Veterinary acupuncture

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According to traditional chinese medicine, the Baihui acupuncture point in humans, which is the midpoint of a line connecting both ears, is anatomically similar to the Dafengmen point in pigs

Veterinary acupuncture is the practice of performing acupuncture on animals.[1]

History[edit]

Traditional Chinese veterinary medicine (TCVM) has been practiced on animals for thousands of years. For nearly 3,000 years, from the Zhou dynasty and the reign of Emperor Mu around 930 B.C., up until the Yuan dynasty of the 14th century, Chinese medicine was used sparingly on large animals. Much of the focus was on the treatment of horses since they were so essential to the military.[2] In more modern times it has been used increasingly on pet animals. Acupuncture is one of the five branches of TCVM.

In historical Asian culture, people known as "horse priests" commonly used acupuncture. The flow of information from the East to the West regarding animal treatment, including acupuncture, is thought to have started from Mesopotamia around 300 BC. Acupuncture remained a major interest in veterinary medicine for centuries. Its use for dogs was first described in the Tang Dynasty.[3]

In the 20th century, animal acupuncture was first introduced in the United States in 1971 by two acupuncturists of the National Acupuncture Association, Gene Bruno and John Ottaviano.[2] In the process of treating thousands of small animals and several hundred horses, Bruno and Ottaviano trained veterinarians who later founded the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS).[4] The demand for veterinary acupuncture has steadily increased since the 1990s.[5]

Practice[edit]

Veterinary acupuncture in dog

Acupuncture is used mainly for functional problems such as those involving noninfectious inflammation, paralysis, or pain. For small animals, acupuncture has been used for treating arthritis, hip dysplasia, lick granuloma, feline asthma, diarrhea, and certain reproductive problems. For larger animals, acupuncture has been used for treating downer cow syndrome, facial nerve paralysis, allergic dermatitis, respiratory problems, nonsurgical colic, and certain reproductive disorders. Acupuncture has also been used on competitive animals, such as those involved in racing and showing.[6] Veterinary acupuncture has also recently been used on more exotic animals, such as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) [7] and an alligator with scoliosis,[8] though this is still quite rare.

Mechanism[edit]

Research on the mechanism of acupuncture began as early as 1976 with the introduction of the endorphin hypothesis and the gate control theory of pain, which accounts for the inhibition of nociceptive information via interneurons.[9] Stimulation of nerve fibres contributes to the release of cytokines and inflammatory mediators around the needle as part of a neuromodulatory process resulting from the needling effect on connective tissue and fibroblasts.[10] In response to needle stimulation, neuropeptides are released into the local blood flow. These neuropeptides include calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide.[11]

In recent years, research has been prompted by the introduction of neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), both of which have further elucidated the relation between acupuncture stimulation and activation of neural structures.[12] In addition, deactivation of the limbic system by acupuncture stimulation has been reported in human studies, possibly accounting for its sedative effect in horses.[13] A diverse array of neurotransmitters and receptors contribute to acupuncture analgesia including opioids, glutamate and NMDA receptors, serotonin and cholecystokinins.[14] The autonomic neuromodulatory signaling of tissue cytokines affects both somatic and viseral[clarification needed] structures to restore the balance between the parasympathetic nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system.[15] In equine populations, clinical responses may occur within minutes to hours after treatment.[16]

Efficacy[edit]

In 2001, a review found insufficient evidence to support equine acupuncture. The review found uniformly negative results in the highest quality studies.[17] In 2006, a systematic review of veterinary acupuncture found "no compelling evidence to recommend or reject acupuncture for any condition in domestic animals", citing trials with, on average, low methodological quality or trials that are in need of independent replication.[1] In 2009, a review on canine arthritis found "weak or no evidence in support of" various treatments, including acupuncture.[18]

Recent (i.e. post-2011) reviews in both veterinary text books[3][19][20][21] and scientific journals[22][23][24][25][26] indicate that acupuncture can be used for therapeutic or homeostatic effects in animals, especially in the three areas of pain management, geriatric medicine and sports medicine.[citation needed] Conditions that have the best responses to veterinary acupuncture are considered to be pain, immune-related dysfunction and visceral dysfunction.[21]

In 2015, the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) and American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) issued joint guidelines for the management of pain in cats and dogs. The guidelines stated, "There is a solid and still growing body of evidence for the use of acupuncture for the treatment of pain in veterinary medicine to the extent that it is now an accepted treatment modality for painful animals."[27]

Related methods[edit]

Acupuncture refers to the use of dry needles; however, there are several related methods which do not use these, or may use a modified type of needle or stimulator.

