Vernon Township, New Jersey
Vernon Township, New Jersey
|Township of Vernon|
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Established||April 8, 1793|
|Incorporated||February 21, 1798|
|• Type||Faulkner Act (mayor–council)|
|• Body||Township Council|
|• Mayor||Howard L. Burrell (term ends December 31, 2023)|
|• Administrator||Charles G. Voelker|
|• Municipal clerk||Marcy Gianattasio|
|• Total||69.96 sq mi (181.19 km2)|
|• Land||67.60 sq mi (175.07 km2)|
|• Water||2.36 sq mi (6.12 km2) 3.38%|
|• Rank||15th of 565 in state|
1st of 24 in county
|Elevation||571 ft (174 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||102nd of 566 in state|
1st of 24 in county
|• Density||350.9/sq mi (135.5/km2)|
|• Rank||466th of 566 in state|
12th of 24 in county
|Time zone||UTC−05:00 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−04:00 (Eastern (EDT))|
07422 (Highland Lakes)
|GNIS feature ID||0882258|
Vernon Township is a township in Sussex County, New Jersey, United States. It is located about one hour's drive from New York City and is part of the New York Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 23,943, reflecting a decline of 743 (−3.0%) from the 24,686 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 3,475 (+16.4%) from the 21,211 counted in the 1990 Census. It is both the most populous municipality and the largest in area in the county.
Vernon is home to Mountain Creek (formerly Great Gorge and Vernon Valley), a ski resort and water park as well as the Crystal Springs Resort's Minerals Hotel and Elements Spa. The Hidden Valley ski resort, which opened in 1976 and occupied a 140-acre (57 ha) property that included one of New Jersey's three remaining downhill skiing facilities, closed at the end of the 2013 season and could find no buyers at an auction held that year; it has since reopened as the National Winter Activity Center. The Great Gorge Playboy Club was located in the Vernon community of McAfee, but was sold and turned into a hotel, now called the Legends Resort & Country Club. Opened in 1972 at a cost of $20 million, featuring 700 rooms and 27 holes of golf, the hotel was sold to Americana in 1982 and later was resold to Metairie Corp. which branded the property as the Legends Resort and Country Club. In 2017, the township started eviction proceedings against low-income residents who had been living in the defunct resort on a permanent basis.
The independent township of Vernon was established on April 8, 1793, from portions of Hardyston Township, and the township was formally incorporated on February 21, 1798. The 68 square miles (180 km2) which marked the town's borders over 200 years ago have not changed since. However, the population of Vernon, which was 1,548 people as recently as 1950, has steadily grown since the 1960s, when the ski industry was introduced to the area. Additional growth has come as home prices have soared in the inner suburbs of New York City and property buyers seek the better values available from real estate developments in the area.
Iron mining in the town of Vernon was prevalent during the mid-to-late 19th century. Mines such as the Canistear Mine, Williams Mine, and the Pochuk Mine created industry which spawned local businesses, and brought rail travel to the town.
It is not known how Vernon Township got its name, but a number of theories have been offered by author Ronald J. Dupont Jr.:
- Admiral Edward Vernon. Dupont writes that this is very possible because of two things: 1. the township was created in 1792, the year that George Washington was reelected as president, and 2. because Vernon Township's first Masonic Lodge in 1820 was named Mount Vernon (Washington was also a Freemason during his life), likely after Washington's Virginia residence. The residence, in turn, got its name because Washington's brother Lawrence Washington served with Admiral Vernon.
- A family named Vernon. Not likely, Dupont says, although he notes that a Nathaniel Vernon was a licensed tavernkeeper in Sussex County in 1756. However, the tavern was likely elsewhere, and not in what is now Vernon.
- The Latin root "Vernus." One form of "vernus" is "vernal," as in vernal equinox ("spring"), and so Vernon "had connotations of spring: green, lush, fresh, fertile, etc., and hence was an attractive name for a place."
Dupont Jr. also writes that in the late 19th century two places named Vernon existed, one in Sussex County and another in Essex County. When the Essex County community was granted a post office, they found out that another Vernon existed, and so they eventually named the community Verona.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 69.96 square miles (181.19 km2), including 67.60 square miles (175.07 km2) of land and 2.36 square miles (6.12 km2) of water (3.38%).
Highland Lakes (2010 Census population of 4,933), Vernon Center (2010 Census population of 1,713) and Vernon Valley (1,626 as of 2010) are unincorporated communities and census-designated places (CDPs) located within Vernon Township.
