VicRail N type carriage

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N type carriage
Vline n class train at lara victoria.jpg
N class locomotive hauling a five-car N type carriage set
In service1981-current
ManufacturerVictorian Railways
Built atNewport Workshops
ReplacedE type carriages
Constructed1981-1984
Entered service1981
Refurbishment2007-2013
Number built57
Number in service56
FormationOriginally BN-BN-ACN then BN-BRN-ACN, some sets with additional BZN & BTN cars. On standard gauge only, BN-BN-BDN-BRN-ACN.
DiagramB-14 (BN), B-15 (BRN), A-9 (ACN)
Fleet numbersBN 1-2, 4-5, 7-8, 10-11, 13-14, 16-17, 19, 22-23, 25-26, 28 & 55

BRN 20, 29, 31-32, 34-35, 37-38, 40-41, 43-44, 46-47, 49-50, 52-53 & 56 ACN 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 42, 45, 48, 51, 54 & 57

BDN 6, 21 & 50
Capacity88 economy passengers (BN), 67 economy passengers (BRN), 52 1st class passengers (ACN)
Operator(s)V/Line Passenger; previously V/Line. Also operated by V/Line on behalf of Hoys Roadlines
Depot(s)Newport Workshops
Line(s) servedGeelong, Warrnambool, Swan Hill, Shepparton, Albury (standard gauge from 2011) & Bairnsdale (previously also Ballarat, Horsham, Dimboola, Bendigo, Cobram & Numurkah)
Specifications
Car body construction22458 mm
Car length22860 mm
Width2972 mm
Height4065 mm
Articulated sectionsRubber corridor connectors
Wheelbase20046 mm total; 4890 mm per bogie
Maximum speed115 km/h
Weight44 tonnes (BRN),[1] 43 tonnes (BN & ACN)[2]
Axle load11 tonnes (BRN), 10.75 tonnes (BN & ACN)
Power supply415 V AC diesel alternators, later head-end power
Bogies16156 mm centres
Braking system(s)Westinghouse
Coupling systemAutocouplers
Track gauge1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) & 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)

The N type carriages are an intercity passenger carriage used on the railways of Victoria, Australia. They were introduced between 1981 and 1984 as part of the 'New Deal' reforms of country passenger rail services. Today there are seen on both V/Line long distance InterCity services.

The carriage sets have both first class 2+2 seating, and 2+3 economy seating. Snack bar facilities are also provided on board. Originally delivered as 3-car sets, some sets were extended in length with S and Z type carriages.

Today the carriages are normally hauled by N class diesel locomotives. The carriages can use an external head end power supply for lighting and air conditioning operation. Each carriage has two swing doors per side, which were originally manually opened by passengers, but have since been converted to powered operation, and they are locked or unlocked by the conductor. Toilets, drinking fountains and luggage areas are provided throughout each carriage set.

History[edit]

The order for the N type carriages was placed in 1977 for 30 carriages (10 sets) for use on the Geelong line, with 6 cars added to the order in 1978 for the Ballarat line, due to a by-election in the city.[3] Under the New Deal of 1981 the order was extended to 54 carriages,[4] and then to 57 due to cost savings during construction.[5] They were built between 1981 and 1984, based upon the structural design of the Victorian Z type carriages built between 1956 and 1960.[6]

In 2007 V/Line commenced a refurbishment program for their existing H type carriages and Sprinter railcars,[7] this program later being extended to the N type carriages. In October 2007 the first refurbished N type carriage was released into traffic with the new V/Line grey exterior livery, as well as updated interior curtains and seat fabrics.

As part of the Albury line upgrade some N carriages were converted to standard gauge. Three sets (consisting of 5 carriages and one power/luggage van) have already been formed, and they are named SN1, SN15 and SN16.

Services[edit]

N sets are used on lines including:

Design[edit]

The design of the N-class carriages was based on the earlier Z-class ones, but with the benefit of thirty years of construction and design experience.[8]

The first-class carriages were fitted with blue-wool seating and blue/grey carpets. The second-class carriages were furnished with orange seats and a russet (tan/brown) carpet. All materials were fire-retardant, and non-skid Pirelli flooring was fitted at the entrances and service areas; in blue to match the carpets in the first class areas, and in maroon for the second class areas. Following customer feedback, the seating arrangements in the economy cars were reorganised to place the centres of back-to-back seats in line with pillars between windows.

Two-stage air-conditioning was fitted for summer, and heating elements placed underneath the carpet for winter. Those systems, along with those for lighting and announcements, were powered by three-phase alternators, fixed to the underframe of each carriage. These required refuelling, but were cheaper and more reliable than the axle-driven generators used most earlier vehicles.

One unisex toilet was provided at the west end of each carriage, along with hot water for each wash basin, fed from a 635-litre pressurised tank. The system met the Environmental Protection Agency's requirements as they existed in 1981.

Inter-carriage access diaphragms are constructed with rubber tubing, in place of the earlier method using canvas attached to steel frames. The doors for inter-carriage links were 3 ft (914mm) wide.

Bogies[edit]

The bogies for the new cars were a new design, specifically prepared by Vickers Ruwolt. The suspension was based on coil springs, with a secondary cast bolster with spring plank, supported on swing links and coil springs. Each bogie weighed 7000 kg, with a wheelbase of 2,445mm and a maximum axle load of 14 tonnes, and were designed for operation at up to 130 km/h. Tread brakes were fitted, operated by Westinghouse model 250WF brake cylinders. The axle boxes utilised spherical roller bearings, and all parts of the bogie, except the wheels and axles themselves, were designed for conversion to standard gauge. This latter function was finally used in 2009 when the Mangalore to Albury line was converted to standard gauge.

