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Vergina Sun

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The Vergina Sun, as depicted on the top of the Golden Larnax of Philip II of Macedon.
A relief sculpture depicting Helios with a rayed halo (Athena's temple, Ilion, early 4th century BC)

The Vergina Sun (Greek: Ήλιος της Βεργίνας, romanizedIlios tis Vergínas, lit.'Sun of Vergina'), also known as the Star of Vergina, Vergina Star or Argead Star, is a rayed solar symbol first appearing in ancient Greek art of the period between the 6th and 2nd centuries BC. The Vergina Sun proper has sixteen triangular rays, while comparable symbols of the same period variously have sixteen, twelve, eight or (rarely) six rays.

The name "Vergina Sun" became widely used after the archaeological excavations in and around the small town of Vergina, in northern Greece, during the late 1970s.[1] In older references, the name "Argead Star" or "Star of the Argeadai" is used for the Sun as the possible royal symbol of the Argead dynasty of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia. There it was depicted on a golden larnax found in a 4th-century BC royal tomb belonging to either Philip II or Philip III of Macedon, the father and half-brother of Alexander the Great, respectively.

Tentatively interpreted as the historical royal symbol of ancient Macedonia, rather than just a generic decorative element in ancient Greek art, the Vergina Sun came into popular use among Macedonian Greeks since the 1980s, and became commonly used as an official emblem in the Greek region of Macedonia, and by other Greek state entities during the 1990s.

The Vergina Sun symbol was the subject in a controversy in the first half of 1990s between Greece and the newly independent Republic of Macedonia (now North Macedonia), which adopted it as a symbol of Macedonian nationalism and depicted it on its national flag. Eventually, in 1995 and as a result of this dispute, the young republic's flag was revised into a different rayed solar symbol. On 17 June 2018, the two countries signed the Prespa Agreement, which stipulates the removal of the Vergina Sun from public use in North Macedonia.[2] Eventually, in early July 2019 the government of North Macedonia announced the complete removal of the symbol from all public areas, institutions and monuments in the country, except archeological sites.


A hoplite with an eight-pointed sun on his left shoulder. Side A of an Ancient Greek Attic red-figure belly-amphora, 500–490 BC, from Vulci, Italy. Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich, Germany.

Early representations of the symbol go back to at least the 16th century BC, with hoplites depicted as bearing sixteen-pointed and eight-pointed sunburst symbols on their shields and armor,[3][4][5] and the same symbols being represented on coins from both island and mainland Greece from at least the 5th century BC.[6] The Iliad describes the first panoply of Achilles as having star motifs.[7][8]

During his excavations at Vergina, the site of the ancient Macedonian capital of Aegae, the archaeologist Manolis Andronikos found the symbol on the coffin (Golden Larnax) believed to belong to Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great.[1] The "sunburst" symbol was already well known as a symbol used both by the Macedonian royal dynasty (e.g. on coins), as well as being present in the Hellenistic civilization more generally. The symbol might represent the Sun god (Helios), whose role as a patron deity of the Argead dynasty might be implied by a story about Perdiccas I of Macedon narrated by Herodotus (8.137).[9] In the early 1980s, following the discovery of the larnax, there was some debate as to whether the symbol should be considered the "royal emblem" of the Argeads specifically. Αs Eugene Borza (1982) pointed out, the symbol was widely used in Hellenistic-era art, and Adams (1983) emphasized its use as a decorative element in ancient Greek art in general and that it cannot be said to represent either a "royal" or "national" emblem of Macedon exclusively.[10]


Modern reception[edit]

Official status in Greece[edit]

The Vergina Sun, designated as an official national symbol by the Hellenic Parliament since February 1993, appears on the (unofficial) flag of Greek Macedonia.

The symbol was introduced in Greece as popular imagery from the mid-1980s, and after 1991, increasingly so in many new contexts in Greece. The Vergina Sun was widely adopted by Greek Macedonians as a symbol of Greek Macedonia. The Vergina Sun on a blue background became commonly used as an official emblem of the three administrative regions, the prefectures and the municipalities of Greek Macedonia.

