Veronica Lake

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Veronica Lake
Veronica Lake Paramount.jpg
Veronica Lake, ca. 1940s
Born Constance Frances Marie Ockelman
(1922-11-14)November 14, 1922
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
Died July 7, 1973(1973-07-07) (aged 50)
Burlington, Vermont, U.S.
Cause of death Hepatitis and acute renal failure
Nationality American
Other names Constance Keane
Connie Keane
Education St. Bernard's School(Saranac Lake, NY)
Villa Maria
Miami High School
Occupation Actress
Years active 1939–1954; 1966; 1970
Spouse(s) John S. Detlie (m. 1940; div. 1943)
André DeToth (m. 1944; div. 1952)
Joseph A. McCarthy (m. 1955; div. 1959)
Robert Carleton-Munro (m. 1972; div. 1973)
Children Elaine Detlie (b. 1941)
Anthony Detlie (b. 1943-1943)
Andre Michael De Toth III (b. 1945)
Diana De Toth (b. 1948)

Veronica Lake (November 14, 1922[1] – July 7, 1973) was an American film, stage, and television actress. Lake won both popular and critical acclaim, most notably for her role in Sullivan's Travels and for her femme fatale roles in film noirs with Alan Ladd, during the 1940s. She was also well known for her peek-a-boo hairstyle. By the late 1940s however, Lake's career had begun to decline in part due to her alcoholism. She made only one film in the 1950s but appeared in several guest-starring roles on television. She returned to the screen in 1966 with a role in the film Footsteps In the Snow, but the role failed to revitalize her career.

Lake released her memoirs, Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake, in 1970. She used the money she made from the book to finance a low-budget horror film Flesh Feast. It was her final onscreen role. Lake died in July 1973 from hepatitis and acute kidney injury at the age of 50.


Lake was born Constance Frances Marie Ockelman in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Her father, Harry E. Ockelman, was of German and Irish descent,[2][3][4][5] and worked for an oil company aboard a ship. He died in an industrial explosion in Philadelphia in 1932. Lake's mother, Constance Charlotta (née Trimble; 1902–1992), of Irish descent, married Anthony Keane, a newspaper staff artist, also of Irish descent, in 1933, and Lake began using his surname.[6] The Keanes lived in Saranac Lake, New York, where young Lake attended St. Bernard's School for a time, then was sent to Villa Maria, an all-girls Catholic boarding school in Montreal, Canada, from which she was expelled. Lake later claimed she attended McGill University and did a premed course for a year, intending to become a surgeon. But when her father fell ill during her second year, the Keane family later moved to Miami, Florida.[7] Lake attended Miami High School, where she was known for her beauty. She had a troubled childhood and was diagnosed with schizophrenia, according to her mother.[8]

Film career[edit]

Constance Keane[edit]

In 1938, the Keanes moved to Beverly Hills, where Lake enrolled in the Bliss-Hayden School of Acting (now the Beverly Hills Playhouse). She made friends with a girl called Gwen Horn, and accompanied her when Horn went to audition at RKO. She was briefly contracted to MGM and studied at that studio's acting farm, the Bliss Hayden theatre.[7] She appeared in the play Thought for Food in January 1939.[9] In She Made Her Bed, the theatre critic from the Los Angeles Times called her "a fetching little trick".[10]

She also appeared as an extra in a number of movies.[11] Keane's first appearance on screen was for RKO, playing a small role among several coeds in the film Sorority House (1939). The part wound up being cut out of the film but she was encouraged to continue. Similar roles followed, including All Women Have Secrets, Young as Your Feel, Forty Little Mothers and Dancing Co-Ed. Forty Little Mothers was the first time she let her hair down on screen.[12]

She attracted the interest of Fred Wilcox, an assistant director, who shot a test scene of Lake performing from a play and showed it to an agent. The agent in turn showed it to producer Arthur Hornblow who was looking for a new girl to play the part of a nightclub singer in a military drama, I Wanted Wings (1940). Still in her teens, the role would make her a star.[7]

