Vibrio anguillarum is a Gram-negative, curved-rod bacterium with one polar flagellum. It is an important pathogen of cultured salmonid fish, and causes the disease known as vibriosis or red pest of eels. The disease has been observed in salmon, bream, eel, mullet, catfish, and tilapia, amongst others. The organism is most prevalent in late summer in salt or brackish water and transmission is mainly horizontal by direct contact. It is widely distributed across the world.
Clinical signs and diagnosis
Multiple haemorrhages in the body and skin changes signifying systemic involvement occur. Splenomegaly (enlargement of spleen) may be evident in young fish. Diagnosis relies on culture of V. anguillarum and the use of monoclonal antibodies.
Treatment and control
Various antibiotics such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid derivatives, nitrofurans, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim can be used to treat the fish. Resistance is emerging, however. A vaccine against V. anguillarum is available.
Jang, I K; Qiao, G (Oct 2014). "Effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.): mortality and viral replication". Journal of Fish Diseases. 37 (10): 911–920. PMID 24127689. doi:10.1111/jfd.12194.
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