Elevation varies greatly due to the valleys, rolling hills, and mountains. The United States Geological Survey places Glenwood at 580 feet (180 m), McAfee at 435 feet (133 m), and Highland Lakes at 1,260 feet (380 m).
The City of Newark in Essex County owns 5,400 acres (2,200 ha) of land in the township that are part of their Pequannock River Watershed, which provides water to the city from a total area of 35,000 acres (14,000 ha) that also includes portions of Hardyston Township, Jefferson Township, Kinnelon, Rockaway Township and West Milford.
Communities and neighborhoods
- Barry Lakes
- Canistear Reservoir
- Cedar Ridge
- Great Gorge
- Highland Lakes
- Independence Corners
- Kampe P.O.
- Lake Conway
- Lake Panorama
- Lake Pochung
- Lake Wanda
- Lake Wallkill
- Lake Wilderwood
- Maple Grange
- Mud Pond
- Pleasant Valley Lake
- Prices Switch
- Vernon Village "Town Center"
- Vernon Valley a.k.a. "The Valley"
- Vernon Valley Lake
- Wawayanda Lake
Glenwood and McAfee are located in the western portion of the township, McAfee to the South and Glenwood to the North. Highland Lakes is in the Eastern portion of the township. Pleasant Valley Lake is in the southwest portion of the township. Four of these sections have a post office. Vernon also has many developments.
Vernon is home to many lake communities, including Highland Lakes, Barry Lakes, Cliffwood Lake, High Breeze, Lake Conway, Lake Wanda, Laurel Lake, Lake Wildwood, Lake Panorama, Lake Pochung, Lake Wallkill, Pleasant Valley Lake, Scenic Lakes, and Vernon Valley Lake.
The township's largest housing complex is Great Gorge Village. Originally built as a slope-side vacation housing development with 1,356 units, the village is no longer affiliated with the ski resort and is operated by real estate investor Andrew Mulvihill. Village residents, who pay $5.5 million in condominium fees to cover services, have argued that Mulvihill and affiliated businesses have used their control of the community's board of directors to direct contracts to affiliated vendors.
1810–1920 1840 1850–1870
1850 1870 1880–1890
1930–1990 2000 2010
The 2010 United States census counted 23,943 people, 8,622 households, and 6,596 families in the township. The population density was 350.9 per square mile (135.5/km2). There were 10,958 housing units at an average density of 160.6 per square mile (62.0/km2). The racial makeup was 95.18% (22,790) White, 1.39% (332) Black or African American, 0.17% (40) Native American, 0.78% (186) Asian, 0.03% (8) Pacific Islander, 1.10% (263) from other races, and 1.35% (324) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.41% (1,534) of the population.
Of the 8,622 households, 35.6% had children under the age of 18; 63.0% were married couples living together; 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present and 23.5% were non-families. Of all households, 19.0% were made up of individuals and 4.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.18.
24.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 34.0% from 45 to 64, and 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.5 years. For every 100 females, the population had 102.9 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 101.2 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $81,129 (with a margin of error of +/− $5,949) and the median family income was $87,215 (+/− $4,152). Males had a median income of $62,462 (+/− $3,163) versus $41,917 (+/− $2,121) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $32,649 (+/− $1,365). About 3.2% of families and 4.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.4% of those under age 18 and 2.5% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 24,686 people, 8,368 households, and 6,610 families residing in the township. The population density was 360.9 people per square mile (139.4/km2). There were 9,994 housing units at an average density of 146.1 per square mile (56.4/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 96.56% White, 0.76% African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.79% from other races, and 1.07% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.60% of the population.
There were 8,368 households, out of which 45.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.1% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.0% were non-families. 16.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 3.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.95 and the average family size was 3.35.
In the township the population was spread out, with 30.6% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 32.9% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 6.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.0 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $67,566, and the median income for a family was $72,609. Males had a median income of $50,084 versus $33,292 for females. The per capita income for the township was $25,250. About 2.8% of families and 2.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.0% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over.
Parks and recreation
- Appalachian National Scenic Trail
- Mountain Creek Ski Resort and Mountain Creek Waterpark
- Hidden Valley Resort – Since January 2016, the area has been repurposed as the National Winter Activity Center, which provides education and ski / snowboard instruction to groups that might not have access to winter sports.
In a November 2010 referendum, 70% of voters approved a change from the Faulkner Act (council–manager) form of government to the mayor–council form. Under the new plan, a mayor directly elected by the voters oversees the day-to-day operation of the township with the aid of a business manager, subject to the oversight of a five-member Township Council. The Mayor and Council took office after elections in May 2011, replacing the previously existing council. The township is one of 42 municipalities (of the 564) statewide that use this form of government. Under the terms of an ordinance passed in August 2011, the township's elections were shifted from May to November, with the council citing savings from eliminating the standalone municipal election.
