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Developer(s)IDRIX (based in Paris, France)[1]
Initial releaseJune 22, 2013; 9 years ago (2013-06-22)
Stable release1.25.9 (February 19, 2022; 9 months ago (2022-02-19)[2]) [±]
Written inC, C++, Assembly
Operating system
PlatformIA-32, x86-64, AArch64 and armhf
Available in40 languages[3]
TypeDisk encryption software
LicenseMulti-licensed as Apache License 2.0 and TrueCrypt License 3.0[4]

VeraCrypt is a free and open-source utility for on-the-fly encryption (OTFE).[5] The software can create a virtual encrypted disk that works just like a regular disk but within a file. It can also encrypt a partition[6] or (in Windows) the entire storage device with pre-boot authentication.[7]

VeraCrypt is a fork of the discontinued TrueCrypt project.[8] It was initially released on 22 June 2013. Many security improvements have been implemented and concerns within the TrueCrypt code audits have been addressed. VeraCrypt includes optimizations to the original cryptographic hash functions and ciphers, which boost performance on modern CPUs.

Encryption scheme[edit]

VeraCrypt employs AES, Serpent, Twofish, Camellia, and Kuznyechik as ciphers. Version 1.19 stopped using the Magma cipher in response to a security audit.[9] For additional security, ten different combinations of cascaded algorithms are available:[10]

  • AES–Twofish
  • AES–Twofish–Serpent
  • Camellia–Kuznyechik
  • Camellia–Serpent
  • Kuznyechik–AES
  • Kuznyechik–Serpent–Camellia
  • Kuznyechik–Twofish
  • Serpent–AES
  • Serpent–Twofish–AES
  • Twofish–Serpent

The cryptographic hash functions available for use in VeraCrypt are RIPEMD-160, SHA-256, SHA-512, Streebog and Whirlpool.[11]

VeraCrypt's block cipher mode of operation is XTS.[12] It generates the header key and the secondary header key (XTS mode) using PBKDF2 with a 512-bit salt. By default they go through 200,000 to 655,331 iterations, depending on the underlying hash function used.[13] The user can customize it to start as low as 2,048.[13]

Security improvements[edit]

  • The VeraCrypt development team considered the TrueCrypt storage format too vulnerable to a National Security Agency (NSA) attack, so it created a new format incompatible with that of TrueCrypt. VeraCrypt is still capable of opening and converting volumes in the TrueCrypt format.[14][15]
  • An independent security audit of TrueCrypt released 29 September 2015 found TrueCrypt includes two vulnerabilities in the Windows installation driver allowing an attacker arbitrary code execution and privilege escalation via DLL hijacking.[16] This was fixed in VeraCrypt in January 2016.[17]
  • While TrueCrypt uses 1,000 iterations of the PBKDF2-RIPEMD160 algorithm for system partitions, VeraCrypt uses either 200,000 or 327,661 iterations by default (which is customizable by user to be as low as 2,048), depending on the algorithm used.[13] For standard containers and other partitions, VeraCrypt uses 655,331 iterations of RIPEMD160 and 500,000 iterations of SHA-2 and Whirlpool by default (which is customizable by user to be as low as 16,000).[13] While these default settings make VeraCrypt slower at opening encrypted partitions, it also makes password-guessing attacks slower.[18]
  • Additionally, since version 1.12, a new feature called "Personal Iterations Multiplier" (PIM) provides a parameter whose value is used to control the number of iterations used by the header key derivation function, thereby making brute-force attacks potentially even more difficult. Veracrypt out of the box uses a reasonable PIM value to improve security,[19] but users can provide a higher value to enhance security. The primary downside of this feature is that it makes the process of opening encrypted archives even slower.[19][20][21][22]
  • A vulnerability in the bootloader was fixed on Windows and various optimizations were made as well. The developers added support for SHA-256 to the system boot encryption option and also fixed a ShellExecute security issue. Linux and macOS users benefit from support for hard drives with sector sizes larger than 512. Linux also received support for the NTFS formatting of volumes.
  • Unicode passwords are supported on all operating systems since version 1.17 (except for system encryption on Windows).[14]
  • VeraCrypt added the capability to boot system partitions using UEFI in version 1.18a.[14]
  • Option to enable/disable support for the TRIM command for both system and non-system drives was added in version 1.22.[14]
  • Erasing the system encryption keys from RAM during shutdown/reboot helps mitigate some cold boot attacks, added in version 1.24.[14]
  • RAM encryption for keys and passwords on 64-bit systems was added in version 1.24.[14]