The Vergina Sun on the modern Greek 100 drachmas coin
Vergina Sun on a building, Thessaloniki

It was used in official contexts on the reverse of the Greek 100 drachmas coin of 1990–2001,[12][13] The symbol is placed on the bottom left corner of the Greek driving license,[14][15] and on Greek passports, it forms the watermark image across pages 22 and 23. It is the emblem of the 3rd Greek Squadron of Control and Warning Station, of Greek Units for the Reinstatement of Order, the Greek First Army,[16] the 193 Squadron of Multiple Missile Launchers and the 34th Mechanized Infantry Brigade.[17]

In February 1993 the Greek parliament passed a bill designating the Vergina Sun as an official Greek national symbol.[18] In July 1995, Greece lodged a claim for trademark protection of the Vergina Sun as an official state emblem under Article 6ter of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property[19] with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).[20][21][22]

North Macedonia[edit]

The flag of the Republic of Macedonia between 1992 and 1995

In North Macedonia, the symbol is known as Sun of Kutleš (Macedonian: Сонце од Кутлеш). In 1992, Todor Petrov proposed the Vergina Sun as the national symbol of the Republic of Macedonia (now North Macedonia).[23] The symbol was adopted by the newly independent country in the same year, displaying it on its new flag. This lasted until 1995, when the Republic of Macedonia was forced to modify its flag by Greece.[24][25][26]

The decision in the Republic of Macedonia caused controversy both within the republic and outside it in its relations with Greece. The republic's large Albanian minority complained that it was an ethnic Macedonian symbol and was not suitable for a multi-ethnic state.[18] Greek opposition was even more vehement. The Greek government and many Greek people, especially Greek Macedonians, saw it as the misappropriation of a Hellenic symbol and a direct claim on the legacy of Philip II. The dispute was exacerbated by clauses in the Republic of Macedonia's constitution that Greeks saw as a territorial claim on the Greek region of Macedonia. A Greek Foreign Ministry spokesman said in January 1995 that "the symbol is Greek and has been stolen." Nationalists on both sides subsequently associated the symbol with the (much later) Star of Bethlehem and have argued that their respective communities have used the symbol for sacred purposes before the Vergina discovery.[18]

Speaking on the BBC World Service's The World Today programme, archaeologist Bajana Mojsov from the Republic of Macedonia said that "the symbolic weight attached to the Vergina Star was archaeologically absurd – but politically inevitable," arguing:

The star of Vergina applies to the 3rd century BC northern Greece – a very different situation, not related to the 21st century AD. I think it's modern politics, and we're witnessing the use of an archaeological symbol for history that it's really not related to.[27]

At the same time, Demetrius Floudas, Senior Associate at Hughes Hall, Cambridge, and one of the leading analysts of the Macedonia naming dispute, claimed that:

what prompted the adoption of the Vergina Star was a desire from Skopje's part to advance maximalist objectives in order to barter with them for other concessions at the negotiating table when the time comes.[28]

Although the authorities in Skopje denied any ulterior motives, the flag became a major issue in the wider political dispute between the two countries of the early 1990s (see Foreign relations of North Macedonia). Greek objections led to the flag being banned from use in a variety of places, including the United Nations, the Olympic Games and offices of the Republic of Macedonia in the United States and Australia.[18]

The Republic of Macedonia lodged an objection against Greece's registration of the symbol with WIPO in October 1995. The dispute was partially resolved under a compromise brokered by Cyrus Vance at the United Nations.[29] The symbol was removed from the flag of the Republic of Macedonia as part of an agreement to establish diplomatic and economic relations between the two sides,[29] and it was replaced by a stylised yellow sun with eight widening beams on red ground. The symbol was not referred to as the "Star of Vergina" in the agreement as signed, although the Greeks described it as such in correspondence with Vance.[29]