The governing body is comprised of the Mayor and the five-member Township Council, who are directly elected by the voters on an at-large basis to staggered four-year terms of office on a non-partisan basis, with either two or three seats up for election in odd-numbered years as part of the November general election. Three council seats come up for election together and the two other council seats and the mayoral seat are up for vote together two years later. Under the current plan, Vernon has a "strong mayor" system of government in which the mayor heads the executive branch, overseeing township functions, enforcing all ordinances and other regulations, appoints department heads and prepares a budget, with the assistance of a business administrator. The Township Council is the legislative branch, responsible for enacting ordinances, approving the mayor's department head appointments, can remove employees for cause and can modify the mayor's budget by majority vote, though budget increases require a ⅔ majority. The mayor has the option to attend and speak at council meetings but is not given a vote.
As of 2022[update], the Mayor is Howard L. Burrell, whose term of office ends December 31, 2023. Members of the Vernon Township Council are Council President Patrick Rizzuto (2025), Council Vice President Natalie Buccieri (2025), Michael Furrey (2023; appointed to serve an unexpired term), Brian Lynch (2025) and Harry J. Shortway (2023).
In October 2021, the Township Council selected Michael Furrey to fill the seat expiring in December 2023 that had been held by Kelly Weller until she stepped down from office earlier that month after announcing that she was moving out of the township. Furrey will serve on an interim basis until the November 2022 general election, when a candidate will be selected to serve the balance of the term of office.
The Township Council selected Toni Cilli in January 2021 to fill the seat held by Jean Murphy running to December 2021.
Andrew Pitsker took office in July 2020 after being chosen to fill the seat expiring in December 2021 that had been held until Mark Van Tassel left office the previous month. Pitsker served on an interim basis until the November 2020 general election, when he was elected to serve the remainder of the term.
Vernon Township is serviced by the Vernon Police Department, two ambulance squads and four fire departments. Vernon Fire Department covers a significant portion of "the Valley", Highland Lakes Fire Department covers "the mountain", McAfee Fire Department covers the Pleasant Valley Lake area and Pochuck Valley covers most of the Glenwood section. The Vernon Township Ambulance Squad is split between two buildings, "the Mountain" and "the Valley" respectively, while the Glenwood section is partially covered by the Glenwood Pochuck Volunteer Ambulance Corps. Other than the Police Department, the rest of the emergency services are made up of volunteers.
Federal, state and county representation
For the 117th United States Congress, New Jersey's Fifth Congressional District is represented by Josh Gottheimer (D, Wyckoff). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Democrats Cory Booker (Newark, term ends 2027) and Bob Menendez (Harrison, term ends 2025).
For the 2022–2023 session, the 24th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Steve Oroho (R, Franklin) and in the General Assembly by Parker Space (R, Wantage Township) and Hal Wirths (R, Hamburg).
Sussex County is governed by a Board of County Commissioners whose five members are elected at-large in partisan elections on a staggered basis, with either one or two seats coming up for election each year. At an annual reorganization meeting held in the beginning of January, the board selects a Commissioner Director and Deputy Director from among its members, with day-to-day supervision of the operation of the county delegated to a County Administrator. As of 2022[update], Sussex County's Commissioners are Commissioner Director Anthony Fasano (R, Hopatcong, term as commissioner and as commissioner director ends December 31, 2022), Deputy Director Chris Carney (R, Frankford Township, term as commissioner ends 2024; term as deputy director ends 2022), Dawn Fantasia (R, Franklin, 2024), Jill Space (R, Wantage Township, 2022; appointed to serve an unexpired term) and Herbert Yardley (R, Stillwater Township, 2023). In May 2022, Jill Space was appointed to fill the seat expiring in December 2022 that had been held by Sylvia Petillo until she resigned from office.
Constitutional officers elected on a countywide basis are County Clerk Jeffrey M. Parrott (R, Wantage Township, 2026), Sheriff Michael F. Strada (R, Hampton Township, 2022) and Surrogate Gary R. Chiusano (R, Frankford Township, 2023). The County Administrator is Gregory V. Poff II, whose appointment expires in 2025.