I Wanted Wings and Stardom[edit]

Lake in her first starring role, opposite Joel McCrea in Sullivan's Travels (1941)

It was during the filming of I Wanted Wings that Lake developed her signature look. Lake's long blonde hair accidentally fell over her right eye during a take and created a "peek-a-boo" effect. "I was playing a sympathetic drunk, I had my arm on a table... it slipped... and my hair- it was always baby fine and had this natural break- fell over my face... It became my trademark and purely by accident", she recalled.[13]

I Wanted Wings was a big hit, The hairstyle became Lake's trademark and was widely copied by women.[14]

Even before the film came out, Lake was dubbed "the find of 1941".[7] However Lake did not think this meant she would have a long career and maintained her goal was to be a surgeon. "Only the older actors keep on a long time ... I don't want to hang on after I've reached a peak. I'll go back to medical school", she said.[7] Paramount announced two follow up movies, China Pass and Blonde Venus.[15] Instead, Lake was cast in Sullivan's Travels for Preston Sturges with Joel McCrea. She had been six months pregnant when filming began.

Paramount put her in a thriller, This Gun for Hire; her love interest was Robert Preston but she shared more scenes with Alan Ladd and the two of them would be so popular together they would be reteamed three more times.[16] Both had cameos in Star Spangled Rhythm (1942), an all-star Paramount movie.

She was meant to be reunited with McCrea in another comedy, I Married a Witch, produced by Sturges (and directed by Rene Clair) but McCrea refused to act with her again so production was pushed back, enabling Lake to be reteamed with Ladd in The Glass Key (1942), replacing Patricia Morison. The male lead in Witch was eventually played by Fredric March and the resulting movie, like Key, was popular. René Clair, the director of I Married a Witch, said of Lake "She was a very gifted girl, but she didn't believe she was gifted."[17]

Lake was meant to co-star with Charles Boyer in Hong Kong for Arthur Hornblow, but it was not made.[18] She received acclaim for her part as a suicidal nurse in So Proudly We Hail! At the peak of her popularity, she earned $4,500 a week.[14]

Hairstyle Change[edit]

During World War II, Lake changed her trademark peek-a-boo hairstyle at the urging of the government to encourage women working in war industry factories to adopt more practical, safer hairstyles.[19] Although the change helped to decrease accidents involving women getting their hair caught in machinery, doing so may have damaged Lake's career.[20][21] She also became a popular pin-up girl for soldiers during World War II and traveled throughout the United States to raise money for war bonds.[21]

Later career[edit]

Lake and Alan Ladd in trailer for The Blue Dahlia (1946)

Although popular with the public, Lake had a complex personality and acquired a reputation for being difficult to work with. Eddie Bracken, her co-star in Star Spangled Rhythm (in which Lake appeared in a musical number) was quoted as saying, "She was known as 'The Bitch' and she deserved the title."[22][23] Joel McCrea, her co-star in Sullivan's Travels, reportedly turned down the co-starring role in I Married a Witch, saying, "Life's too short for two films with Veronica Lake."[24] (However, Lake and McCrea did make another film together, the 1947 production Ramrod.) During filming of The Blue Dahlia (1946), screenwriter Raymond Chandler referred to her as "Moronica Lake".[25]

Lake's career faltered with her unsympathetic role as Nazi spy Dora Bruckman in The Hour Before the Dawn (1944). Scathing reviews of The Hour Before the Dawn included criticism of her unconvincing German accent. She had begun drinking more heavily during this period, and a growing number of people refused to work with her. Lake had a number of months off work, during which time she lost a child and was divorced. She was brought back in Bring on the Girls, Lake's first proper musical (although she had sung in This Gun for Hire and Star Spangled Rhythm). There were two more movies with Bracken, Out of This World and Hold That Blonde.

