbiote that he kept with him that reunites with its other half. After breaking free of its containment, the Venom symbiote proceeds to bond itself with nearly everyone on the S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier. Green Goblin later bonds with the Venom symbiote but maintains control over himself as Goblin-Venom. Spider-Man has a lengthily battle with Goblin-Venom but Doctor Octopus eventually creates another Anti-Venom that saves the S.H.I.E.L.D. personnel as well as separating the Venom symbiote from Green Goblin and also turned the host back to normal. Separated from its host, the Venom symbiote is presumably destroyed by Spider-Man in space. However, Doctor Octopus's Spider-Soldiers in the episode "Second Chance Hero" are an amalgam of Venom-like drones and OsCorp's armor technology. The Spider-Soldiers fight Iron Patriot and Spider-Man. While Spider-Man takes Harry away to safety, the Spider-Soldiers are destroyed by Iron Patriot. Flash's Agent Venom persona will appear during the third season.
- Venom appears in the summer 2013 animated special Phineas and Ferb: Mission Marvel, voiced by Danny Trejo.
- Venom appears in the Hulk and the Agents of S.M.A.S.H. episode "The Venom Inside", voiced by Benjamin Diskin (Skaar), Eliza Dushku (She-Hulk), Clancy Brown (Red Hulk) and Fred Tatasciore (Hulk). Doctor Octopus creates a new version of the symbiote that gradually assimilates Skaar, She-Hulk, Red Hulk and finally the Hulk to help dominate but also to destroy Spider-Man. However, the Hulks and Spider-Man eventually manage to defeat the Venom symbiote but it's unknown if the organism is still alive.
- Venom appears in Lego Marvel Super Heroes: Maximum Overload voiced by Dee Bradley Baker.
- Venom's first appearance in a motion picture was originally planned for a titular film written by David S. Goyer and produced by New Line Cinema, in which Venom would have been portrayed as an antihero and Carnage as the antagonist. By 2007, the film rights to Venom had reverted to Sony.
- The Eddie Brock version of Venom appears as an antagonist in the 2007 feature film Spider-Man 3, played by Topher Grace. In the film, the symbiote, after being rejected by Peter Parker, joins with Brock after the rival freelance photographer is exposed by Parker to have used a fake photograph, which ruins him publicly. Venom seeks an alliance with Sandman to kill Spider-Man, but is thwarted in his plans, and killed by one of the New Goblin's pumpkin bombs.
- In July 2007, Avi Arad revealed a spin-off was in the planning stages. In September 2008, Paul Wernick and Rhett Reese signed on to write, while Gary Ross will direct. Variety reported that Venom will become an anti-hero, and Marvel Entertainment will produce the film. In March 2012, Chronicle director Josh Trank negotiated with Sony about his interest in directing the film. In December 2013, Sony announced two spin-offs of the Amazing Spider-Man film series, which are Venom and Sinister Six with Alex Kurtzman, Roberto Orci and Ed Solomon writing and Kurtzman directing the film. Kurtzman told Comic Book Resources that they are considering different incarnations of the character. Venom's symbiote also appears in The Amazing Spider-Man 2 in the Oscorp building right after the container that has Vulture's wings.
- Eddie Brock/Venom appears in "Truth in Journalism", a short film by producer Adi Shankar and director Joe Lynch, starring Ryan Kwanten as Brock. The film is described as "a darkly comic combination of 1980s era Spider-Man comics and the cult Belgian mockumentary Man Bites Dog".
Venom is a playable character and boss character in a number of video games across several platforms.
- Venom first appears as a boss character in the 1993 Mega-CD/Sega CD version of The Amazing Spider-Man vs. The Kingpin in which he kidnaps Mary Jane Watson.
- Venom is both a protagonist and playable character in Spider-Man and Venom: Maximum Carnage (1994) and Venom/Spider-Man: Separation Anxiety (1995).
- Venom appears as one of the bosses in The Amazing Spider-Man: Lethal Foes (1995).
- Venom appears as the last boss in Spider-Man (1995).
- Venom is a boss and later a supporting character in the Spider-Man (2000) video game, voiced by Daran Norris.
- The Venom symbiote appears as an unlockable costume for Spider-Man in X-Men: Mutant Academy 2 (2001).
- Ultimate Venom is a playable character in the Ultimate Spider-Man video game (2005), with Eddie Brock Jr. voiced by Daniel Capallaro and Venom voiced by Arthur Burghardt.
