Veteran Corps of Artillery of the State of New York
|Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York|
The Veteran Corps of Artillery Medal
|Active||November 25, 1790 – present|
|Country||United States of America|
|Type||Historic Military Command|
Present Day Mission:
|Nickname(s)||VCA, VCASNY, Militia|
|Anniversaries||November 25, 1790|
|Engagements||American Revolutionary War
War of 1812
Dead Rabbits Riot
American Civil War
New York Draft Riots
World War I
|COL Stephen J. Ryan FA VCASNY - (LTC USAR)|
The Veteran Corps of Artillery of the State of New York (VCASNY) is an American historic militia organization founded at the end of the American Revolutionary War for the purpose of preventing another British invasion of New York City.
At the time of the American Revolution, the British Colonies in North America did not have a regular standing army. Instead the colonies depended on an independent militia made up mostly of civilian farmers, with few weapons and controlled by the individual colony. While the Continental Congress established a regular army in June 1775, this was more of a formality rather than a reality. In 1776 George Washington wrote "I am wearied to death all day with a variety of perplexing circumstances, disturbed at the conduct of the militia, whose behavior and want of discipline has done great injury to the other troops, who never had officers, except in a few instances, worth the bread they eat" In other words, while the success of the militia itself is debatable, both the regular army and local militia were used to win American Independence.
The official end to the American Revolutionary War did not occur until 1783 when the Treaty of Paris was signed. Until then, British troops, ships and Tories were present and active in New York City, and in fact, Britain would maintain a presence in the United States until 1815 when the War of 1812 ended.
"...Nationalists, most of them war veterans, worried that the new nation was too fragile to withstand an international war, or even internal revolts such as the Shays' Rebellion of 1786 in Massachusetts." (see American Revolution)
- 1 The Militia in the United States
- 2 History of The Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York
- 3 Uniform
- 4 Membership
- 5 Timeline of the Veteran Corps of Artillery and the Military Society of the War of 1812
- 6 Commandants of the Veteran Corps of Artillery
- 7 References
- 8 Additional Material
- 9 External links
The Militia in the United States
Present day United States Code Title 10, Section 311 states that:
- (a)The militia of the United States consists of all able-bodied males at least 17 years of age and, except as provided in section 313 of title 32, under 45 years of age who are, or who have made a declaration of intention to become, citizens of the United States and of female citizens of the United States who are members of the National Guard.
- (b) The classes of the militia are -
This definition is derived from the Militia Act of 1903 which was specifically passed by United States Congress to address the issues of the Militia Act of 1792, as well as the readiness of the existing state militia forces. On the face of it, it appears that the VCASNY is part of the unorganized militia; however, The National Defense Act of 1916 clarifies this in Section 63:
"...Any corps of Artillery, Cavalry, or Infantry existing in any of the States on the passage of the Act of May eighth, seventeen hundred and ninetytwo, which by the laws, customs, or usages of said States has been in continuous existence since the passage of said Act, under its provisions and under the provisions of section two hundred and thirty-two and sections sixteen hundred and twenty-five to sixteen hundred and sixty, both inclusive, of title sixteen of the Revised Statutes of eighteen hundred and seventy-three, and the Act of January twenty-first, nineteen hundred and three, relating to the militia, shall be allowed to retain its ancient privileges, subject, nevertheless, to all duties required by law Of militia: Provided, That said organizations may be a part of the National Guard and entitled to all the privileges of this Act, and shall conform in all respects to the organization, discipline, and training of the National Guard in time of war: Provided further, That for purposes of training and when on active duty in the service of the United States they may be assigned to higher units, as the President may direct, and shall be subject to the orders of officers under whom they shall be serving." 
It would appear then that this is the federal precedence that makes the VCASNY subject to being part of the National Guard in time of war; thus, The Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York is comprehended under The National Defense Act Public No. 85, 64th Congress (H.R. 12766) as being one of the nine Historic Military Organizations, liable for duty under orders of the President in time of War. 