In June 1944 Lake appeared at a war bond drive in Boston, where her services as a dishwasher were auctioned off. She also performed in a revue, with papers saying her "talk was on the grim side".[26] Hedda Hopper later claimed this appearance was responsible for Paramount giving her the third lead in Out of this World, supporting Diana Lynn, saying "Lake clipped her own wings in her Boston bond appearance... It's lucky for Lake, after Boston, that she isn't out of pictures."[27]

publicity photo c. 1950s

Lake then made two films produced by John Houseman, Miss Susie Slagle's and The Blue Dahlia. While waiting for the films to be released in 1945 she took stock of her career claiming, "I had to learn about acting. I've played all sorts of parts, taken just what came along regardless of high merit. In fact, I've been a sort of general utility person. I haven't liked all the roles. One or two were pretty bad."[28]

One role she really liked was Hold That Blonde, supporting Eddie Bracken (in a part turned down by Bob Hope). "It's a comedy, rather like what Carole Lombard used to do," she said. "It represents a real change of pace."[28] She thought she had a good part in The Blue Dahlia (1946).[28]

Lake expressed interest in renegotiating her deal with Paramount:

The studio feels that way about it too. They have indicated they are going to fuss more about the pictures in which I appear. I think I'll enjoy being fussed about... I want this to be the turning point and I think that it will. I am free and clear of unpleasant characters, unless they are strongly justified. I've had a varied experience playing them and also appearing as heroines. The roles themselves haven't been noteworthy and sometimes not even especially spotlighted, but I think they've all been beneficial in one way or another. From here on there should be a certain pattern of development, and that is what I am going to fight for if necessary, though I don't believe it will be because they are so understanding here at Paramount.[28]

She made her first film outside Paramount since she became a star, a popular Western, Ramrod, directed by her then-husband Andre De Toth. Back at her home studio she had a cameo in Variety Girl then was united with Ladd for the last time in Saigon, bringing back her old peek-a-boo hairstyle; the movie was not particularly well received. Neither was a romantic drama, Isn't It Romantic (1948) or a comedy The Sainted Sisters (1948). In 1948 Paramount decided not to renew Lake's contract.[citation needed]

Leaving Paramount[edit]

Lake went over to 20th Century Fox to make Slattery's Hurricane (1949), directed by De Toth. It was only a support role and there were not many other offers. In 1950 it was announced she and De Toth would make Before I Wake (from a suspense novel by Mel Devrett) and Flanagan Boy.[29] Neither was made.

In 1951 she appeared in Stronghold, which she later described as "a dog". (She later sued for unpaid wages on the film.[30]) Lake and de Toth, filed for bankruptcy that same year.[31] The IRS later seized their home for unpaid taxes.[32] On the verge of a nervous breakdown and bankrupt, Lake ran away, left de Toth, and flew alone to New York.

New York[edit]

In the summer of 1951, she was fed up; two marriages had failed, and she was typecast in Hollywood as a sex symbol. As a result of her disillusionment with Hollywood and not liking what it did with people, she walked out on Hollywood, took her three children, and headed to New York to restart her career. Lake wanted to leave her sexy image behind, and New York offered the opportunity to work in theater and the new medium, television.

"They said, 'She'll be back in a couple of months'," recalled Lake. "Well I never returned. Enough was enough already. Did I want to be one of the walking dead or a real person?"[13]

She performed in summer stock and in stage roles in England.[33] In October 1955, she collapsed in Detroit, where she had been appearing on stage in The Little Hut.[34]

Later years[edit]

Lake in trailer for her final film Flesh Feast (1970)

After her third divorce, Lake drifted between cheap hotels in New York City, and was arrested several times for public drunkenness and disorderly conduct. In 1962, a New York Post reporter found her living at the all-women's Martha Washington Hotel in Manhattan, working as a waitress downstairs in the cocktail lounge.[35] She was working under the name "Connie de Toth". Lake said she took the job in part because "I like people. I like to talk to them."[36]

The reporter's widely distributed story led to speculation that Lake was destitute. After the story ran, fans of Lake sent her money which she returned as "a matter of pride".[33] Lake vehemently denied that she was destitute and stated, "It's as though people were making me out to be down-and-out. I wasn't. I was paying $190 a month rent then, and that's a long way from being broke."[37] The story did revive some interest in Lake and led to some television and stage appearances, most notably in the 1963 off-Broadway revival of the musical Best Foot Forward.[37]