- Venom is a playable character in a number of fighting games, including Marvel vs. Capcom: Clash of Super Heroes (1998), Marvel vs. Capcom 2: New Age of Heroes (2000) (voiced by Rod Wilson) and Marvel Nemesis: Rise of the Imperfects (2005) (voiced by an unknown voice actor).
- The Eddie Brock version of Venom is the final boss in Spider-Man 3 (2007), voiced by Topher Grace.
- The Eddie Brock version of Venom appears in Spider-Man: Friend or Foe (2007), voiced by Quinton Flynn. He is one of the most powerful partners in the game.
- Venom serves as the main antagonist of Spider-Man: Web of Shadows (2008), voiced by Keith Szarabajka. During this game, part of his Symbiote leaves him and bonds with Spider-Man. He later starts making replicas of the Symbiote, in an invasion of New York City.
- The Eddie Brock incarnation of Venom is included in the downloadable "Villains Pack" expansion for the Xbox 360 version of Marvel: Ultimate Alliance (2006), voiced by Steven Blum. Venom has his Classic, Marvel Knights, Thunderbolts and Ultimate looks as alternate skins. The Venom costume also available as alternate attire for Spider-Man.
- The Mac Gargan incarnation of Venom appears as a playable character in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2 (2009), voiced by Chopper Bernet. Eddie Brock's version is an alternate costume.
- Venom is available as downloadable content for the game LittleBigPlanet as part of "Marvel Costume Kit 3".
- In Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions (2010) Ultimate Spider-Man (voiced by Josh Keaton) is provided a copy of the Venom suit that Madame Web telepathically controls.
- The Eddie Brock incarnation of Venom appears as a villain character in Marvel Super Hero Squad Online (2011), voiced again by Steven Blum. The Black Suit Spidey costume is also an alternate costume for Spider-Man.
- Two versions of the black suit appear as an optional costume in The Amazing Spider-Man (2012), based on its appearance in the Spider-Man 3 film, and a modified version of Spider-Man's costume from 2012 The Amazing Spider-Man film. Backstory for the game also reveals that the game version of Scorpion is based on a "black goo" recovered from space.
- The Eddie Brock incarnation of Venom appears as a playable character in the fighting game Marvel Avengers: Battle for Earth (2012), voiced by Roger Craig Smith.
- In Marvel Heroes (2013), the Eddie Brock incarnation of Venom (voiced by Neil Kaplan) appears as a villain character, while the Symbiote Spider-Man (voiced by Christopher Daniel Barnes) appears as alternate costume for Spider-Man.
- Venom appears as playable character in Lego Marvel Super Heroes (2013), voiced by Dave Boat. The Eddie Brock incarnation and the Ultimate version are different attires for Venom. Also, the Black Suit Spidey is an alternate costume for Spider-Man.
- Venom appears as a villain in the iOS/Android version of the 2014 game The Amazing Spider-Man 2.
- Venom appears as a playable character in Disney Infinity: Marvel Super Heroes in the Spider-Man playset.
- Venom is included as a collectible figure from the board game Heroscape featured in a Marvel crossover set.
- , "Amazing Spider-man #300 Vol 1", Comics Price Guide, accessed February 20, 2015. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "ComicsPriceGuide" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "VENOM: DARK ORIGIN #5 - Marvel Comics Catalog: The Official Site - Iron Man, Hulk, Spider-Man, X-Men, Wolverine and all Marvel Comics and Graphic Novels | Marvel Comics Catalog". Marvel.com. 2008-12-31. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Mark Millar (w), Terry Dodson (p), Rachel Dodson (i). "Venomous, Part 3 of 4" Marvel Knights Spider-Man 7 (December 2004), Marvel Comics
- Conroy, Mike. 500 Comicbook Villains, pp.358, Collins & Brown, 2004.
- Goldstein, Hilary (2006-02-01). "Spider-Man villain poll". IGN. Retrieved 2006-10-01.
- "Venom is number 22". IGN. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "The Top 50 Avengers". IGN. April 30, 2012. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "The Top 50 Avengers". IGN. April 30, 2012. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "Empire | The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters". Empireonline.com. 2006-12-05. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
- Cronin, Brian (May 16, 2007). "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed Extra: Randy Schueller’s Brush With Comic History |". Comic Book Resources.