History of The Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York
The VCASNY is the oldest military organization in New York State. It was formed in Manhattan on Evacuation Day (New York), November 25, 1790 , by Veterans of Washington's Continental Army Corps of Artillery. The founders met at the City Arms Tavern located off Broadway near Trinity Church, to establish an independent artillery company of exempts in the event of a return invasion by the British. Exempts were males beyond serving military age and thereby exempt from regular militia service. They are currently headquartered at Manhattan's 7th Regiment Armory in the City of New York. Under federal law, they are part of the Organized Militia of the State of New York, and under state law it is an Independent Military Organization and an Historic Military Command. Private, Federal and State records indicate that there has been, and may still be. a lot of debate on this question even since the early days of the VCASNY. Some government authorities, have considered them an Organized Militia, while others still refer to them as an unorganized militia. In either case, it seems that regardless of their legal definition, the VCASNY has enjoyed fruitful relations with the United States Army, the New York Guard, New York Division of Military and Naval Affairs, and others. This appears to be especially true during the timeframe of World War I, when the VCASNY volunteered for several missions, and received federal, and state backing. In the foreword to The Minute Men of '17, Colonel George W. Burleigh of the NY Guard thanks Major General Leonard Wood United States Army "...for his foresight in giving encouragement and approval to the whole plan. His successor commanding the Department of the East, Major General J. Franklin Bell, continued this support for the Corps..."
18th and 19th Century
When the VCASNY was formed, it consisted exclusively of officers and soldiers of the American Revolutionary War. Little historical records exists to document their activities for the periods between their formation and just prior to the beginning of the War of 1812. It is known however, that the active part of the VCASNY was the Artillery Service Detachment. This section was uniformed and it participated in drills. When hostilities with Britain became imminent, they became the first independent military organization in New York State to volunteer their services for the field. At this time they entered service on June 25, 1812 until July 2, 1812, and then again from September 2, 1814 until March 2, 1815.
In 1814, and then again in 1890, the VCASNY amended their regulations to include descendants of both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. This was most likely due to their decreasing numbers and the advanced age of its members.
The Military Society of the War of 1812 was formed 03 January 1826 by officers of the War of 1812 to press for pensions and bounty land legislation. The Military Society of the War of 1812 and the Veteran Corps of Artillery of the State of New York on 08 January 1848 merged as a sole organization. Since that time there has been a changing role between the two organizations. At present the Veteran Corps of Artillery of the State of New York operates under the leadership of the Military Society of the War of 1812 .
Records indicate that the VCASNY volunteered as an organization for federal service on various occasions in the early part of the 20th century. As in its origin, the VCASNY at the time consisted of men that were exempt from military service due to age or some other reason; however, given the fact that the United States was at war, "The men of the Corps felt that not only their personal inclinations but the traditions of the organization demanded of them that they serve their country in some definite military capacity.". Tradition also demanded of course that they take up the defense of New York City. Two items of concern that would affect New York City directly were civil unrest, and Submarine aircraft carriers. While the latter did not come into service in WWI, there was concern that, while these vessels could not inflict heavy damage, it would cost a morale issue in the United States. As such, the VCASNY found a mission that they were suited for; however, they would first have to solve the issue of numbers in the ranks, while also not affecting the war effort. At first recruitment was from other hereditary organizations such as the Sons of the American Revolution, but they found that this would not greatly increase their ranks. So, on February 22, 1917 the regulations of the VCASNY were once again amended to allow for the enlistment of exempts who were "...men of good moral character, not qualified for hereditary membership...". Although there were some initial problems with the number of recruits the VCASNY would eventually raise, they were eventually supported by New York state legislature and proceeded to form a total of twelve provisional batteries commanded by Colonel John Ross Delafield. Its first official public duty came in May 1917, when they were asked to participate as Honor Guard for the French and British Commission at City Hall.
With the attacks on the United States on 9/11, the VCASNY volunteered to assist the 88th Brigade New York Guard. The role of the VCASNY as an organization was minor, but some members assumed their roles in the military, law enforcement, emergency medical services, etc. and participated independently.