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 15,476 registered voters in Vernon Township, of which 2,425 (15.7% vs. 16.5% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 5,489 (35.5% vs. 39.3%) were registered as Republicans and 7,538 (48.7% vs. 44.1%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 24 voters registered as Libertarians or Greens. Among the township's 2010 Census population, 64.6% (vs. 65.8% in Sussex County) were registered to vote, including 85.4% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 86.5% countywide).
In the 2012 presidential election, Republican Mitt Romney received 6,111 votes (56.8% vs. 59.4% countywide), ahead of Democrat Barack Obama with 4,322 votes (40.2% vs. 38.2%) and other candidates with 281 votes (2.6% vs. 2.1%), among the 10,753 ballots cast by the township's 15,729 registered voters, for a turnout of 68.4% (vs. 68.3% in Sussex County). In the 2008 presidential election, Republican John McCain received 6,778 votes (58.3% vs. 59.2% countywide), ahead of Democrat Barack Obama with 4,603 votes (39.6% vs. 38.7%) and other candidates with 184 votes (1.6% vs. 1.5%), among the 11,620 ballots cast by the township's 15,195 registered voters, for a turnout of 76.5% (vs. 76.9% in Sussex County). In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush received 6,826 votes (62.4% vs. 63.9% countywide), ahead of Democrat John Kerry with 3,921 votes (35.8% vs. 34.4%) and other candidates with 149 votes (1.4% vs. 1.3%), among the 10,939 ballots cast by the township's 14,249 registered voters, for a turnout of 76.8% (vs. 77.7% in the whole county).
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 69.0% of the vote (4,445 cast), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 27.0% (1,740 votes), and other candidates with 4.0% (257 votes), among the 6,498 ballots cast by the township's 15,896 registered voters (56 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 40.9%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 4,441 votes (59.5% vs. 63.3% countywide), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 2,106 votes (28.2% vs. 25.7%), Independent Chris Daggett with 732 votes (9.8% vs. 9.1%) and other candidates with 124 votes (1.7% vs. 1.3%), among the 7,458 ballots cast by the township's 15,109 registered voters, yielding a 49.4% turnout (vs. 52.3% in the county).
The Vernon Township School District serves public school students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. As of the 2018–2019 school year, the district, comprised of six schools, had an enrollment of 3,012 students and 296.2 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 10.2:1. Schools in the district (with 2018–2019 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Walnut Ridge School with 96 students in Pre-K, Cedar Mountain Primary School with 374 students in grades K–1, Rolling Hills Elementary School with 429 students in grades 2–3, Lounsberry Hollow School with 410 students in grades 4–5, Glen Meadow Middle School with 680 students in grades 6–8 and Vernon Township High School with 995 students in grades 9–12.
Roads and highways
As of May 2010[update], the township had a total of 126.12 miles (202.97 km) of roadways, of which 85.21 miles (137.13 km) were maintained by the municipality, 32.31 miles (52.00 km) by Sussex County and 8.60 miles (13.84 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.
The main highway serving Vernon Township is New Jersey Route 94. Other significant roads passing through Vernon Township include County Route 515, County Route 517 and County Route 565. County Route 644 and County Route 641 also pass through the township. In addition, direct access to Interstate 80 is offered via Route 94, and County Route 565 to Route 23 to Interstate 84 in New York. The New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway passes through Vernon, but only freight service is offered.
In popular culture
- Portions of the 1989 film See No Evil, Hear No Evil were filmed and shot in Vernon at the former Playboy Club, referred to as simply the "Great Gorge Resort" in the movie.
- In 2020, the former Action Park was preserved through its legacy in two memoir adaptations. On June 30, Penguin Random House published the book Action Park by Andy Mulvihill and Jake Rossen, and two months later, HBO Max released the documentary film Class Action Park about the life, times and dangers of the former Action Park.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Vernon Township include:
- Helena Rutherfurd Ely (1858–1920), author, garden writer and creator of Vernon's Meadowburn Farm
- Nicolas de Gunzburg (1904–1981), editor in chief of Town & Country and fashion editor at Vogue and Harper's Bazaar
- Brett Hearn (born 1958), modified stock car driver
- Ryan Izzo (born 1995), football tight end for the New England Patriots
- Brad Leone (born 1985), chef for Bon Appétit star of show It's Alive
- John Winans (1831–1907), U.S. Representative from Wisconsin
- Ross Winans (1796–1877), inventor, mechanic, and builder of locomotives and railroad machinery
- 2019 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey Places, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 1, 2020.
- US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Mayor's Office, Vernon Township. Accessed June 7, 2022. "Under Vernon’s mayor-council form of government, the mayor is elected directly by the voters and serves as the township’s chief executive."