The Liberal Party (LP) of the Republic of Macedonia, in November 2013, via its president Ivon Velickovski, proposed a draft law to ban the use of the Vergina Sun for civil purposes within the Republic of Macedonia, as "a positive step that will result in the promotion of good neighborly relations between Macedonia and Greece". The draft law required the use of the WIPO-protected Greek symbol to be banned in the Macedonian president's office, events organized under state administration, public Macedonian institutions or political parties, NGOs, media, as well as individuals in the Republic of Macedonia. The draft however was rejected in December 2013 by the majority of the Macedonian Parliament, which at the time was controlled by the nationalist VMRO-DPMNE party.[30][31][32]

In early August 2017, the Macedonian consul in Toronto, Canada, Jovica Palashevski, sparked a diplomatic incident between the Republic of Macedonia and Greece, when he delivered a speech against the backdrop of an irredentist map of Greater Macedonia and a red Vergina Sun flag. After strong Greek protests, the Foreign Ministry of the Republic of Macedonia condemned the incident and recalled its diplomat back to Skopje for consultations.[33][34][35][36][37]

Toni Deskoski, Macedonian professor of International Law and member of the legal team that represented the Republic of Macedonia in the naming dispute with Greece before the International Court of Justice in the Hague for violation of the Interim Accord, argues that the Vergina Sun is not a Macedonian symbol but it is a Greek symbol that is used by Macedonians in the nationalist context of Macedonism and that the Macedonians need to get rid of it.[38]

Private use[edit]

Greece and Greek Macedonian diaspora[edit]

Vergina Sun flag at the Kozani Prefecture, along with the European flag and the flag of Greece

Outside of official usage, the symbol was also used in the logo of the Thessaloniki-based Makedonia television station, and of the former Bank of Macedonia-Thrace. An eight-point sun is the logo of Thessaloniki International Film Festival and part of the logo of Greek Parliament party Greek Solution. A six-pointed Vergina sun is the logo of the Thessaloniki-based Vergina television station, it also appears on Municipality of Chalkidona coat of arms in Thessaloniki region unit, on Makedonikos FC (Greek: Μακεδονικός) logo which is a Greek professional football club based in Neapoli, on ASF ALEXANDRIAS in Imathia, on Makedonikos Foufas F.C. in Kozani, on MAS VERGINA, on Megas Alexandros BC in Leptokarya and on VERGINA BC in Kalamaria. A seven-pointed sun is the logo of Thessaloniki-based political party EPOS. A sixteen-pointed sun is the logo of Athens-based political party Patriotic Union (Greek: Πατριωτική Ένωση).[39][40] It is also used by organisations of the Greek Macedonian diaspora, such as the Pan-Macedonian Association,[41] as well as by numerous commercial enterprises and in Greek Macedonian demonstrations.

In 2023, it was reported that the Supreme Civil and Criminal Court of Greece ruled that a political party may not use the symbol as a party emblem.[42]

North Macedonia and ethnic Macedonian diaspora[edit]

In North Macedonia, the municipality of Makedonska Kamenica still displays it on its municipal flag.[43] A similar choice was made by the municipality of Liqenas in neighbouring Albania, which has a Macedonian population.[44][45][46][47]

The symbol is also used by other ethnic Macedonian minority groups in neighbouring countries and by diaspora organisations.[48] In Canada, a Macedonian advocacy group called United Macedonians Organization uses a stylized version of the sun as part of its logo and makes extensive use of the red Vergina Sun flag.[49]

In 2018, IP Australia, the agency of the Australian Department of Industry, Innovation and Science responsible for administering the intellectual property rights in Australia, denied the World Macedonian Congress the right of registering and using the Vergina Sun on its trademark, citing the Paris Convention which recognizes the emblem as a national symbol of Greece.[50]


An eight-pointed version of the Vergina Sun has been used by some members of the stateless Balkan ethnic group of the Aromanians.[51] According to University of Warwick professor Tom Winnifrith, some houses in Kruševo (Aromanian: Crushuva), a town in North Macedonia with a substantial Aromanian population, use star patterns resembling the Vergina Sun.[52] Some Aromanians claim heritage from the Ancient Macedonians.[51][52]