Members of the VCASNY have served in several wars and military actions involving the United States including World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, as well as Desert Storm and the present WOT conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Members have served in all of the United States military branches, and many VCA members are still serving actively in either the regular branches or the National Guard or reserves including the NY (State) Guard. As noted in its web site, the current mission of the VCASNY is to "preserve the military heritage of the State of New York and to support military activities in the State of New York upon request". The VCASNY today serves primarily as a ceremonial unit, and during the course of its drill year, is invited to participate in numerous New York City parades, civic and patriotic events. Independently or in association with traditional veterans organizations, the VCASNY also serves as honor guard and provides firing parties for military funerals, military anniversaries and other events of military interest. Drills and practice are held in several locations such as the 7th Regiment Armory, Jamaica Armory in Jamaica, Queens, and Camp Smith. Their drill season begins in October with the Columbus Day Parade, and ends with the VCASNY "4th of July" salute to the nation. Here they render an artillery salute from its Firing Battery of 75mm pack howitzers. This practice began on July 4, 1794, when the VCASNY fired its first Federal Artillery Salute from the Battery in New York City in celebration of U.S. Independence. Other events that they participate in during the drill year include:
In addition to this, there are also several social events for VCA members and its 'sister' organization, The Military Society of the War of 1812. These include the VCA Annual Mess Dinner which is held on the Saturday in January nearest to January 15, and The Military Society of 1812 Annual Dinner, held on the Saturday of January nearest to January 8 to celebrate the Battle of New Orleans.
While highly unlikely, and possibly still debatable, the VCASNY may be subject to federal call-up and as such conducts individual weapons qualification each year at Camp Smith, New York National Guard Training site in Peekskill, New York. 
The VCASNY follows the United States Army regulations on uniforms. "Upon the Organization of the Corps in 1790, the uniform of the Continental Corps of Artillery of the Revolution was adopted"
- The Parade Dress uniform today is the U.S. Army uniform from the War of 1812. This uniform is worn during parades and patriotic events.
- The ACU (Army Combat Uniform) is typically worn during weapons training, parades, exercises, etc.
- U.S. Army Class A and Class B uniforms are worn during regular drills. As prescribed by AR 670-1, the VCA is transitioning to the new Army ASU (Army Service Uniform).
- The Blue Corps Blazer with the Corps Blazer Patch-Gold Bullion and the Corps Tie is worn during informal social occasions.
In 1917, the VCASNY regulations for membership were amended. Today, in order to apply for the VCA, prospective members must be a U.S. citizen and be 18 years of age or older. Additionally, while Prior military service is not a condition for membership, those with prior or active service enter as Privates (PV1) regardless of previous or current rank. One item of interest is that in spite of its name the Veteran Corps of Artillery 'is not a Veterans' organization like the Veterans of Foreign Wars or American Legion.
Timeline of the Veteran Corps of Artillery and the Military Society of the War of 1812
|1790||The VCASNY was organized on November 25, 1790 , at the City Arms Tavern by officers and soldiers who served in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. "Upon the Organization of the Corps in 1790, the uniform of the Continental Corps of Artillery of the Revolution was adopted"|
|1791||The VCASNY was approved as a separate and distinct organization in the Militia of the State of New York by then Governor of the State George Clinton on March 8, 1791. |
|1792||The VCASNY was confirmed in statutory and prescriptive rights and privileges as a separate Corps in the Active Militia, of Congress on May 8, 1792 (Sec. 1641, U.S. Revised Statutes), also January 21, 1903 (Sec. 3).|
|1812-15||The VCASNY volunteered and entered military service of the United States during the War of 1812.|
|1824||During the official return and official state visit of Lafayette to America, the VCA was placed to the right of line a place of honor among other militia units of the state, for his official arrival in New York City.|
|1826||The Military Society of the War of 1812 was established in the City of New York on January 3, 1826, as a military society composed exclusively by commissioned officers of that War: regular and volunteer.|
