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Temporal range: Thanetian–Recent
European hornet, Vespa crabro
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Vespidae
Subfamily: Vespinae
Latreille, 1802

The subfamily Vespinae contains the largest and best-known eusocial wasps, including true hornets (the genus Vespa), and the "yellowjackets" (genera Dolichovespula and Vespula). The remaining genus, Provespa, is a small, poorly known group of nocturnal wasps from Southeast Asia. One genus, Palaeovespa, has been described from the Eocene fossil record, from Colorado. Collectively, the group can be found on all continents except Antarctica, and several of these wasps are invasive species, introduced beyond their native ranges, and can be major pests.

Palaeovespa florissantia, an extinct wasp