- 2022 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed March 1, 2022.
- Business Administrator, Vernon Township. Accessed June 7, 2022.
- Township Clerk, Vernon Township. Accessed June 7, 2022.
- 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 109.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Township of Vernon, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 14, 2013.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Vernon township, Sussex County, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- Municipalities Sorted by 2011-2020 Legislative District, New Jersey Department of State. Accessed February 1, 2020.
- Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Vernon township Archived May 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- QuickFacts for Vernon township, Sussex County, New Jersey; Sussex County, New Jersey; New Jersey from Population estimates, July 1, 2019, (V2019), United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2020.
- GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- Look Up a ZIP Code for Vernon, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Vernon, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed October 29, 2014.
- U.S. Census website , United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Geographic Codes Lookup for New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed April 1, 2022.
- US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- De Poto, Tom. "Hidden Valley Ski Resort fails to sell at auction", The Star-Ledger, October 1, 2013. Accessed December 14, 2014. "Hidden Valley Ski Resort, which was on the auction block this morning, is still in search of a new owner.... The 140-acre resort in Vernon closed at the end of last season after 36 years of operation. It is one of only three down hill ski slopes in New Jersey."
- Genader, Ann. "Remembering Hugh Hefner's Great Gorge Playboy Club", The Record, August 30, 2017. Accessed November 5, 2017. "The hotel was sold to the Americana chain in 1982. Reports at the time said the resort had been losing money for years. Later, sold again it was turned into the Seasons Hotel. Still later Seasons was sold to Metairie Corp. which turned into the Legends Resort and Country Club. The hotel has been derelict and permanently closed to public operations for many years. In February 2017 Vernon Township began to evict low-income full-time residents of the hotel. Township officials said the owner rented rooms out illegally and that health and safety issues had to be addressed."
- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 232. Accessed June 5, 2012.
- Dupont Jr., Ronald J. Vernon 200--A Bicentennial History of the Township of Vernon, New Jersey: 1792-1992. (The Friends of the Dorothy E. Henry Library, McAfee, NJ, 1992) pg. 53
- Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed October 18, 2015.
- Verona New Jersey Historical Photographs and History, First Baptist Church of Bloomfield. Accessed June 13, 2006.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Highland Lakes CDP, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 5, 2012.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Vernon Center CDP, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 5, 2012.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Vernon Valley CDP, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 5, 2012.
- GCT-PH1 - Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County -- County Subdivision and Place from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for Sussex County, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- 2006-2010 American Community Survey Geography for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- New Jersey: 2010 - Population and Housing Unit Counts - 2010 Census of Population and Housing (CPH-2-32), United States Census Bureau, August 2012. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- Sussex County Map, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed March 10, 2020.
- New Jersey Municipal Boundaries, New Jersey Department of Transportation. Accessed November 15, 2019.
- Primerano, Jane. "Newark appealing watershed taxes against Jefferson", AIM Jefferson, May 8, 2015. Accessed July 2, 2015. "Besides West Milford and Jefferson, Newark owns watershed land in Hardyston, Vernon, and Rockaway Townships and Kinnelon Borough, Leach said."
- City of Newark v. Vernon Tp., Leagle from Tax Court of New Jersey, April 1, 1980. Accessed July 2, 2015. "The City of Newark appeals the denial of the Sussex County Tax Board of its claim for a reduction of assessments of 5,424 acres of vacant watershed land in the Township of Vernon for the years 1973, 1974 and 1976.... Generally, the lands are part of the 35,000-acre Pequannock Watershed (approximately two times the size of Newark), which was purchased by Newark at the turn of the century to provide a water supply. The watershed, which contains five major bodies of water, is located in Vernon and Hardyston in Sussex County, Jefferson, Rockaway and Kinnelon in Morris County, and West Milford in Passaic County."
- Locality Search, State of New Jersey. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- About Vernon, Vernon Township.Accessed June 19, 2020. "Communities within the township include Glenwood, Highland Lakes, McAfee, Vernon Valley, Barry Lakes and Lake Wallkill."
- Obernauer, Eric. "Great Gorge Village residents air complaints", New Jersey Herald, June 25, 2017. Accessed November 5, 2017. "With residents of the 1,356-unit Great Gorge Village in an uprising against resort and real estate magnate Andrew Mulvihill and his associates, who together hold a majority of seats on the condominium community's board of directors, a showdown could be looming when the board — known as the master council — holds its next meeting July 12, 7 p.m. at Minerals Sports Club. Residents of the village, which collects nearly $5.5 million in dues from condo owners each year for management and upkeep, are openly complaining of bid-rigging and backroom deals with vendors controlled by Mulvihill."
- Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Minor Civil Divisions in New Jersey: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2020.
- Census Estimates for New Jersey April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2020.
- Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed July 22, 2013.
- Bowen, Francis. American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1843, p. 231, David H. Williams, 1842. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 271, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed February 26, 2013. "Vernon is the extreme north-eastern township. It is extremely mountainous, the Pochuck, Hamburgh and Wawayanda mountains passing through its entire length from north to south. Its population in 1850 was 2,619; in 1860, 2,190; and in 1870, 1,979."
- Debow, James Dunwoody Brownson. The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, p. 141. R. Armstrong, 1853. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- Staff. A compendium of the ninth census, 1870, p. 260. United States Census Bureau, 1872. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III - 51 to 75, p. 99. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed July 24, 2012.
- Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 339. Accessed June 5, 2012.
- Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 719. Accessed June 5, 2012.
- Table 6. New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990 Archived March 19, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed June 28, 2015.
- Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Vernon township, Sussex County, New Jersey[permanent dead link], United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 5, 2012.
- DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Vernon township, Sussex County, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 24, 2012.
- DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Vernon township, Sussex County, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 5, 2012.
- Sirius Radio Service Archived January 21, 2013, at archive.today, Houston Media Systems. Accessed June 5, 2012. "Another limitation on service for Sirius' system is the satellite uplink (what Sirius is sending to the satellites). The satellite uplink from Sirius comes from Vernon, NJ, USA."
- Obernauer, Eric. "Educational ski center up and running at former Hidden Valley Ski Resort", New Jersey Herald, January 20, 2016. Accessed October 23, 2017. "A new educational ski center, which includes more than $12 million in upgrades and renovations, has opened at the 140-acre former site of the Hidden Valley Ski Resort off Breakneck Road. The nonprofit venture, which opened last weekend as the National Winter Activity Center, is targeted to improving the lives, health and fitness of youth through participation in winter sports activities."
- Molnar, Phillip. "Vernon votes for change in form of government"[permanent dead link], New Jersey Herald, November 2, 2010. Accessed July 25, 2011. "A May election will now decide an elected mayor and a new five-person council. The new Township Council will be seated July 1, and would appoint a new township administrator. Vernon's current Faulkner Act council-manager form of government, in which the township manager makes most decisions for the township (after council approval), will now become a mayor-council form, in which an elected mayor will be the executive in the township."
- Inventory of Municipal Forms of Government in New Jersey, Rutgers University Center for Government Studies, July 1, 2011. Accessed November 18, 2019.
- Ordinance No. 11-19, Vernon Township. Accessed October 29, 2014. "An ordinance establishing the Vernon Township municipal elections on the same day as November general elections held and extending the terms of office for the existing mayor and council members pursuant to law."
- About Town Hall, Vernon Township. Accessed June 7, 2022. "On July 1, 2011, following a November 2010 referendum, Vernon Township’s form of government changed from a Faulkner Act council-manager form of government to a nonpartisan Faulkner Act mayor-council form. Under this form of government, also known as the “strong mayor” form, voters directly elect a mayor who serves as the chief executive.... The township council serves as the legislative branch of the township. Jointly, its five members are responsible for all policy-making, such as enacting ordinances, approving the mayor’s appointments and appointment of the township clerk."
- Township Council: About, Vernon Township. Accessed June 7, 2022. "The township council is the elected governing body responsible for legislative functions in Vernon Township. It is comprised of five members, all of whom are elected at-large. Subsequent to the implementation of Vernon’s new form of government on July 1, 2011, initial council terms are staggered—three members serve for two years and two members serve for four years. Going forward, all will serve for a term of four years."
- 2022 Municipal Data Sheet, Vernon Township. Accessed June 7, 2022.
- Summary Results Report November 2, 2021 General Election Official Results, Sussex County, New Jersey, updated November 22, 2021. Accessed January 1, 2022.
- Election Summary November 3, 2020 General Election Official Amended Results, Sussex County, New Jersey, updated December 10, 2020. Accessed January 1, 2021.
- Sussex County, New Jersey General Election November 5, 2019, Official Results Summary Report, Sussex County, New Jersey, dated November 8, 2019. Accessed January 1, 2020.