|1848||The Society of the War of 1812 and the Veteran Corps of Artillery were consolidated on January 8, 1848.|
|1857||The Veteran Corps Artillery guarded the NY State Arsenal from attack during the Dead Rabbits Riot.|
|1861||Veteran Corps of Artillery served as Battery G, 4th Artillery Regiment of the New York State Militia (National Guard) during the American Civil War.|
|1863||The Veteran Corps of Artillery took part in restoring order during the New York Draft Riots, protecting the State Arsenal from being looted of its muskets and ammunition.|
|1890||A "joint resolution" by the Congress of the United States incorporating the Society of the War of 1812 into an historic military command was approved on September 25, 1890.|
|1892||The Society of the War of 1812 was incorporated as a military society under the laws of the State of New York on January 8, 1892.|
|1895||Brigadier General Asa Bird Gardiner begins work on the revitalization of both the Veteran Corps of Artillery, and the Military Society of 1812. The Military Society of 1812 as an organization is ratified by New York State Legislature on 9 March 1895.|
|1917||Following America's entry into World War I, The Veteran Corps of Artillery was called up for state active duty by the Governor to help guard the reservoirs  in Upstate New York protecting the New York City water supply from sabotage.|
|1917-18||Three officers from the VCASNY traveled to both Britain and the front lines of France to study and translate (from French) the tactical field manual for Anti-Aircraft Artillery, later adopted as the manual for the U.S. Army.|
|1917-19||The Veteran Corps of Artillery under their Vice Commandant, LTC John Delafield, became the 9th Regiment New York Guard, embodying the Veteran Corps of Artillery, The unit was intended to become an Anti Aircraft Artillery Regiment but served through the war as Infantry.|
|1920-39||The VCASNY provided federally approved officer training camps in the summer months for instruction for United States Army Reserve Officers.|
|1940||The Corps relocated its headquarters from the 71st Regiment Armory on Park Ave and East 33rd Street to its present location at the 7th Regiment Armory.|
|1941-45||At the outbreak of America's entry in World War II, The Veteran Corp Artillery was not called up as a unit, however large numbers of its members of military age enlisted and served in various branches of the U.S. Armed Forces and in all theaters of operations.|
|1974||The VCASNY acquired three howitzers from the New York Army National Guard to be used once again for ceremonial firings. The VCA resumed firing the annual salute to the nation from the battery for the first time since 1890.|
|1986||The VCASNY Firing Battery conducted firing battery salutes from multiple locations in and around New York Harbor for the 100th anniversary celebration and re-dedication of the Statue of Liberty on July 4.|
|1994||On June 6 the VCASNY fired a 21 gun salute to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the D-Day landings in Normandy. The VCA conducted the ceremony on the Great Lawn in New York City's Central Park.|
|1996||On January 1 the VCA resumed its role as the honor guard to the Governor's  inauguration for the first time since the administrations of Governor Nelson Rockefeller.|
|1998||August 5 select members of the VCA began volunteering to attend annual training with the New York Guard at the New York Army National Guard's training site, Camp Smith, located across from West Point in Peekskill, New York.|
|1999||On July 3 The VCA firing battery welcomed an international naval flotilla, firing salutes from Fort Hamilton and the following day welcomed the tall ships review breaking with tradition by special request of the U.S. Army and fired its traditional July 4 50 round salute from Fort Hamilton in Brooklyn.|
|2001||Volunteers from The Veteran Corps of Artillery assisted the 88th Brigade New York Guard immediately following the attacks on September 11. Corps members worked from the 7th Regiment Armory at the New York National Guard's emergency operations center.|
|2008||In October the Corps helped plan and conduct the re-dedication for the 100th anniversary of the Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument in Fort Greene Park, Brooklyn, in remembrance to the thousands of American soldiers and sailors held as prisoners of war who suffered and died on board the prison ships anchored off Brooklyn during the American Revolutionary War.|
|2008||On November 25 the VCA led the march of all United States military units  through lower Manhattan for the 225th commemoration of Evacuation Day.|