In 1966, she had a brief stint as a TV hostess in Baltimore, Maryland, along with a largely ignored film role in Footsteps In the Snow. She also continued appearing in stage roles.[21] She went to Freeport in the Bahamas to visit a friend and ended up living there for a few years.[13]

Lake's memoirs, Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake, were released in the United Kingdom in 1969, and in the United States the following year. In the book, Lake discusses her career, her failed marriages, her romances with Howard Hughes, Tommy Manville and Aristotle Onassis, her alcoholism, and her guilt over not spending enough time with her children.[14] In the book, Lake stated that her mother pushed her into a career as an actress. Looking back at her career, Lake wrote, "I never did cheesecake like Ann Sheridan or Betty Grable. I just used my hair." She also laughed off the term "sex symbol" and instead referred to herself as a "sex zombie".[33]

When Lake went to the UK to promote her book in 1969 she received an offer to appear on stage in Madam Chairman.[13]

Also in 1969, Lake portrayed the role of Blanche DuBois in A Streetcar Named Desire on the English stage, for which she won rave reviews for her performance.[38] With the proceeds from her autobiography, she co-produced and starred in her final film, Flesh Feast (1970), a low-budget horror movie with a Nazi-myth storyline.

Lake then moved to Ipswich, England, where she met and married Royal Navy captain Robert Carleton-Munro, in June 1972.[33] The marriage lasted just one year and Lake returned to the United States in June 1973. She went to the Virgin Islands to await her divorce decree when she fell ill.[39]

Personal life[edit]

After purchasing an airplane for her husband, André de Toth, Lake earned her pilot's license in 1946. She later flew solo between Los Angeles and New York when leaving him.[40]

Marriages and children[edit]

Lake's first marriage was to art director John S. Detlie, in 1940. They had a daughter, Elaine (born in 1941),[41] and a son, Anthony (born July 8, 1943). According to news from the time, Lake's son was born prematurely after she tripped on a lighting cable while filming a movie. Anthony died on July 15, 1943.[42] Lake and Detlie separated in August 1943 and divorced in December 1943.[41] In 1944, Lake married film director André DeToth with whom she had a son, Andre Anthony Michael III (known as Michael DeToth), and a daughter, Diana (born October 1948). Days before Diana's birth, Lake's mother sued her for support payments.[43] Lake and DeToth divorced in 1952.[44]

In September 1955, she married songwriter Joseph Allan McCarthy.[45] They were divorced in 1959. Lake's fourth and final marriage was to Royal Navy captain Robert Carleton-Munro in June 1972. They divorced after one year.[39] In 1969 she revealed that she rarely saw her children.[13]


In June 1973, Lake returned to the United States and while traveling in Vermont, visited a local doctor, complaining of stomach pains. She was discovered to have cirrhosis of the liver as a result of her years of drinking, and on June 26, she checked into the Medical Center of Vermont in Burlington.[38] She died there on July 7, 1973, of acute hepatitis and acute kidney injury.[46] Her son Michael claimed her body.[47] Lake's memorial service was held at the Universal Chapel in New York City on July 11.[48] She was cremated and, according to her wishes, her ashes were scattered off the coast of the Virgin Islands. In 2004, some of Lake's ashes were reportedly found in a New York antique store.[49]

Hollywood Boulevard[edit]

For her contribution to the motion picture industry, Lake has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6918 Hollywood Boulevard.[50]


