Veronica persica

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Veronica persica
Veronica persica 060403Fw.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Veronica
Species:
V. persica
Binomial name
Veronica persica
Synonyms[1]
  • Pocilla persica (Poir.) Fourr.
  • Veronica persica var. persica Poir.
  • Veronica persica var. aschersoniana (Lehm.) B. Boivin
  • Veronica persica var. corrensiana (Lehm.) B. Boivin

Veronica persica (common names: birdeye speedwell,[2] common field-speedwell,[3] Persian speedwell, large field speedwell, bird's-eye, or winter speedwell) is a flowering plant in the family Plantaginaceae. It is native to Eurasia and is widespread as an introduced species in the British Isles (where it was first recorded in 1825[4]), North America, eastern Asia, including Japan and China, and Australia and New Zealand.

Description[edit]

Close-up of the flowers.
Unripe fruit of V. persica

Veronica persica is an annual or winter annual herb that reproduces from seed.

Its cotyledons are triangular with truncated bases. The short-stalked leaves are broadly ovate with coarsely serrated margins, and measure one to two centimetres (0.4 to 0.8 in) long. The leaves are paired on the lower stem and are alternately arranged on the upper parts. The plant has weak stems that form a dense, prostrate groundcover. The tips of stems often grow upright.

The flowers are roughly one centimetre (0.4 in) wide[5] and are sky-blue with dark stripes and white centers. They are zygomorphic, having only one vertical plane of symmetry. They are solitary on long, slender, hairy stalks in the leaf axils.

The seeds are transversely rugose and measure between one and two millimetres (0.04 and 0.08 in) long. There are five to 10 seeds per locule in the fruit.[6]

Veronica persica can be distinguished from similar species by its heart-shaped fruit with two widely-separated lobes.[4][5][6]

Habitat[edit]

The plant grows in fields and lawns. It prefers moist moist conditions and grows well in loamy soil.[7]

Horticultural uses[edit]

Although many species in the genus are used in gardens (such as V. exalta, V. incana, V. gentianoides, V. longifolia, V. perfoliata, and V. spicata),[8] this species is generally seen as a weed[9] and has no known horticultural uses.

Herbal medicine[edit]

Afghani herbalist, Mahomet Allum, used the plant to treat patients with heart trouble, in Adelaide, Australia, in the mid-20th century.[10] It is also used for snakebite treatment, hemorrhaging, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and as an expectorant.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Veronica persica". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  2. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Veronica persica". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  3. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  4. ^ a b Blamey, M., et al. 2003. Wild flowers of Britain and Ireland: The Complete Guide to the British and Irish Flora. A & C Black, London.
  5. ^ a b Rhoads, A. F. and T. A. Block. Plants of Pennsylvania: An Illustrated Manual, 2nd ed. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. 2007.
  6. ^ a b Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd ed. New York Botanical Gardens, New York, New York. 1991.
  7. ^ "Bird's Eye Speedwell (Veronica persica)". Illinois Wildflowers. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  8. ^ Thomas, G. S. Perennial Garden Plants or the Modern Florilegium, 2nd ed. J. M. Dent and Sons, London. 1992.
  9. ^ Veronica persica. USDA Plants Database.
  10. ^ Amirul Husni Affifudin (2018). "Historical Archaeology Report: Mahomet Allum Khan". doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.23125.27365. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)[unreliable source?]
  11. ^ Salehi, Bahare; Shivaprasad Shetty, Mangalpady; V. Anil Kumar, Nanjangud; Živković, Jelena; Calina, Daniela; Oana Docea, Anca; Emamzadeh-Yazdi, Simin; Sibel Kılıç, Ceyda; Goloshvili, Tamar; Nicola, Silvana; Pignata, Giuseppe; Sharopov, Farukh; del Mar Contreras, María; C. Cho, William; Martins, Natália; Sharifi-Rad, Javad (4 July 2019). "Veronica Plants—Drifting from Farm to Traditional Healing, Food Application, and Phytopharmacology". Molecules. 24 (13): 2454. doi:10.3390/molecules24132454. PMC 6651156. PMID 31277407.