|2009||On November 2 the Veteran Corps of Artillery participated in New York City's official welcome near Ground Zero for the newly constructed naval vessel, USS New York built with steel from the World Trade Center. The ship paused off Battery Park to fire a 21 gun salute as it sailed up the Hudson River to the commissioning ceremony.|
|2011||On October 28, 2011, and at the request from the office of the U.S. Army Chief of Staff, the Veteran Corps of Artillery (assisted by the 1/258th Field Artillery) began the official celebration of the 125th Anniversary of the Statue of Liberty. At approximately 10:00AM, the VCA fired a single 4 gun volley to signal the start of the event. Later that morning, the VCA fired a 19 Gun Salute in honor of foreign dignitaries present for the celebration.|
Commandants of the Veteran Corps of Artillery
June 2011 – Present - Stephen J. Ryan, COL FA VCASNY - (LTC USAR)
2008–June 2011- Charles C. Lucas, Jr., COL FA VCASNY
2002–2008 – David J. Ramsay, Major General
1998–2002 – John Edward Connelly, III, Major General
1996–1998 – Ralph Arthur Olson, Brigadier General
1985–1996 – John Edward Connelly, II, Major General
1975–1985 – James Watson Gerard, II, Major General
1970–1975 – Sherman Post Haight, Jr., Colonel
1965–1970 – William Ely Chambers, Colonel
1958–1965 – Joseph Baird Magnus, Colonel
1957–1958 – William Grandy Goodwin, Colonel
1950–1957 – Frances Florian Steers, Colonel
1947–1950 – Edwin Bertan Conklin, Colonel
1946–1947 – Chandler Smith, Colonel
1922–1946 – Charles Elliot Warren, Major General, U.S. Ret
1919–1922 – William Groves Bates, Brigadier General
1908–1919 – Asa Bird Gardiner, Bvt Major General
1890–1908 – Rev. Morgan Dix, S.T.D., D.D., D.C.L
1878–1890 – Abraham Daly, Jr., Brigadier General**–Last veteran "Original Member" to hold post of Commandant
1855–1878 – Henry Raymond, Brigadier General
1853–1855 – James B. Murray, Colonel
1850–1853 – Nicholas Haight, Colonel
1845–1850 – Richard Raynor, Captain
1826–1845 – Dr. George Warren Chapman, Captain
1816–1826 – George Mills, Captain
1813–1816 – Dr. George Warren Chapman, Captain
1809–1813 – John McLean, Captain
1807–1809 – William Boyd, Brigadier General
1790–1807 – John Delamater, Captain
- The American Revolution: First War for Independence GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved August 29, 2014.
- Washington blames militia for problems. This Day in History. Retrieved August 29. 2014.
- United States Code, Title 10, Section 311
- Also referred to as the Defense Act Public No. 85, 64th Congress (H.R. 12766)
- National Defense Act 1916
- Annals and Regulations, Veteran Corps of Artillery, Page 24-25, 1970
- National Defense Extract
- The State Department Reports of the State of New York, Opinions of the Attorney General, by New York State, page 413, 1913
- Major Norman F. Cushman's History of the V.C.A. and Major General Asa Bird Gardiner's Legal History of the V.C.A. including the Roster of the original members of the Corps and Society (Archives), Annals and Regulations and Roster, Military Society year books, 1896,1897,1898,1900,1901 (NY Historical Society).
- Andrews v. Gardiner, NYS Appellate Division, 2nd Dept., 1918;
- Opinion, NYS Attorney-General, February 1913;
- Militia Acts of 1792 and 1795, codified in the Revised Statutes of the United States in Title 16, Revised Statutes of 1874;
- Militia Act of 1903; Amendments to the Act in 1908;
- National Defense Act of 1916;
- National Defense Act of 1956;
- A WWI history of the Ninth Coast Artillery of the New York Guard, and the VCASNY
- American Orders and Societies and Their Decorations, By Jennings Hood, Charles James Young, Bailey & Company (Philadelphia, Pa.), Page 98, 1917
- The Minute Men of 17, "A History of the Service Rendered during the Recent World War by the Ninth Coast Artillery Corps-New York and the Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York. Published by Memorial and Property Committee of the Ninth Coast Artillery Corps, Pg. 11, 1922.
- The American almanac, year-book, cyclopaedia and atlas, New York American and Journal, Hearst's Chicago American and San Francisco Examiner,1902
- The Minute Men of 17, "A History of the Service Rendered during the Recent World War by the Ninth Coast Artillery Corps-New York and the Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York. Published by Memorial and Property Committee of the Ninth Coast Artillery Corps, Pg. 13, 1922.
- The Minute Men of 17, "A History of the Service Rendered during the Recent World War by the Ninth Coast Artillery Corps-New York and the Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York. Published by Memorial and Property Committee of the Ninth Coast Artillery Corps, 1922.
- VCA Chief of Staff, Active Duty Orders in the NY Army National Guard for Domestic Operations (Hurricane Irene), 27 - 31 AUG 2011 (Orders For Official Use Only [FOUO], but available on request.)
