|TEM micrograph of Indiana vesiculovirus particles|
Indiana vesiculovirus, formerly Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV or VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well-known Rabies lyssavirus belongs to the same family. VSIV can infect insects, cattle, horses and pigs. It has particular importance to farmers in certain regions of the world where it infects cattle. This is because its clinical presentation is identical to the very important foot and mouth disease virus.
The virus is zoonotic and leads to a flu-like illness in infected humans.
Indiana vesiculovirus is the prototypic member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. VSIV is an arbovirus, and its replication occurs in the cytoplasm. Natural VSIV infections encompass two steps, cytolytic infections of mammalian hosts and transmission by insects. In insects, infections are noncytolytic persistent. One confirmed vector of the virus is the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia shannoni. The genome of VSIV is on a single molecule of negative-sense RNA that has 11,161 nucleotides in length, that encodes five major proteins: G protein (G), large protein (L), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M) and nucleoprotein (N):
The VSIV G protein, aka VSVG, enables viral entry. It mediates viral attachment to an LDL receptor (LDLR) or an LDLR family member present on the host cell. Following binding, the VSIV-LDLR complex is rapidly endocytosed. It then mediates fusion of the viral envelope with the endosomal membrane. VSIV enters the cell through partially clathrin-coated vesicles; virus-containing vesicles contain more clathrin and clathrin adaptor than conventional vesicles. Virus-containing vesicles recruit components of the actin machinery for their interaction, thus inducing its own uptake. VSIV G does not follow the same path as most vesicles because transport of the G protein from the ER to the plasma membrane is interrupted by incubation at 15 °C. Under this condition, the molecules accumulate in both the ER and a subcellular vesicle fraction of low density called the lipid-rich vesicle fraction. The material in the lipid-rich vesicle fraction appears to be a post-ER intermediate in the transport process to the plasma membrane (PM). After infection, the VSIV G gene is expressed and is commonly studied as a model for N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is translated into the rough ER where the Glc3-Man9-GlcNac2 oligosaccharide is added by a dolichol-containing protein, to an NXS motif on VSIV G. Sugars are removed gradually as the protein travels to the Golgi apparatus, and it becomes resistant to endoglycosidase H. When synthesized in polarized epithelial cells, the envelope glycoprotein VSV G is targeted to the basolateral PM. VSVG is also a common coat protein for lentiviral vector expression systems used to introduce genetic material into in vitro systems or animal models, mainly because of its extremely broad tropism.
The VSIV L protein is encoded by half the genome, and combines with the phosphoprotein to catalyze replication of the mRNA.
The VSIV M protein is encoded by an mRNA that is 831 nucleotides long and translates to a 229 amino acid-protein. The predicted M protein sequence does not contain any long hydrophobic or nonpolar domains that might promote membrane association. The protein is rich in basic amino acids and contains a highly basic amino terminal domain.
Clinical signs and diagnosis
The main sign in animals is oral disease appearing as mucosal vesicles and ulcers in the mouth, but also on the udder and around the coronary band. Animals may show systemic signs such as anorexia, lethargy and pyrexia (fever). Disease usually resolves within two weeks, and animals usually recover completely.
Treatment and control
No specific treatment is available, but some animals may require supportive fluids or antibiotics for secondary infections.
In healthy human cells the virus cannot reproduce, likely because of the interferon response, which allows the cells to adequately respond to viral infection. The same cannot be said of interferon non-responsive cancer cells, a quality which allows VSIV to grow and lyse oncogenic cells preferentially.
Recently, attenuated VSIV with a mutation in its M protein has been found to have oncolytic properties. Research is ongoing, and has shown VSIV to reduce tumor size and spread in melanoma, lung cancer, colon cancer and certain brain tumors in laboratory models of cancer.
Therapies under development
Recombinant VSIV expressing the Ebola virus glycoprotein has undergone phase III trials in Africa as a vaccine for Ebola virus disease. The vaccine was shown to be 76-100% effective in preventing Ebola virus disease. (see also rVSV-ZEBOV_vaccine)
The VSIV G protein is commonly used in biomedical research to pseudotype retroviral and lentiviral vectors, conveying the ability to transduce a broad range of mammalian cell types with genes of interest.
The VSIV G protein has also been used in cytological studies of trafficking in the endomembrane system. Immunoelectron microscopy suggests that VSIV G protein moves from cis to trans Golgi bodies without being transported between them in vesicles, supporting the cisternal maturation model of Golgi trafficking.
- "ICTV Taxonomy history: Indiana vesiculovirus" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Vesicular Stomatitis Virus". reviewed and published by WikiVet, accessed 12 October 2011.
- Norkin L.C. (2010.) Virology: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis American Society for Microbiology, Canada.
- Mann, R. S., et al. A Sand Fly, Lutzomyia shannoni Dyar (Insecta: Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotomine). EENY-421. Entomology and Nematology. Florida Cooperative Extension Service. University of Florida IFAS. 2009.
- "VSV complete genome". Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- Finkelshtein D, Werman A, Novick D, Barak S, Rubinstein M. LDL receptor and its family members serve as the cellular receptors for vesicular stomatitis virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Apr 30;110(18):7306–11.
- Alberts, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th ed. 2002.
- David F. Stojdl, Brian Lichty, Shane Knowles, Ricardo Marius, Harold Atkins, Nahum Sonenberg and John C. Bell (2000). "Exploiting tumor-specific defects in the interferon pathway with a previously unknown oncolytic virus". Nature Medicine. 6 (7): 782–89. doi:10.1038/77558. PMID 10888934.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Koray Özduman, Guido Wollmann, Joseph M. Piepmeier, and Anthony N. van den Pol (2008). "Systemic vesicular stomatitis virus selectively destroys multifocal glioma and metastatic carcinoma in brain". The Journal of Neuroscience. 28 (8): 1882–93. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4905-07.2008. PMID 18287505.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Phase 1 Trials of rVSV Ebola Vaccine in Africa and Europe - Preliminary Report.
- Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria (July 31, 2015). "Efficacy and effectiveness of an rVSV-vectored vaccine expressing Ebola surface glycoprotein: interim results from the Guinea ring vaccination cluster-randomised trial". The Lancet. 386 (9996): 857–866. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61117-5. PMID 26248676.
- Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria (2016). "Efficacy and effectiveness of an rVSV-vectored vaccine in preventing Ebola virus disease: final results from the Guinea ring vaccination, open-label, cluster-randomised trial (Ebola Ça Suffit!)". The Lancet. 389 (10068): 505–518. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32621-6. PMC 5364328. PMID 28017403.
- Properties of replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing glycoproteins of filoviruses and arenaviruses.
- Cronin, J.; et al. (2005). "Altering the tropism of lentiviral vectors through pseudotyping". Curr Gene Ther. 5 (4): 387–98. doi:10.2174/1566523054546224. PMC 1368960. PMID 16101513.
- Mironov, A. A.; et al. (2001). "Small cargo proteins and large aggregates can traverse the Golgi by a common mechanism without leaving the lumen of cisternae". J Cell Biol. 155 (7): 1225–38. doi:10.1083/jcb.200108073. PMC 2199327. PMID 11756473.