Prespa Agreement[edit]

On 17 June 2018, Greece and the Republic of Macedonia signed the Prespa Agreement, which stipulates the removal of the Vergina Sun from public use across the latter's territory.[53][2]

In a session held on early July 2019, the government of North Macedonia announced the complete removal of the Vergina Sun from all public areas, institutions and monuments in the country, with the deadline for its removal being set to 12 August 2019, in line with the Prespa Agreement.[54][55][56]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b Manolis Andronikos (1981). The Finds from the Royal Tombs at Vergina. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-85672-204-2.
  2. ^ a b "Also the "Sun of Vergina" is being lost: what the agreement (original: Χάνεται και "ο Ηλιος της Βεργίνας": Τι ορίζει η συμφωνία για το σήμα)". Crash Online. 14 June 2018. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  3. ^ "World of the Griffin Warrior - Archaeology Magazine".
  4. ^ see e.g.: Νικόλαος Μάρτης (January 10, 1999). Γιατί ο τάφος της Βεργίνας ανήκει στον βασιλέα της Μακεδονίας Φίλιππο Β' (in Greek). Το ΒΗΜΑ. Archived from the original on August 21, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2007. Greek Shield Patterns: ca. 590 BC – 540 BC Archived 2010-10-12 at the Wayback Machine. Greek Shield Patterns: ca. 540 BC – 500 BC Archived 2010-10-12 at the Wayback Machine Greek Shield Patterns: ca. 475 BC – 430 BC Archived 2010-10-12 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Greek Shield Patterns: ca. 430 BC- 400 BC Archived 2010-10-12 at the Wayback Machine. Greek Shield Patterns: ca. 400 BC – 350 BC Archived 2010-10-12 at the Wayback Machine. Greek Shield Patterns: post 350 BC Archived 2010-10-12 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Perseus:image:1990.26.0214". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2009-03-22. "Perseus:image:1989.00.0174". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2009-03-22. "Perseus:image:1990.26.0218". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  7. ^ "The Greek Age of Bronze - Armour". www.salimbeti.com. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  8. ^ "Homer, Iliad, Book 16, line 112". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  9. ^ Winthrop Lindsay Adams, Alexander the Great: Legacy of a Conqueror (2005) p. 109.
  10. ^ Adams, J.P. The Larnakes from Tomb II at Vergina. Archaeological News (1983). 12:1–7
  11. ^ F. Tissot, Catalogue of the National Museum of Afghanistan, 1931-1985 (2006), p. 42 Archived 2023-01-05 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Bank of Greece Archived March 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Drachma Banknotes & Coins: 100 drachmas Archived 2009-01-01 at the Wayback Machine. – Retrieved on 27 March 2009.
  13. ^ Gounaris, Basil C. (2003): "The Politics of Currency: Stamps, Coins, Banknotes, and the Circulation of Modern Greek Tradition", in The Usable Past. Greek Metahistories, Keith S. Brown and Yannis Hamilakis (eds.), Lexington Books, p. 77. ISBN 0-7391-0384-9
  14. ^ "YME.gr". www.yme.gr. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  15. ^ "Council of the European Union-Public Register of Authentic identity and travel Documents Online (PRADO)". www.consilium.europa.eu. Retrieved 2022-02-12.
  16. ^ Borza, Eugene N. "Macedonia Redux", in The Eye Expanded: life and the arts in Greco-Roman Antiquity, ed. Frances B Tichener & Richard F. Moorton, p. 260. University of California Press, 1999. See also: Greek military: 1st STRATIA Archived 2006-03-22 at the Wayback Machine and 34 Μ/Κ ΤΑΞ Archived 2006-01-15 at the Wayback Machine First Army emblem Archived 2012-01-21 at the Wayback Machine, Hellenic Army General Staff
  17. ^ 34th Mechanized Infantry Brigade emblem Archived 2012-01-21 at the Wayback Machine, Hellenic Army General Staff
  18. ^ a b c d Danforth, L. M. The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, p. 166
  19. ^ Article 6ter Archived 2014-02-10 at the Wayback Machine, Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.
  20. ^ "WIPO Protection of State Emblems (Article 6ter) database, sixteen-pointed Vergina Sun". World Intellectual Property Organization. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  21. ^ "WIPO Protection of State Emblems (Article 6ter) database, twelve-pointed Vergina Sun". World Intellectual Property Organization. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  22. ^ "WIPO Protection of State Emblems (Article 6ter) database, eight-pointed Vergina Sun". World Intellectual Property Organization. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  23. ^ "Државниот грб ќе се смени, за знамето не се разговарало". Meta.mk (in Macedonian). 13 December 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2024.
  24. ^ Cook, Bernard A., ed. (2001). Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia, Volume 2. Taylor & Francis. p. 809. ISBN 9780815340584.
  25. ^ Dimitar Bechev (2009). Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia. Scarecrow Press. p. 214. ISBN 9780810862951.