- August 3, 1982 letter from Jim Shooter to Randy Schueller. Comic Book Resources. Retrieved November 21, 2011
- David, Peter (June 4, 1993). "The Wacko Theory", Comics Buyer's Guide, Reprinted in the collection But I Digress (1994). pp. 104-106 Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "PeterDavid" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Byrne, John. "How is it that JB "created" Venom?". "Frequently Asked Questions". Byrne Robotics, accessed July 2, 2011.
- Shooter, Jim (w), Zeck, Mike (p), Beatty, John; Abel, Jack; Esposito, Mike (i). "Invasion!" Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars 1 (December 1984), Marvel Comics
- "Venom: The Sordid History of Spider-Man's Black Costume". Marvel Comics. November 29, 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Tom DeFalco (w), Ron Frenz (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). ""The Sinister Secret of Spider-Man's New Costume"" The Amazing Spider-Man 258 (November 1984), Marvel Comics
- Byrne, John. "How is it that JB "created" Venom?". "Frequently Asked Questions". Byrne Robotics. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- Fantastic Four 274 (November 1984), Marvel Comics
- Simonson, Louise (w), LaRocque, Greg (p), Mooney, Jim (i). "Til Death Do Us Part!" Web of Spider-Man (April 1985), Marvel Comics
- David Michelinie (w), Todd McFarlane (a). "Venom" The Amazing Spider-Man 300 (May 1988), Marvel Comics
- "(Eddie Brock) - Marvel Universe: The definitive online source for Marvel super hero bios". Marvel.com. 2009-09-15. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- David Michelenie (w), Todd McFarlane (a). "Survival of the Hittist" The Amazing Spider-Man 299 (April 1988), Marvel Comics
- David Michelenie (w), Todd McFarlane (a). "A Matter of Life and Debt!" The Amazing Spider-Man 315 (May 1989), Marvel Comics
- David Michelinie (w), Todd McFarlane (a). "The Sand and the Fury!" The Amazing Spider-Man 317 (July 1989), Marvel Comics
- David Michelinie (w), Erik Larsen (p), Mike Machlan (i). "Stalking Feat!" The Amazing Spider-Man 333 (July 1990), Marvel Comics
- David Michelinie (w), Erik Larsen and Mark Bagley (p), Randy Emberlin (i). The Amazing Spider-Man 344-345 (February–March 1991), Marvel Comics
- David Michelinie (w), Erik Larsen (p), Randy Emberlin (i). "The Boneyard Hop!" The Amazing Spider-Man 347 (May 1991), Marvel Comics
- David Michelinie (w), Mark Bagley (p), Randy Emberlin (i). "Carnage" The Amazing Spider-Man 361-363 (April–June 1992), Marvel Comics
- David Michelinie (w), Mark Bagley (p), Sam de la Rosa and Allen 'Al' Milgrom (i). "Lethal Protector, Part 1: Darksoul Drifting" Venom: Lethal Protector 1 (February 1993), Marvel Comics
- David Michelinie (w), Mark Bagley (p), Randy Emberlin (i). "Spidey Vs. Venom: The Final Confrontation!" The Amazing Spider-Man 375 (March 1993), Marvel Comics
- Howard Mackie (w), Erik Larsen (p), John Beatty (i). "Mirror Mirror" The Amazing Spider-Man v2, 19 (July 2000), Marvel Comics
- Howard Mackie (w), John Romita, Jr. (p), Scott Hanna (i). "The Distinguished Gentleman From New York Part 1" The Amazing Spider-Man v2, 22 (October 2000), Marvel Comics
- Peter Sanderson (w). Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe: Spider-Man. 2004
- Mark Millar (w), Terry Dodson (p), Rachel Dodson (i). "The Last Stand, Part 1 of 4" Marvel Knights Spider-Man 9 (February 2005), Marvel Comics
- Mark Millar (w), Terry Dodson (p), Rachel Dodson (i). "The Last Stand, Part 2 of 4" Marvel Knights Spider-Man 10 (March 2005), Marvel Comics
- Mark Millar (w), Terry Dodson (p), Rachel Dodson (i). "The Last Stand, Part 3 of 4" Marvel Knights Spider-Man 11 (April 2005), Marvel Comics
- Mark Millar (w), Steve McNiven (p), Dexter Vines (i). "Civil War, Part Four of Seven" Civil War 4 (October 2006), Marvel Comics
- Leinil Francis Yu (a), Tom Brevoort, Molly Lazer and Joe Quesada (ed). Civil War: Choosing Sides 1 (December 2006), Marvel Comics
- Heroes for Hire Vol. 2 #2
- Warren Ellis (w), Mike Deodato (a). Thunderbolts 112 (May 2007), Marvel Comics
- Brian Michael Bendis (w), Mike Deodato (a). Dark Avengers 1 (March 2009), Marvel Comics
- Dan Slott (w), Humberto Ramos (p), Carlos Lobo Cuevas (i). The Amazing Spider-Man 648 (January 2011), Marvel Comics
- "New Venom". IGN. 2010-12-09. Retrieved 2010-12-09.