  • Electroacupuncture: Electrical stimulation at an acupuncture point. This may by given on or through the surface of the skin. Various combinations of acupuncture points can be selected to induce electropuncture analgesia in animals. Generally, analgesia is achieved near to the sites of electropuncture.[28]

A study on the use of electroacupuncture on dogs after back surgery reported ambiguous results. In the study, the post-operation dogs were assigned a pain score eight times within a 72-hour time-frame. Though significantly lower pain scores were found in the treatment group at 36 hours, the scores did not differ from the control group at any other time.[29]

  • Aquapuncture: Injection of a drug or a liquid (e.g. vitamin B12) at acupuncture points.
  • Acupressure: Application of pressure at acupuncture points.
  • Moxibustion: Using a burning herbal stick to stimulate and warm acupuncture points.
  • Lasers: Lasers can sometimes be used to stimulate acupunture points.
  • Implantation: Gold or silver beads (or other stimulants) are sometimes implanted at acupuncture points.

Organizations[edit]

The International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS) was founded in the US in 1974 and the first certification exam was held in 1975 when there were only 80 members of the society. IVAS has grown worldwide and in 2015 the membership exceeds 1,800.[30] The Association of British Veterinary Acupuncturists was formed in 1987.[31] In 2014, American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) admitted the American Academy of Veterinary Acupuncture (AAVA) as a "Constituent Allied Veterinary Organization".[32] The American Board of Animal Acupuncture (ABAA) is the only certification agency for licensed acupuncturists practicing animal acupuncture in the US.[33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Habacher, Gabriele; Pittler, Max H.; Ernst, Edzard (2006). "Effectiveness of acupuncture in veterinary medicine: Systematic review". Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 20 (3): 480–488. ISSN 0891-6640. PMID 16734078. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2006.tb02885.x. 
  2. ^ a b Acupuncture Today September, 2014, Vol. 15, Issue 09
  3. ^ a b Karen M. Tobias; Spencer A. Johnston., eds. (2012). Veterinary Surgery: Small Animal. Elsevier. 
  4. ^ Cohn, Sherman (18 October 2008), "The History of Acupuncture", given to the General Assembly at the AAAOM’s 2008 Conference 
  5. ^ "Animal Acupuncture: More Pets Get the Point". National Geographic. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  6. ^ "Veterinary Acupuncture". International Veterinary Acupuncture Society. Retrieved 11 April 2013. 
  7. ^ Magden ER, Haller RL, Thiele EJ, Buchl SJ, Lambeth SP, Schapiro SJ. Acupuncture as an Adjunct Therapy for Osteoarthritis in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS. 2013;52(4):475-480. NCBI Ref. Aces. 6/02/2017
  8. ^ "Albino Alligator Gets Acupuncture". 
  9. ^ Fox, Steven M. (2010). Chronic pain in small animal medicine. London: MansonPub./Veterinary Press. p. 188. ISBN 1840765674. 
  10. ^ Stephen J. Withrow; David M. Vail; Rodney L. Page, eds. (2013). Withrow and MacEwen's Small Animal Clinical Oncology (5th ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier. pp. 280–281. ISBN 9781437723625. 
  11. ^ Fry, Lindsey M.; Neary, Susan M.; Sharrock, Joseph; Rychel, Jessica K. (June 2014). "Acupuncture for Analgesia in Veterinary Medicine". Topics in Companion Animal Medicine. 29 (2): 35–42. doi:10.1053/j.tcam.2014.03.001. 
  12. ^ Kurt A. Grimm; William J. Tranquilli; Leigh A. Lamont, eds. (2011). Essentials of Small Animal Anesthesia and Analgesia (2 ed.). p. 132. 
  13. ^ Kim A. Sprayberry; N. Edward Robinson, eds. (2014). Robinson's Current Therapy in Equine Medicine. Elsevier. pp. 69–71. ISBN 0323242162. 