  26. ^ Erskine, Andrew, ed. (2012). A Companion to Ancient History. Wiley. pp. 561–562. ISBN 9781118451366.
  27. ^ "When archaeology gets bent". BBC World Service. BBC News. 2004. Archived from the original on 2004-01-10. Retrieved 2006-10-12.
  28. ^ Floudas, Demetrius Andreas (1996). "A Name for a Conflict or a Conflict for a Name? An Analysis of Greece's Dispute with FYROM". Journal of Political and Military Sociology. 24 (2): 285–32. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  29. ^ a b c "Interim Accord (with related letters and translations of the Interim Accord in the languages of the Contracting Parties)" (PDF). UN Treaty Series. 1891 (I–32193). New York: United Nations: Article 7.2 and Related Letters pp.15–18. 13 September 1995. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
  30. ^ "ЛП бара забрана за употребата на симболот на Сонцето од Вергина". Ohridnews.com. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  31. ^ "Macedonians See Red Over Call to Ban Sun". Balkan Insight (BIRN). 20 November 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  32. ^ "И ВМРО-ДПМНЕ и СДСМ гласаа против забраната за употреба на знамето од Кутлеш". Mkd.mk. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  33. ^ "Dimitrov says MoFA won't tolerate 'excursions' like the diplomatic blunder in Toronto". Macedonian Information Agency. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  34. ^ "Another diplomatic incident between Greece and Macedonia". Macedonia's Top-Channel TV. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  35. ^ "Σε αλυτρωτική εκδήλωση συμμετείχε Σκοπιανός πρόξενος – Σφοδρή απάντηση από το ΥΠΕΞ (English: Skopian consul participated in an irredentist event – Foreign Ministry)". Aixmi.gr. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  36. ^ "Σκοπιανός πρόξενος με φόντο χάρτη της ΠΓΔΜ με ελληνικά εδάφη – ΥΠΕΞ: Ο αλυτρωτισμός εξακολουθεί (English: Macedonian Consul against a backdrop of Greater Macedonia – Greek MoFA: "Macedonian irredentism continues")". Real.gr. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  37. ^ "ΥΠΕΞ: Καταδίκη της συμμετοχής του σκοπιανού πρόξενου σε αλυτρωτική εκδήλωση στο Τορόντο (English: Greek MoFA condemns the participation of Macedonian Consul in an irredentist event at Toronto)". 16 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  38. ^ "Deskoski: Vergina Sun flag is not Macedonian, we need to get rid of this Greek symbol". english.republika.mk. 14 September 2020.
  39. ^ "ΚΡΑΧ ΣΤΟ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑ - ΕΚΑΝΕ ΤΟ ΚΟΜΜΑ Ο ΕΜΦΙΕΤΖΟΓΛΟΥ - Πώς λέγεται, πού και πότε το παρουσιάζει - Τηλέφωνα επικοινωνίας - Βίντεο".
  40. ^ "Αρχική". Ε.ΠΟ.Σ - Ελληνική Πολιτική Συνείδηση.
  41. ^ "Pan-Macedonian Network – Macedonia – English". www.macedonia.com. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  42. ^ "Εκλογές 2023: Κόπηκε από τον Άρειο Πάγο το κόμμα Εμφιετζόγλου, Μπογδάνου - Υπό εξέταση το κόμμα Κανελλόπουλου". ProtoThema (in Greek). 2023-04-27. Retrieved 2023-04-27.
  43. ^ "Општина Македонска Каменица". Општина Македонска Каменица (in Macedonian). Archived from the original on June 15, 2009.
  44. ^ "On the Status of the Minorities in the Republic of Albania" Archived March 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Albanian Helsinki Committee with support of the Finnish Foundation 'KIOS' and "Finnish NGO Foundation for Human Rights".
  45. ^ Finally, Albania recognizes a Greek and a Macedonian minorityPartly or Fully Unrecognized National Minorities: Statement to the UN Working Group on Minorities, 7th session, Geneva, 14–18 May 2001 Archived 5 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Greek Helsinki Committee
  46. ^ "Makedonskosonce.com" (PDF). MAKEDONCITE NA BALKANOT. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
  47. ^ Gori, Maja; Ivanova, Maria, eds. (2017). Balkan Dialogues: Negotiating Identity between Prehistory and the Present. Taylor & Francis. p. 258. ISBN 9781317377474.
  48. ^ e.g. United Macedonians Organization website Archived 2019-09-16 at the Wayback Machine
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  50. ^ "FYROM's World Macedonian Congress – Australia applies to take IP Australia to court". Neos Kosmos. 20 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  51. ^ a b Cowan, Jane K. Macedonia: The Politics of Identity and Difference, p. 124. Pluto Press, 2000
  52. ^ a b Winnifrith, Tom J. "The Vlachs of Macedonia". Society Farsharotu. Archived from the original on 2018-06-16.
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  54. ^ "North Macedonia to remove the Star of Vergina from all public spaces". GCT.com. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  55. ^ "North Macedonia: Zaev removes from anywhere the Vergina Sun (original title: "Βόρεια Μακεδονία: Ο Ζάεφ αποσύρει από παντού τον Ήλιο της Βεργίνας")". News247. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  56. ^ "Kutlesh star no longer to be seen in public use". Republika.mk. 12 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.