VeraCrypt audit[edit]

QuarksLab conducted an audit of version 1.18 on behalf of the Open Source Technology Improvement Fund (OSTIF), which took 32 man-days. The auditor published the results on 17 October 2016.[14][23][24] On the same day, IDRIX released version 1.19, which resolved major vulnerabilities identified in the audit.[25]

Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information Technology (SIT) conducted another audit in 2020, following a request by Germany's Federal Office for Information Security (BSI), and published the results in October 2020.[26][27]

Security precautions[edit]

There are several kinds of attacks to which all software-based disk encryption is vulnerable. As with TrueCrypt, the VeraCrypt documentation instructs users to follow various security precautions to mitigate these attacks,[28][29] several of which are detailed below.

Encryption keys stored in memory[edit]

VeraCrypt Boot Loader

VeraCrypt stores its keys in RAM; on some personal computers DRAM will maintain its contents for several seconds after power is cut (or longer if the temperature is lowered). Even if there is some degradation in the memory contents, various algorithms may be able to recover the keys. This method, known as a cold boot attack (which would apply in particular to a notebook computer obtained while in power-on, suspended, or screen-locked mode), was successfully used to attack a file system protected by TrueCrypt versions 4.3a and 5.0a in 2008.[30] With version 1.24, VeraCrypt added the option of encrypting the in-RAM keys and passwords on x64 editions of Windows, with a CPU overhead of less than 10%, and the option of erasing all encryption keys from memory when a new device is connected.[14]

Tampered hardware[edit]

VeraCrypt documentation states that VeraCrypt is unable to secure data on a computer if an attacker physically accessed it and VeraCrypt is then used on the compromised computer by the user again. This does not affect the common case of a stolen, lost, or confiscated computer.[31] The attacker having physical access to a computer can, for example, install a hardware or a software keylogger, a bus-mastering device capturing memory or install any other malicious hardware or software, allowing the attacker to capture unencrypted data (including encryption keys and passwords) or to decrypt encrypted data using captured passwords or encryption keys. Therefore, physical security is a basic premise of a secure system.[32]

Some kinds of malware are designed to log keystrokes, including typed passwords, that may then be sent to the attacker over the Internet or saved to an unencrypted local drive from which the attacker might be able to read it later, when they gain physical access to the computer.[33]

Trusted Platform Module[edit]

VeraCrypt does not take advantage of Trusted Platform Module (TPM). VeraCrypt FAQ repeats the negative opinion of the original TrueCrypt developers verbatim.[34] The TrueCrypt developers were of the opinion that the exclusive purpose of the TPM is "to protect against attacks that require the attacker to have administrator privileges, or physical access to the computer". The attacker who has physical or administrative access to a computer can circumvent TPM, e.g., by installing a hardware keystroke logger, by resetting TPM, or by capturing memory contents and retrieving TPM-issued keys. The condemning text goes so far as to claim that TPM is entirely redundant.[35]

It is true that after achieving either unrestricted physical access or administrative privileges, it is only a matter of time before other security measures in place are bypassed.[36][37] However, stopping an attacker in possession of administrative privileges has never been one of the goals of TPM. (See Trusted Platform Module § Uses for details.) TPM might, however, reduce the success rate of the cold boot attack described above.[38][39][40][41][42] TPM is also known to be susceptible to SPI attacks.[43]

Plausible deniability[edit]

As with its predecessor TrueCrypt, VeraCrypt supports plausible deniability[44] by allowing a single "hidden volume" to be created within another volume.[45] The Windows versions of VeraCrypt can create and run a hidden encrypted operating system whose existence may be denied.[46] The VeraCrypt documentation lists ways in which the hidden volume deniability features may be compromised (e.g., by third-party software which may leak information through temporary files or via thumbnails) and possible ways to avoid this.[28]


VeraCrypt supports parallelized[47]: 63  encryption for multi-core systems. On Microsoft Windows, pipelined read and write operations (a form of asynchronous processing)[47]: 63  to reduce the performance hit of encryption and decryption. On processors supporting the AES-NI instruction set, VeraCrypt supports hardware-accelerated AES to further improve performance.[47]: 64  On 64-bit CPUs VeraCrypt uses optimized assembly implementation of Twofish and Camellia.[14]

License and source model[edit]

VeraCrypt was forked from the since-discontinued TrueCrypt project in 2013.[8] and originally contained mostly TrueCrypt code released under the TrueCrypt License 3.0. In the years since, more and more of Veracrypt's code has been rewritten and released under the permissive Apache License 2.0.