- Zummo, Mike. "Utilities chair Mike Furrey fills vacancy on Vernon council", Advertiser-News, October 22, 2021. Accessed June 7, 2022. "Mike Furrey will replace Kelly Weller on the Vernon Township Council until the next general election next year.... Weller submitted her resignation on Oct. 1. She is moving out of Vernon Township.... Furrey will fill Weller’s seat until Nov. 8, 2022, when voters will elect the person who will fill the remainder of her term, set to expire on Dec. 31, 2023."
- Zummo, Mike. "Toni Cilli to fill Jean Murphy’s seat on Vernon council", Advertiser-News, January 22, 2021. Accessed June 7, 2022. "The Vernon Township Council on Jan. 11 unanimously appointed Toni Cilli to fill the remainder of former Councilwoman Jean Murphy’s term. Murphy, who announced her resignation via a letter read by Township Council Vice President John Auberger on Jan. 1, was scheduled to serve until Dec. 31."
- "Vernon appoints Andrew Pitsker to open council seat", New Jersey Herald, July 14, 2020. Accessed June 7, 2022. "The Township Council appointed Andrew Pitsker to its open seat Monday night following a 30-minute discussion, two nominations and the reading of private emails that put a council member at odds with the mayor. Pitsker fills the seat left empty by Mark Van Tassel’s resignation last month with a 3-2 vote."
- Sussex County General and School Election November 5, 2013 Summary Report Official Results, Sussex County, New Jersey Clerk, updated November 7, 2013. Accessed August 1, 2016.
- Molnar, Phillip. "Marotta wins Vernon race for mayor" Archived August 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Herald, May 10, 2011. Accessed July 25, 2011.
- Vernon Municipal Election - May 10, 2011 Archived November 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Sussex County, New Jersey Clerk, run date May 11, 2011. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- Fire Department, Vernon Township. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- Ambulance Squad, Vernon Township. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed February 1, 2020.
- 2019 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed October 30, 2019.
- Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 3, 2019.
- Biography, Congressman Josh Gottheimer. Accessed January 3, 2019. "Josh now lives in Wyckoff, New Jersey with Marla, his wife who was a federal prosecutor, and their two young children, Ellie and Ben."
- U.S. Sen. Cory Booker cruises past Republican challenger Rik Mehta in New Jersey, PhillyVoice. Accessed April 30, 2021. "He now owns a home and lives in Newark's Central Ward community."
- Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "Menendez, who started his political career in Union City, moved in September from Paramus to one of Harrison's new apartment buildings near the town's PATH station.."
- Home, sweet home: Bob Menendez back in Hudson County. nj.com. Accessed April 30, 2021. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
- Legislative Roster, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 11, 2022.
- About County Government, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed May 1, 2022. "Sussex County is governed by five (5) Commissioners who are elected by the voters of Sussex County. Each serves on the county’s Board of County Commissioners for a term of three (3) years, after which time they can seek re‐election or retire.... The Commissioners are elected at‐large to serve three‐year staggered terms. The five Commissioners elect a director from among themselves to run their meetings and to serve as a spokesperson for the board."
- Anthony Fasano, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed May 1, 2022.
- Chris Carney, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed May 1, 2022.
- Dawn Fantasia, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed May 1, 2022.
- Jill Space, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed May 1, 2022.
- Herbert Yardley, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed May 1, 2022.
- Board of County Commissioners, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed May 1, 2022.
- Scruton, Bruce A. "Sussex County Republicans choose Jill Space to fill board of commissioners vacancy", New Jersey Herald, May 2, 2022. Accessed May 3, 2022. "Jill Space was unanimously selected to fill a vacancy on the five-member Board of County Commissioners during Saturday's Sussex County Republican Committee convention. Space was sworn in shortly after she was selected to fill the unexpired term of Sylvia Petillo, who resigned from the board last month when she moved to nearby Warren County."
- Contact Us, Sussex County Clerk. Accessed May 1, 2022.
- Administration, Sussex County Sheriff's Office. Accessed May 1, 2022.
- Home Page, Sussex County Surrogate. Accessed May 1, 2022.
- County Administrator, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed May 1, 2022.
- Sussex County Official Directory 2021, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed May 1, 2022.
- Voter Registration Summary - Sussex, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- GCT-P7: Selected Age Groups: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision; 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- General Election November 6, 2012: District Report - Group Detail Archived June 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Sussex County, New Jersey Clerk, run date November 30, 2012. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Sussex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- 2004 Presidential Election: Sussex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- "Governor - Sussex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast - November 5, 2013 - General Election Results - Sussex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- 2009 Governor: Sussex County Archived June 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed February 26, 2013.