  • Musgrave, Jonathan; Prag, A. J. N. W.; Neave, Richard; Fox, Robin Lane; White, Hugh (August 2010). "The Occupants of Tomb II at Vergina. Why Arrhidaios and Eurydice must be excluded". International Journal of Medical Sciences. 7 (6). Ivyspring International Publisher: s1–s15. doi:10.7150/ijms.7.s1 (inactive 31 January 2024). Retrieved 11 August 2013.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2024 (link)
  • Philip II, Alexander the Great and the Macedonian Heritage, ed. W. Lindsay Adams and Eugene N. Borza. University Press of America, 1982. ISBN 0-8191-2448-6
  • The Larnakes from Tomb II at Vergina. Archaeological News. John Paul Adams
  • In the Shadow of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon, Eugene N. Borza. Princeton University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-691-05549-1
  • "Macedonia Redux", Eugene N. Borza, in The Eye Expanded: life and the arts in Greco-Roman Antiquity, ed. Frances B Tichener & Richard F. Moorton. University of California Press, 1999. ISBN 0-520-21029-8
  • Macedonia: The Politics of Identity and Difference, Jane K. Cowan. Pluto Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7453-1589-5
  • The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, Loring M. Danforth. Princeton University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-691-04357-4
  • Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation, McFarland & Company, 1997. ISBN 0-7864-0228-8
  • Schell, Dorothea (1997). "Der Stern von Vergina als nationales Symbol in Griechenland". In R. W. Brednich and H. Schmitt, Münster; et al. (eds.). Symbole: Zur Bedeutung der Zeichen in der Kultur. Waxmann. pp. 298–307, p. 301. ISBN 978-3-89325-550-4.

External links[edit]