- "The Next Big Thing: Venom". Retrieved 2011-02-01.
- "New Venom Identity REVEALED". ifanboy.com. 2011-01-28. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
- Rick Remender (w), Tony Moore and Tom Fowler (p), Tony Moore, Crimelab! Studios, Sandu Florea, Karl Kesel and Tom Fowler (i). Venom 1-3 (May - July 2011)
- Venom #1
- Venom #8
- Venom #10
- Venom #17
- Mark Millar (w), Terry Dodson (p), Rachel Dodson (i). "Venomous, Part 4 of 4" Marvel Knights Spider-Man 8 (January 2005), Marvel Comics
- Daniel Way (w), Francisco Herrera (p), Carlos Lobo Cuevas (i). "Patterns. Part 2" Venom 12 (2003), Marvel Comics
- Mozzocco, J. Caleb (January 10, 2012). "'Ultimate Spider-Man' Cartoon to Kick Off Disney XD Marvel Programming Block April 1". Comics Alliance.
- "Venom". Ultimate Spider-Man. Season 1. Episode 4. April 15, 2012. Disney XD.
- Arrant, Chris (July 20, 2013). "DisneyXD's ULTIMATE SPIDER-MAN Renewed For 3rd Season, HULK-S.M.A.S.H. Clip". Newsarama.
- "Phineas and Ferb: Mission Marvel Preview". Marvel.com. July 18, 2012. Archived from the original on August 31, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- Goldman, Eric (June 28, 2013). "Phineas and Ferb: Mission Marvel Debut Date Announced". IGN.
- Bibbiani, William (March 7, 2012). "Sony Wants Josh Trank to Direct 'Venom'". CraveOnline.
- Paul Fischer (2007-07-24). "Interview: Avi Arad for "Bratz"". Dark Horizons. Archived from the original on 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Leslie Simmons (2008-09-06). "Two more films on the way". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 2008-09-10. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- Fleming, Michael (October 7, 2009). "Gary Ross takes on 'Venom'". Variety.
- Fleming, Mike. "More Details on the Ross 'Venom' Film". Variety. October 7, 2009
- Fleming, Mike (March 19, 2012). "Chronicle Helmer Josh Trank Lands on the Red Star". deadline.com.
- Patten, Dominic (December 13, 2013). "Sony Sets Spider-Man Spinoffs ‘Venom,’ ‘Sinister Six’ With New "Franchise Brain Trust"". Deadline. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
- Huver, Scott (September 16, 2014). "Alex Kurtzman on the Real Genius of ‘Scorpion,’ the Hard Choices of ‘Venom’". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved September 16, 2014.
- Frappier, Rob (August 1, 2013). "Venom ‘Truth in Journalism’ Short Film & Interview with Producer Adi Shankar". Screen Rant.
- "The Venom Site: Video Games - Venom".
- "Marvel Costume Kit 3". Sony. Archived from the original on December 30, 2012. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- "Venom - LittleBigPlanet™". Littlebigplanet.com. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
- Conditt, Jessica (May 26, 2013). "Lego Marvel Super Heroes adds Venom, Human Torch to the roster". Joystiq.
- Venom (Eddie Brock) at the Comic Book DB
- Venom (Angelo Fortunato) at the Comic Book DB
- Venom (Mac Gargan) at the Comic Book DB
- Venom (Flash Thompson) at the Comic Book DB
- History of the alien costume on Marvel.com
- List of Venom Comics at TheVenomSite.com
- "Venom (Angelo Fortunate; Spider-Man foe)". The Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe
- Synopsis and Reviews of the Venom 2003 Series at Spiderfan.org