  14. ^ Christine M. Egger; Lydia Love; Tom Doherty, eds. (2014). Pain Management in Veterinary Practice. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 111876160X. 
  15. ^ Deborah Silverstein; Kate Hopper, eds. (2014). Small Animal Critical Care Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 778. ISBN 0323243525. 
  16. ^ James A. Orsini; Thomas J. Divers, eds. (2013). Equine Emergencies: Treatment and Procedures (4th ed.). p. 28. ISBN 1455708925. 
  17. ^ Ramey, DW, Lee, M and Messer, NT (2001). "A Review of the Western Veterinary Literature on Equine Acupuncture". J. Eq. Vet. Sci. 21 (2): 56–60. doi:10.1016/s0737-0806(01)70091-3. 
  18. ^ Sanderson, R.O., Beata, C., Flipo, R.M., Genevois, J.P., Macias, C., Tacke, S., Vezzoni, A. and Innes, J.F. (April 4, 2009). "Systematic review of the management of canine arthritis". Veterinary Record. 164 (14): 418–24. doi:10.1136/vr.164.14.418. 
  19. ^ William W. Muir III; John A.E. Hubbell; Richard Bednarski; Philip Lerche., eds. (2013). "Chapter 19: Integrative medicine: Acupuncture analgesia". Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia. (5 ed.). Elsevier. 
  20. ^ Ortel, S., Goldberg, M.E., Conarton, L., Koudelka, K. and Downing. R. (2015). "Chapter 17: The veterinary technician in althernative therapies". In Mary Ellen Goldberg. Pain Management for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses. John Wiley and Sons: Ames, Iowa. p. 317. 
  21. ^ a b Skarda R.T. & Glowaski, M. "Chapter 24: Acupuncture". In Tranquilli, W.J.; Thurmon, J.C & Grimm, K.A. Lumb and Jones' Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia (4 ed.). Blackwell Publishing. 
  22. ^ Xie H. & Wedemeyer, L. (2012). "Reviews: The validity of acupuncture in veterinary medicine.". American Journal of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine. 7 (1): 35–44. 
  23. ^ Hulea, C.I. & Cristina, R.T. (2012). "Acupuncture as a therapeutic tool in health disorders in animals: A review.". Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies. 45 (2): 166–177. 
  24. ^ Araújo, A.M.S. (2014). "Acupuncture in equine reproductive disorders (Review)". PUBVET. 8 (18). ISSN 1982-1263. 
  25. ^ Parrah, J.D., Moulvi, B.A., Dedmari, F.H., Athar, H. and Kalim, M.O. (2012). "Acupuncture in veterinary medicine - a review.". Veterinary Practitioner. 13 (2): 370–373. ISSN 0972-4036. 
  26. ^ Corti, L. (2014). "Nonpharmaceutical approaches to pain management". Topics in Companion Animal Medicine. 29 (1): 24–28. doi:10.1053/j.tcam.2014.04.001. 
  27. ^ AAHA/AAFP (2015). "2015 AAHA/AAFP pain management guidelines for dogs and cats" (PDF). Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 17: 251–272. doi:10.1177/1098612x15572062. 
  28. ^ Schweitzer, A. (2013). "Chapter 19 Integrative medicine: Acupuncture analgesia". In William W. Muir III; John A.E. Hubbell; Richard Bednarski; Philip Lerche. Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia. Elsevier. 
  29. ^ Laim, A., Jaggy, A., Forterre, F.; et al. (2009). "Effects of adjunct electroacupuncture on severity of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy because of acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease". J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 234 (9): 1141–6. doi:10.2460/javma.234.9.1141. 
  30. ^ "IVAS". IVAS. Retrieved May 16, 2015. 
  31. ^ "Welcome to the ABVA". ABVA. Retrieved May 16, 2015. 
  32. ^ Hauserman, A. (2014). "American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) admits the American Academy of Veterinary Acupuncture". AAVA. Retrieved May 16, 2015. 
  33. ^ "American Board of Animal Acupuncture". The American Board of Animal Acupuncture. Retrieved May 16, 2015. 

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