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|SOV||"She him loves."||45%||Proto-Indo-European, Sanskrit, Hindi, Ancient Greek, Latin, Japanese|
|SVO||"She loves him."||42%||English, French, Hausa, Indonesian, Malay, Mandarin, Russian|
|VSO||"Loves she him."||9%||Biblical Hebrew, Arabic, Irish, Filipino, Tuareg-Berber, Welsh|
|VOS||"Loves him she."||3%||Malagasy, Baure, Proto-Austronesian|
|OVS||"Him loves she."||1%||Apalaí, Hixkaryana|
|OSV||"Him she loves."||0%||Warao|
surveyed by Russell S. Tomlin in 1980s ( )
In linguistic typology, a verb–object–subject or verb–object–agent language – commonly abbreviated VOS or VOA – is one in which the most-typical sentences arrange their elements in that order: "Ate oranges Sam."
Use in languages
Commonly cited examples include Austronesian languages (such as Malagasy, Old Javanese, Toba Batak, Dusun, and Fijian) and Mayan languages (such as Tzotzil). In Hadza the word order VOS is very common, but the default is VSO.
In constructed languages
The Romulan language developed by Diane Duane for her Star Trek novel series Rihannsu (and expanded by both Duane and the novels' fandom) permits verb-object-subject as an alternative to subject-verb-object.
- Category:Verb–object–subject languages
- Introducing English Linguistics International Student Edition by Charles F. Meyer
- Russell Tomlin, "Basic Word Order: Functional Principles", Croom Helm, London, 1986, page 22
- Dryer, Matthew S. (2000). "Word Order" (PDF). University of Tübingen Department of Linguistics. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- "Syntax". Imperial Romulan Language Institute.
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