Year Title Role Notes
1939 Sorority House Coed Uncredited, alternative title: That Girl from College
1939 Wrong Room, TheThe Wrong Room The Attorney's New Bride Credited as Connie Keane
1939 Dancing Co-Ed One of Couple on Motorcycle Uncredited
Alternative title: Every Other Inch a Lady
1939 All Women Have Secrets Jane Credited as Constance Keane
1940 Young as You Feel Bit part Credited as Constance Keane
1940 Forty Little Mothers Granville girl Uncredited
1941 I Wanted Wings Sally Vaughn First featured role
1941 Hold Back the Dawn Movie Actress Uncredited
1941 Sullivan's Travels The Girl Directed by Preston Sturges
1942 This Gun for Hire Ellen Graham First film with Alan Ladd
1942 Glass Key, TheThe Glass Key Janet Henry With Alan Ladd
1942 I Married a Witch Jennifer Directed by Rene Clair
1942 Star Spangled Rhythm Herself One of a number of Paramount stars making cameos
1943 So Proudly We Hail! Lt. Olivia D'Arcy
1944 Hour Before the Dawn, TheThe Hour Before the Dawn Dora Bruckmann
1945 Bring on the Girls Teddy Collins
1945 Out of This World Dorothy Dodge
1945 Duffy's Tavern Herself One of a number of Paramount stars making cameos
1945 Hold That Blonde Sally Martin
1946 Miss Susie Slagle's Nan Rogers
1946 Blue Dahlia, TheThe Blue Dahlia Joyce Harwood With Alan Ladd
1947 Ramrod Connie Dickason Directed by her then-husband André De Toth; first film made outside Paramount since becoming a star
1947 Variety Girl Herself One of a number of Paramount stars making cameos
1948 Saigon Susan Cleaver Last film with Alan Ladd
1948 Sainted Sisters, TheThe Sainted Sisters Letty Stanton
1948 Isn't It Romantic? Candy Cameron
1949 Slattery's Hurricane Dolores Greaves Directed by André de Toth
1951 Stronghold Mary Stevens
1966 Footsteps In the Snow Therese
1970 Flesh Feast Dr. Elaine Frederick Alternative title: Time is Terror
Year Title Role Notes
1950 Your Show of Shows Herself - Guest Performer Episode #2.11
1950 Lights Out Mercy Device Episode: "Beware This Woman"[51]
1950–1953 Lux Video Theatre Various 3 episodes
1951 Somerset Maugham TV Theatre Valerie Episode: "The Facts of Life"
1952 Celanese Theatre Abby Fane Episode: "Brief Moment"
1952 Tales of Tomorrow Paula Episode: "Flight Overdue"
1952 Goodyear Television Playhouse Judy "Leni" Howard Episode: "Better Than Walking"
1953 Danger Episode: "Inside Straight"
1954 Broadway Television Theatre Nancy Willard Episode: "The Gramercy Ghost"

Selected stage credits[edit]

  • Thought for Food (Bliss Hayden Theatre, Jan-Feb 1939)
  • She Made Her Bed (Bliss Hayden Theatre, July–August 1939)
  • Private Confusion (Bliss Hayden Theatre, October 1940)
  • Direct Hit (June 1944)[52]
  • The Voice of the Turtle (Atlanta, February 1951)[53]
  • The Curtain Rises (Olney Theatre, Olney, Maryland, 1951)[54]
  • Peter Pan (Road tour, 1951)
  • Gramercy Hill (1952)[55]
  • The Little Hut (Detroit, 1955)
  • Best Foot Forward (1963)
  • Madam Chairman (1969) (English provinces)[13]
  • A Streetcar Named Desire (New Theatre, Bromley, Kent, 1969)[56]

In popular culture[edit]

Clips from her role in The Glass Key (1942) were integrated into the film Dead Men Don't Wear Plaid (1982) as character Monica Stillpond.