The TrueCrypt license is generally considered to be source-available but not free and open source. The Apache license is universally considered to be free and open source. The mixed VeraCrypt license is widely but not universally considered to be free and open source.

On 28 May 2014 TrueCrypt was abandoned under unusual circumstances,[48][49][50] and there exists no way to contact the former developers.

VeraCrypt is considered to be free and open source by:

VeraCrypt is considered to not be free and open source by:

  • Some members of the Open Source Initiative, including the director,[61] expressed concern about an older version of the TrueCrypt license, but the OSI itself has not published a determination regarding either TrueCrypt or VeraCrypt.
  • The Free Software Foundation has determined the TrueCrypt license to be non-free.[62] The FSF has not published a determination regarding the VeraCrypt license.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Contact Us – IDRIX". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  2. ^ "Release Notes". February 19, 2022. Retrieved April 13, 2022.
  3. ^ "VeraCrypt - Free Open source disk encryption with strong security for the Paranoid". Veracrypt. Retrieved 2022-05-07.
  4. ^ "root/License.txt". VeraCrypt. TrueCrypt Foundation. 17 Oct 2016. Retrieved 23 Jul 2018.
  5. ^ "VeraCrypt Official Site"
  6. ^ "VeraCrypt Volume". VeraCrypt Official Website. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
  7. ^ "Operating Systems Supported for System Encryption". VeraCrypt Official Website. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
  8. ^ a b Rubens, Paul (October 13, 2014). "VeraCrypt a Worthy TrueCrypt Alternative". eSecurity Planet. Quinstreet Enterprise. Archived from the original on December 3, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
  9. ^ Pauli, Darren (October 18, 2016). "Audit sees VeraCrypt kill critical password recovery, cipher flaws". The Register. Archived from the original on November 15, 2018.
  10. ^ "Encryption Algorithms". VeraCrypt Documentation. IDRIX. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  11. ^ "Hash Algorithms". VeraCrypt Documentation. IDRIX. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  12. ^ "Modes of Operation". VeraCrypt Documentation. IDRIX. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  13. ^ a b c d "Header Key Derivation, Salt, and Iteration Count". VeraCrypt Documentation. IDRIX. Retrieved 2019-02-19.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i "VeraCrypt Release Notes"
  15. ^ Castle, Alex (March 2015). "Where Are We At With TrueCrypt?". Maximum PC. p. 59.
  16. ^ Constantin, Lucian (September 29, 2015). "Newly found TrueCrypt flaw allows full system compromise". PCWorld. Archived from the original on April 19, 2019.
  17. ^ CVE-2016-1281: TrueCrypt and VeraCrypt Windows installers allow arbitrary code execution with elevation of privilege
  18. ^ Rubens, Paul (June 30, 2016). "VeraCrypt a worthy TrueCrypt Alternative". eSecurity Planet. Archived from the original on December 3, 2018.
  19. ^ a b "PIM". Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  20. ^ Khandelwal, Swati (11 August 2015). "Encryption Software VeraCrypt 1.12 Adds New PIM Feature To Boost Password Security". The Hacker News. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  21. ^ Brinkmann, Martin (7 August 2015). "TrueCrypt alternative VeraCrypt 1.12 ships with interesting PIM feature". Ghacks. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  22. ^ "Transcript of Episode #582". Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  23. ^ "The VeraCrypt Audit Results". OSTIF. October 17, 2016. Archived from the original on May 12, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
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  26. ^ "VeraCrypt / Forums / General Discussion: Germany BSI Security Evaluation of VeraCrypt". Retrieved 2021-12-01.
  27. ^ "Security Evaluation of VeraCrypt". Federal Office for Information Security (BSI). 2020-11-30. Retrieved 2022-07-27.
  28. ^ a b "Security Requirements and Precautions Pertaining to Hidden Volumes". VeraCrypt Documentation. IDRIX. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  29. ^ "Security Requirements and Precautions". VeraCrypt Documentation. IDRIX. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
  30. ^ Halderman, J. Alex; et al. (July 2008). Lest We Remember: Cold Boot Attacks on Encryption Keys (PDF). 17th USENIX Security Symposium. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 12, 2019.
  31. ^ "Physical Security". VeraCrypt Documentation. IDRIX. 2015-01-04. Retrieved 2015-01-04.
