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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flowers, fruit and leaves (on the right) of a Lantana cultivar
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Verbenaceae
  • Durantaceae J.Agardh
  • Petreaceae J.Agardh

The Verbenaceae (/ˌvɜːrbəˈnsi./ VUR-bə-NAY-see-ee), the verbena family or vervain family, is a family of mainly tropical flowering plants. It contains trees, shrubs, and herbs notable for heads, spikes, or clusters of small flowers, many of which have an aromatic smell.[2]

The family Verbenaceae includes 32 genera and 800 species.[3] Phylogenetic studies[4] have shown that numerous genera traditionally classified in Verbenaceae belong instead in Lamiaceae. The mangrove genus Avicennia, sometimes placed in the Verbenaceae[5] or in its own family, Avicenniaceae,[6] has been placed in the Acanthaceae.[7]

Economically important Verbenaceae include:


Golden dew drops (Duranta erecta)
Frog fruit (Phyla nodiflora)
Glandularia pulchella in Kerala

Tribes and genera in the family[8] and their estimated species numbers:[3]

Casselieae (Schauer) Tronc.

Citharexyleae Briq.

Duranteae Bent.

Lantaneae Endl.

Neospartoneae Olmstead & N.O'Leary

Petreeae Briq.

  • Petrea L. (sandpaper vines) - 12 species

Priveae Briq.

Verbeneae Dumort.


Excluded genera[edit]

Various genera formerly included in the family Verbenaceae are now treated under other families:[9]

Moved to Acanthaceae
Moved to Lamiaceae
Moved to Oleaceae
Moved to Orobanchaceae
Moved to Phrymaceae
Moved to Stilbaceae


  1. ^ "Family: Verbenaceae J. St.-Hil., nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-12. Archived from the original on 2012-09-15. Retrieved 2011-10-10.
  2. ^ Stevens, P. F. (July 12, 2012). "Verbenaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  3. ^ a b Cardoso PH, O'Leary N, Olmstead RG, Moroni P, Thode VA (2021). "An update of the Verbenaceae genera and species number". Plant Ecology and Evolution. 154 (1): 80–86. doi:10.5091/plecevo.2021.1821. hdl:10183/267831.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Cantino, P.D., Harley, R.M. & Wagstaff, S.J. 1992. Genera of Labiatae: status and classification. Pp. 511-522. In Harley, R.M. & Reynolds, T. (eds) Advances in Labiate Science. Richmond, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  5. ^ Grandtner, Miroslav M. (2005). Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees: With Names in Latin, English, French, Spanish and Other Languages. Vol. 1. Elsevier. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-444-51784-5.
  6. ^ Nelson, Gil (1994). The Trees of Florida: a Reference and Field Guide. Pineapple Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-56164-055-3.
  7. ^ "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website - Lamiales". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  8. ^ Marx H, O’Leary N, Yuan Y, Lu-Irving P, Tank DC, Múlgura ME, Olmstead, RG (2010). "A molecular phylogeny and classification of Verbenaceae". American Journal of Botany. 97 (10): 1647–1663. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000144. hdl:11336/68550. PMID 21616800.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ "GRIN genera sometimes placed in Verbenaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2004-11-18. Retrieved 2011-10-10.

External links[edit]