Lake was one of the models for the animated character Jessica Rabbit in the film Who Framed Roger Rabbit? (1988), especially for her hairstyle.[57][58]

Pop star Madonna paid homage to Veronica Lake, among many other Hollywood legendary beauties, in her 1990 video Vogue.[citation needed]

In the 1997 film L.A. Confidential Kim Basinger won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her portrayal of a prostitute who is a Veronica Lake look-alike.[59][60]

A geographical feature called "Lake Veronica" was a recurring joke in the Rocky and Bullwinkle series and film.[61]

In Moose: Chapters from My Life (the 2013, posthumously released autobiography by Robert B. Sherman) writes about his teenage friendship with Lake.[62]

In the Burial at Sea downloadable content for the 2013 video game BioShock Infinite, Elizabeth is given a new femme fatale look partly inspired by Lake, for the city of Rapture, located at the bottom of the ocean in 1958.[63]

The play "Drowning in Veronica Lake", based on Lake's life, toured New Zealand and Australia in 2012 - 2015 starring actress Alex Ellis anchored to the stage in a six metre wide Hollywood gown.[64]

Radio appearances[edit]

Date Program Episode/source
March 30, 1943 Lux Radio Theater I Wanted Wings
February 9, 1943 Bob Hope Guest star Paulette Goddard and Veronica Lake[65]
February 16, 1943 Burns and Allen Guest star Veronica Lake
November 1, 1943 Lux Radio Theater So Proudly We Hail
January 8, 1944 Command Performance Guest star Veronica Lake
February 18, 1945 Charlie McCarthy Guest stars Ginny Simms and Veronica Lake[66]
April 2, 1945 The Screen Guild Theater This Gun For Hire[67]
November 18, 1946 Lux Radio Theatre O.S.S.[68]
April 20, 1947 Exploring the Unknown The Dark Curtain
April 21, 1949 The Screen Guild Theater The Blue Dahlia[69]
March 6, 1950 Lux Radio Theater Slattery's Hurricane
December 15, 1950 Duffy's Tavern "Archie Wants Veronica Lake to Help Promote a New Latin Singer"
December 12, 1954 The Jack Benny Program "A Trip to Palm Springs"

See also[edit]