- Annals and Regulations, Veteran Corps of Artillery, Page 54-55, 1970
- Veterans Corps of Artillery of the State of New York, (Plate No. 470)
- Roster of the Veteran Corps of Artillery Constituting The Military Society of the War of 1812 for 1901-1902, Uniform of the Corps, VCA, Page 49,1901
- Roster of the Veteran Corps of Artillery Constituting The Military Society of the War of 1812 for 1901-1902, Uniform of the Corps, VCA, Page 67, 1901
- The State Department Reports of the State of New York, Volume 3, Issues 13-18, In the Matter of Construing the Military Law, New York State, Joseph Albert Lawson, William Van Rensselaer Erving, Joseph H. Wilson, Opinion dated February 28, 1913, Page 413, 1913
- Roster of the Veteran Corps of Artillery Constituting The Military Society of the War of 1812 for 1901-1902, Uniform of the Corps, VCA, Page 68, 1901
- The VCA was part of the 4th Regiment New York State Militia also known as the Fourth Heavy Artillery. However, this was a state militia regiment and not the same as the volunteer regiments of the 4th Heavy Artillery or the 4th Independent Battery, Light Artillery. email from Courtney T. Burns New York State Military Museum
- a. The First Provisional Regiment medal commemorates service by New York Guard members and by members of the Veteran Corps of Artillery, State of New York (VCA) serving in the First Provisional Regiment during World War I to guard the NYS Aqueducts. Over 100 shots were fired at soldiers of the regiment doing their duty and over 40 soldiers of the regiment gave their lives during this mission. The VCA has served as guardian of this medal for over 60 years and now shares authority for the wearing of this medal with the Conunander, New York Guard. The Commander, New York Guard therefore, grants authorization to wear the First Provisional Regiment Medal to all members of the New York Guard. b. The ribbon design is green with thin gray and red stripes at the edges.
c. The authorization to wear is granted once.
- New York Division of Military and Naval Affairs (DMNA), as part of the 1st Provisional Regiment New York Guard.
- The Minute Men of 17 || "A History of the Service Rendered during the Recent World War by the Ninth Coast Artillery Corps-New York and the Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York. Published by Memorial and Property Committee of the Ninth Coast Artillery Corps -Copyright 1922.
- Journal of the National Institute of Social Sciences, Pg. 177 - Cabot Ward, while an officer of the Veteran Corps of Artillery, was sent to France to investigate and report on the armaments, system of defense, anti-aircraft defenses and other matters in connection with the protection of the cities of France and England, especially of Paris and London
- The Minute Men of 17 - "A History of the Service Rendered during the Recent World War by the Ninth Coast Artillery Corps-New York and the Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York. Published by Memorial and Property Committee of the Ninth Coast Artillery Corps -Copy right 1922.
- [ 1st Battalion Ninth Regiment New York Guard website]
- Lineage of the Ninth Regiment, New York - Leonhard A. Keyes, LL.M -244th Antiaircraft Artillery Group. Published 1953.
- Lineage of the Ninth Regiment, New York - Leonhard A. Keyes, LL.M -244th Antiaircraft Artillery Group. Published 1953.
- The Veteran Corps of Artillery New York- The Military Society War of 1812, Published by the Council of Administration VCASNY,1970 .
- The Corps Here and Now - material compiled by Colonel Malcom G. Smith,1987
- Military Society of the War of 1812 Veteran Corps of Artillery of the State of New York -Constitution and by Laws-Ruiles and Regulations-Special Laws index -Compiled by the Council of Administration V.C.A.S.N..Y 1994
- Roster of the Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York (Red Book), -214th Anniversary Edition -2004.
- A Short History of the Veteran Corps of Artillery -LTC Dwyer Wedvick, FA VCASNY -2008
- Official Website
- THE OFFICIAL HOMEPAGE OF FORT SILL, OK, United States Army
- Tarry Town Patch Story and Video
- [ 1st Battalion Ninth Regiment New York Guard website]
- Corps of Artillery Video on YouTube
- Andrew Cusack Website
- AllBusiness Website
- Access My Library Article
- New York Times (c)
- Google Books - Roster of the Veteran Corps of Artillery constituting the Military Society
- Google Books - The World almanac & book of facts, Pg 544
- Journal of the National Institute of Social Sciences, Pg. 177
- Article on First Provisional Regiment - Organization of the Unit
- The Sun article on the Knickerbocker Greys
- The Patriot - March with Us
- July Military History Strategy Page.com
- Field Drum of the Veteran Corps of Artillery
- Email from Courtney T. Burns of the NYS Military Museum
- July 2005 issue of STAND-TO from www.army.mil