  32. ^ Schneier, Bruce (October 23, 2009). ""Evil Maid" Attacks on Encrypted Hard Drives". Schneier on Security. Archived from the original on May 25, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
  33. ^ "Malware". VeraCrypt Documentation. IDRIX. 2015-01-04. Retrieved 2015-01-04.
  34. ^ "FAQ". IDRIX. 2 July 2017.
  35. ^ "TrueCrypt User Guide" (PDF). TrueCrypt Foundation. 7 February 2012. p. 129 – via
  36. ^ Culp, Scott (2000). "Ten Immutable Laws Of Security (Version 2.0)". TechNet Magazine. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 9 December 2015 – via Microsoft TechNet.
  37. ^ Johansson, Jesper M. (October 2008). "Security Watch Revisiting the 10 Immutable Laws of Security, Part 1". TechNet Magazine. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 10 April 2017 – via Microsoft TechNet.
  38. ^ "LUKS support for storing keys in TPM NVRAM". 2013. Archived from the original on September 16, 2013. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
  39. ^ Greene, James (2012). "Intel Trusted Execution Technology" (PDF) (white paper). Intel. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 11, 2014. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
  40. ^ Autonomic and Trusted Computing: 4th International Conference (Google Books). ATC. 2007. ISBN 9783540735465. Archived from the original on August 19, 2020. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
  41. ^ Pearson, Siani; Balacheff, Boris (2002). Trusted computing platforms: TCPA technology in context. Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-009220-5. Archived from the original on March 25, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  42. ^ "SetPhysicalPresenceRequest Method of the Win32_Tpm Class". Microsoft. Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. Retrieved June 12, 2009.
  43. ^ "TPM Sniffing Attacks Against Non-Bitlocker Targets". 2022. Archived from the original on June 30, 2022. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  44. ^ "Plausible Deniability". VeraCrypt Documentation. IDRIX. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  45. ^ "Hidden Volume". VeraCrypt Documentation. IDRIX. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  46. ^ "Hidden Operating System". VeraCrypt Documentation. IDRIX. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  47. ^ a b c "VeraCrypt User Guide" (1.0f ed.). IDRIX. 2015-01-04.
  48. ^ Buchanan, Bill (May 30, 2014). "Encryption software TrueCrypt closes doors in odd circumstances". The Guardian. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  49. ^ Ratliff, Evan (March 30, 2016). "The Strange Origins of TrueCrypt, ISIS's Favored Encryption Tool". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  50. ^ Buchanan, Bill (Nov 5, 2018). "The Fall of TrueCrypt and Rise of VeraCrypt". Medium. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  51. ^ Constantin, Lucian (October 18, 2016). "Critical flaws found in open-source encryption software VeraCrypt". PC World. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  52. ^ Long, Heinrich (August 3, 2020). "How to Encrypt Files, Folders and Drives on Windows". Techspot. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  53. ^ Hall, Christine (May 4, 2016). "DuckDuckGo Gives $225,000 to Open Source Projects". FOSS Force. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  54. ^ "A Special Thank You to DuckDuckGo for Supporting OSTIF and VeraCrypt". Open Source Technology Fund. May 3, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  55. ^ "Need strong security? VeraCrypt is an open source disk encryption software that gives extra security against brute-force attacks". SourceForge. February 8, 2020. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  56. ^ McDevitt, Dan (July 18, 2018). "Privacy and anonymity-enhancing operating system Tails continued the implementation of open-source disk encryption software VeraCrypt into the GNOME user interface". Open Technology Fund. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  57. ^ "VeraCrypt is a free, open source disk encryption program". FOSSHub. Jan 17, 2021. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  58. ^ Kenlon, Seth (April 12, 2021). "VeraCrypt offers open source file-encryption with cross-platform capabilities". Retrieved April 9, 2022.
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  60. ^ "Debian Bug report logs - #814352: ITP: veracrypt -- Cross-platform on-the-fly encryption". 10 February 2016.
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External links[edit]