  1. ^ U.S. Census, April 1, 1930, State of Washington, County of Kings, enumeration district 1657, page 8-B, family 151, Constance Ockelman (sic), age 7 years, born in Seattle. Her father, Harry Ockelman, Jr., is listed as unmarried in the 1920 U.S. Census of Pennsylvania.
  2. ^ "Person Details for Harry E Ockelman in household of Harry Ockelman, "United States Census, 1910" —". Retrieved June 13, 2016. 
  3. ^ Parrish, Robert James (1972). The Paramount Pretties. Arlington House. p. 410. ISBN 0-025-08170-5. 
  4. ^ Thomas, Calvin Beck (1978). Scream Queens: Heroines of the Horrors. Macmillian. p. 169. ISBN 0-025-08170-5. 
  5. ^ Burroughs Hannsberry, Karen (1998). Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film. McFarland. p. 300. ISBN 0-786-40429-9. 
  6. ^ "I, Veronica". Life. Time, Inc. 14 (20): 78. May 17, 1943. ISSN 0024-3019. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Cinderell Girl of '41". Chicago Daily Tribune. February 23, 1941. p. 3. 
  8. ^ (Chierichetti 2004, p. 70)
  9. ^ "Current Films". Los Angeles Times. January 29, 1939. p. C4. 
  10. ^ Von Blon, Katherine (August 21, 1939). "She Made Her Bed". Los Angeles Times. p. 9. 
  11. ^ "I, Veronica". Life. Time, Inc. 14 (20): 77. May 17, 1943. ISSN 0024-3019. 
  12. ^ Strauss, Theodore (November 8, 1942). "Veronica Lake, Full Face". New York Times. p. X3. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f Gale, Bill (August 24, 1969). "Lake: 'To Work . . . and to Live': Veronica Lake". New York Times. p. D13. 
  14. ^ a b c "'Peek-a-Boo' Star Veronica Lake Hepatitis Victim". The Victoria Advocate. July 8, 1973. p. 6-A. Retrieved April 19, 2014. 
  15. ^ Churchill, Douglas (April 2, 1945). "Warners Buys the Corn is Green". New York Times. p. 27. 
  16. ^ "Ladd, Lake Together In 'Saigon'". The Deseret News. March 3, 1948. p. 13. Retrieved April 19, 2014. 
  17. ^ (Terkel 1999, p. 168)
  18. ^ "Of Local Origin". New York Times. October 24, 1941. p. 27. 
  19. ^ "Veronica Lake's remains resurface". October 12, 2004. Retrieved June 2, 2008. 
  20. ^ (Starr 2003, pp. 128–29)
  21. ^ a b c Brenner, John Lanouette (August 26, 1967). "Veronica Lake Gives Telegraph Exclusive Personal Interview". The Telegraph. p. 9. Retrieved April 19, 2014. 
  22. ^ (Donnelley 2003, p. 392)
  23. ^ (Parish & Pitts 2003, p. 480)
  24. ^ Robert Osborne, Turner Classic Movies, October 6, 2010
  25. ^ (Hiney 1999, p. 154)
  26. ^ "Tobin Shines As Butler At Bond Lunch: $100,000 Luncheon Served at Tobin Home". The Christian Science Monitor. Boston. June 13, 1944. p. 1. 
  27. ^ Hopper, Hedda (July 20, 1944). "Sonny Sings a Song!". The Washington Post. p. 5. 
  28. ^ a b c d Schallert, Edwin (July 8, 1945). "Change of Pace in Roles Beckons Veronica Lake: Star to Pause at Career's Crossroads Roles to Shift for Veronica". Los Angeles Times. p. C1. 
  29. ^ Schallert, Edwin (March 11, 1950). "Drama: D'Arrast, Glazer Plan Spanish Feature; Power Debates British Stage". Los Angeles Times. p. 11. 
  30. ^ "Veronica Lake, Named as Film Suit Claimant". Los Angeles Times. March 28, 1962. p. 34. 
  31. ^ "Veronica Lake Says She's Bankrupt". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. August 17, 1951. p. 1. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  32. ^ "Actress Loses Home For Not Paying Tax". Lodi News–Sentinel. April 7, 1951. p. 8. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  33. ^ a b c d Klemesrud, Judy (March 14, 1971). "What Ever Happened to Veronica Lake?". The Palm Beach Post. p. C6. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  34. ^ "Veronica Lake In Hospital". The Age. October 28, 1955. p. 1. Retrieved April 19, 2014. 
  35. ^ "Veronica Lake is a Waitress Now". The Milwaukee Journal. March 22, 1962. p. 11. Retrieved April 19, 2014. 
  36. ^ "Once Glittering Star: Veronica Lake Now Cocktail Waitress". Los Angeles Times. March 23, 1962. p. 2. 
  37. ^ a b "Actress Veronica Lake Dies In Vermont Hospital". The Virgin Island Daily News. July 9, 1973. p. 2. Retrieved April 19, 2014. 
  38. ^ a b "Peek-A-Boo Veronica Lake Dies At 51". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. July 8, 1973. p. 9-A. Retrieved April 19, 2014. 
  39. ^ a b (Burroughs Hannsberry 2009, p. 307)
  40. ^ "Turner Classic Movies". Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  41. ^ a b "Veronica Lake Wins Divorce". The Miami News. December 2, 1943. p. 1. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  42. ^ "Veronica Lake's Baby, Born Prematurely, Dies". Reading Eagle. July 16, 1943. p. 18. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  43. ^ "Veronica Lake Sued By Mother". The Tuscaloosa News. October 12, 1948. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  44. ^ "Veronica Lake Wins Divorce From Director". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. June 3, 1952. p. 12. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  45. ^ "Veronica Lake Weds Ex-County Tunesmith". The Herald. September 4, 1955. p. 2. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  46. ^ Vermont Death Records, 1909–2003. Vermont State Archives and Records Administration, Montpelier, Vermont.
  47. ^ "Veronica Lake to Be Buried in Islands". The Virgin Islands Daily News. July 11, 1973. p. 1. 
  48. ^ "Rites for Miss Lake Today". The New York Times. July 11, 1973. 
  49. ^ Johnston, Lauren (October 12, 2004). "Veronica Lake's Ashes For Sale?". Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  50. ^ "Hollywood Star Walk: Veronica Lake". Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Beware This Woman". Internet Archive. Retrieved August 7, 2016. 
  52. ^ "Veronica Lake Is Added To War Loan Show Cast: Bay State Quota Other Ovations". The Christian Science Monitor. June 9, 1944. p. 2. 
  53. ^ "Veronica Taking Lead Role". The New York Times. July 20, 1951. p. 13. 
  54. ^ "Veronica Lake Will Hit Strawhat Trail at Olney". The Washington Post. August 26, 1951. p. L-2. 
  55. ^ Calta, Louis (October 25, 1952). "Stage Lead for Veronica Lake: Film Actress May Make Debut on Broadway in 'Masquerade,' Birchard-Stagg Comedy". The New York Times. p. 2. 
  56. ^ Ghisays, Robert (October 25, 1952). "Veronica Lake Opens in London 'Streetcar'". Los Angeles Times. p. E11. 
  57. ^ Weinraub, Bernard (August 1, 1988). "An Animator Breaks Old Rules and New Ground in 'Roger Rabbit'". The New York Times. 
  58. ^ (Hischak 2011, p. 214)
  59. ^ "Video: Period films connected by the past". The Los Angeles Daily News. April 17, 1998. Retrieved July 7, 2012.   – via HighBeam (subscription required)
  60. ^ (Hare 2008, p. 219)
  61. ^ FOLKART, BURT A. (October 13, 1989). "Jay Ward Dies; He Created Rocky, Bullwinkle for TV" – via LA Times. 
  62. ^ Sherman, Robert B., (2013) "Veronica" in Moose: Chapters From My Life, AuthorHouse, pp. 301-04
  63. ^ Andrew Goldfarb (July 30, 2013). "BioShock Infinite Challenge Maps Out Today, Story DLC Soon". IGN. Retrieved April 4, 2016. 
  64. ^ "Drowning in Veronica Lake". Retrieved 2016-08-21. 
  65. ^ "Paulette Goddard and Veronica Lake". February 9, 1943. Retrieved August 7, 2016. 
  66. ^ "Ginny Simms and Veronica Lake". Internet Archive. February 18, 1945. Retrieved August 7, 2016. 
  67. ^ "This Gun For Hire". Internet Archive. April 2, 1945. Retrieved August 7, 2016. 
  68. ^ "Those Were the Days". Nostalgia Digest. 41 (2): 32–41. Spring 2015. 
  69. ^ "The Blue Dahlia". Internet Archive. Retrieved August 7, 2016. 