- Vernon Township Board of Education District Policy 0110 - Identification, Vernon Township School District. Accessed August 31, 2020. "Purpose: The Board of Education exists for the purpose of providing a thorough and efficient system of free public education in grades Pre-K through twelve in the School District of Vernon Township. Composition: The Vernon Township School District is comprised of all the area within the municipal boundaries of Vernon Township."
- District information for Vernon Township School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed April 1, 2020.
- School Data for the Vernon Township School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed April 1, 2020.
- Walnut Ridge School, Vernon Township School District. Accessed August 31, 2020.
- Cedar Mountain Primary School, Vernon Township School District. Accessed August 31, 2020.
- Rolling Hills Primary School, Vernon Township School District. Accessed August 31, 2020.
- Lounsberry Hollow School, Vernon Township School District. Accessed August 31, 2020.
- Glen Meadow Middle School, Vernon Township School District. Accessed August 31, 2020.
- Vernon Township High School, Vernon Township School District. Accessed August 31, 2020.
- Schools, Vernon Township School District. Accessed August 31, 2020.
- New Jersey School Directory for the Vernon Township School District, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed December 29, 2016.
- Sussex County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
- Service Advisory: NJ Transit Offers Bus Service To Mountain Creek Action Park; Service to operate Saturdays, Sundays and holidays starting June 14, NJ Transit, June 12, 2014. Accessed October 29, 2014. "This summer, NJ TRANSIT is offering seasonal service to Mountain Creek Action Park on the No. 304 bus route—along with a special discount off park admission—to customers traveling from Port Authority Bus Terminal, Weehawken, Union City, North Bergen and Wayne/Route 23 Transit Center."
- NJ Transit Bus Line, Mountain Creek. Accessed October 29, 2014.
- Barbati, Carl. "Return to glory: New owner brings Great Gorge golf course back to life", New Jersey Herald, March 30, 2017. Accessed December 20, 2020. "In 1989, the movie See No Evil, Hear No Evi” was filmed here, starring Richard Pryor and Gene Wilder."
- Syme, Rachel. "The Thrills and Horrors of HBO’s "Class Action Park", The New Yorker, September 10, 2020. Accessed December 20, 2020. "I thought about the Beach again—and how a day there always provoked a giddy mix of elation and dread—when I watched the new HBO Max original documentary, 'Class Action Park.' It turns out that my home-town park was tame compared to what was going on in the nineteen-seventies and eighties at Action Park, in Vernon, New Jersey."
- Druse, Ken, via The New York Times News Service. "Pioneering gardener's planting style lives on", U-T San Diego, July 11, 2004. Accessed March 11, 2013.
- Dupont, Ronald J.; and Dupont Jr., Ronald J. Vernon Township, p. 96. via Google Books, Arcadia Publishing, 2002, ISBN 0-7385-1110-2. Accessed October 18, 2015.
- Brett Hearn Biography, BrettHearn.com. Accessed August 7, 2015. "Residence: Vernon, New Jersey"
- Stein, Peter. "Sussex Seminole: Vernon resident, Pope John grad Ryan Izzo starts at TE for Florida State", New Jersey Herald, September 9, 2015. Accessed January 4, 2018. "Vernon resident and 2014 Pope John graduate Ryan Izzo did start at tight end for Florida State and did catch a 13-yard touchdown pass from Golson in the Seminoles’ 59-16 victory over Texas State Saturday night at Doak Campbell Stadium in Tallahassee, Fla."
- Brad and Matty Matheson Make Fish Tacos- It's Alive - Bon Appétit, YouTube, July 12, 2018. Accessed April 6, 2020. Starting at ~ 14:00 - [Brad] "I've never been south of San Francisco. [Matty] Where are you from? [Brad] New Jersey. [Matty] Short Hills. [Brad] No, Vernon."
- John Winans biography, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 2, 2007.
- Hager, Guy W. Ross Winans, Friends of Orianda House. Accessed January 4, 2018. "Place of Birth: Vernon, Sussex County, NJ"
- Vernon Township website
- Vernon Township School District
- School Performance Reports for the Vernon Township School District, New Jersey Department of Education
- School Data for the Vernon Township School District, National Center for Education Statistics
- Aim Vernon – Vernon's local newspaper
- The Advertiser News, community newspaper
- Pleasant Valley Lake's website
- Mountain Creek
- Crystal Springs Resort
- Vernon NJ Business Directory
- Barry Lakes
- Vernon creates law to limit sex offenders, Advertiser-News, April 2008