  • Bloomfield, Gary L.; Shain, Stacie L.; Davidson, Arlen C. (2004). Duty, Honor, Applause: America's Entertainers in World War II. Globe Pequot. ISBN 1-59228-550-3. 
  • Burroughs Hannsberry, Karen (2009). Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film. McFarland. ISBN 0-786-44682-X. 
  • Chierichetti, David (2004). Edith Head: The Life and Times of Hollywood's Celebrated Costume. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-056740-6. 
  • Donnelley, Paul (2003). Fade To Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-9512-5. 
  • Hare, William (2008). L.A. Noir: Nine Dark Visions of the City of Angels. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0786437405. 
  • Hiney, Tom (1999). Raymond Chandler: A Biography. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3637-0. 
  • Hischak, Thomas S. (2011). Disney Voice Actors: A Biographical Dictionary. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0786462711. 
  • Parish, James Robert (2001). The Hollywood Book of Death: The Bizarre, Often Sordid, Passings of More than 125 American Movie and TV Idols. Contemporary Books. ISBN 0-8092-2227-2. 
  • Parish, James Robert; Pitts, Michael R. (2003). Hollywood Songsters: Singers Who Act and Actors Who Sing: A Biographical Dictionary. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-94333-7. 
  • Starr, Kevin (2003). Embattled Dreams: California in War and Peace, 1940-1950. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516897-6. 
  • Terkel, Studs (1999). The Spectator: Talk About Movies and Plays With Those Who Made Them. The New Press. ISBN 1-565-84553-6. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]