Power supplies[edit]

The diesel alternator sets for the carriages provided 3-phase 415-volt alternating current power. Only 1 phase was required for operation, so the other two phases were available for backup or for load-sharing across other carriages - useful because the ACN and BN cars required 28 kW to operate and the BRN, with its additional functions, 40 kW. To accommodate the extra load, the ACN and BN were upgraded midway through construction to a 35kVA supply, and the programming reworked so that the BRN would not power adjacent cars. If all alternators were off, then the cars was able to take power from an external 240vAC power supply. Around the same time as these modifications were made, the alternator set supports were modified to reduce vibration, and the radiator fan motors' thermal overload switches were moved to reduce unnecessary tripping. At the end of the modifications, the system was organised so that in event of a power failure, the batteries mounted under the carriages would automatically reroute all power to the lights at the ends of the train to protect from oncoming traffic. Those lights could function for over ten hours, at the expense of air-conditioning and other functions.[9] The first six cars had plastic fuel pipes near the alternator units, but that was changed from car 7 onwards.[10]

Construction[edit]

The N type carriages were the first cars to be built at Newport Workshops in over 20 years. Each carriage took over 20 weeks to construct, with a rolling production line to give one new carriage off the assembly line every fortnight. Weeks 1 to 7 involved the general structure - welding the shell and the underframe together and attaching the ends. Following that, the electrical fitout took four weeks, and the bogies were fitted after Week 11. A mineral fibre insulation was sprayed on internal surfaces between weeks 12-14, and then the final six weeks the internal fibreglass ceiling and wall sheets were fitted, along with carpet, seats, lighting, doors and other components, with a one-week trial at the end.[8] The cost was roughly $500,000 per carriage.[11] The total build time added to 16,500 man-hours per carriage, against 32,000 for the earlier Z type carriages. Additionally, the carriages are between five and eight tonnes heavier than comparable designs overseas, partially due to their being a compromise between regional and commuter type vehicles. On the other hand, they cost a mere $13,000 per seat, against $47,000 per seat for the XPT carriages being built for New South Wales Railways around the same time.[12]

The shells of the carriages were constructed with Lyten Steel, selected for its high strength and anti-corrosion properties. The paint used externally is identical to aircraft mixes, both in domestic and overseas application. It has been suggested that the orange scheme for VicRail was selected due to spare lots of paint available cheaply when Ansett Australia changed from its orange scheme, but this has not been proven.

The initial plan called for three-carriage sets of ACN-BN-BN, where the latter two cars in each set would be identical with second-class seating. By the time the New Deal was properly fleshed out other new carriages were deemed impractical, so after sets 1 through 6 had entered service, set 7 had the experimental BRN20 included in its consist with a modular buffet section. During the tests sets 8 and 9 entered service in the original configuration, then set 10 as ACN-BRN-BN, and sets 11 through 18 were constructed with two buffet cars; as they were released to service the most-recent of the ACN-BN-BN sets was recalled to Newport Workshops for a carriage swap, so that eventually all sets were of the ACN-BRN-BN configuration. (Set 19, added at the end of the project, was released as ACN-BRN-BN, just like set N10.)

Most carriages were fitted with automatic couplers with an implicit agreement that sets would not be separated; one of the sets in the mid-1930s had drawbars fitted between its three carriages experimentally.[13] The automatic couplers were expected to be temporary, with scharfenberg couplers expected in June 1983 to replace them and the hard-wired electrical and pneumatic links between carriages. However, a derailment in late 2011 revealed that set SN1 on the standard gauge still had autocouplers between the carriages.

A snapshot of the production line timeline is available in Newsrail, September 1982, p. 197. It lists sets N1 through N9 complete, with the carriages forming N10 through N14 at various stages of construction and fit-out, and the frames of the 43rd carriage being welded together as of 28 July 1982.

Shell 19[edit]

Carriage shell number 19 was delayed in construction as it was selected for the trial buffet module equipment. As a result, car 20 became BN19, and car 19 entered service as BRN20.[14] The car was also used to test alternative carriage side materials, such as corrugated stainless steel sheeting; this was eventually rejected and normal carriage side material was fitted in its place.[13] A sketch of the proposal is provided in Newsrail, June 1982, p. 113.

The buffet modules, developed by Smallwood & Leibert, were intended to fit through the carriage doorways and then be assembled in situ. The new carriage design was tested on daily return trips from Melbourne to Bendigo, with additional runs to Albury and Gippsland before it officially entered service.[15] In practice the module was too heavy for the carriage design and had to be modified, as the offset weight gave the body a lean of "almost three inches" - this was rectified by temporarily modifying the bogie spring layout.[16] BRN29, the next of the type to enter service, was reorganised with the buffet on the north side of the car (following east and west end convention), and at the end of the project BRN20 was modified to match the standard of the rest of the fleet.

Scharfenberg couplers[edit]

As an experiment, BRN33 was fitted with scharfenberg coupler drawbars in lieu of normal automatic couplers during construction.[13]

Details[edit]

N type carriages are individually numbered in the 1 to 57 series. Sets were issued to traffic with three types of carriage:

  • ACN first class (2+2 seating, recline and rotate) with conductors van, 52 seats
  • BRN economy class (2+3 seating, fixed) with snack bar, 67 seats
  • BN economy class (2+3 seating, fixed), 88 seats

The BRN cars were a late addition to the concept, and the majority had their final two windows on the buffet side merely painted over. BRN cars 20, 47 and 52 are the only ones known to have been built without those two windows.[17]

From 1995 surplus Z type carriages were upgraded to N type interiors, with the following codes but with their original Z type numbers:

  • BZN economy class (2+3 seating, fixed) with disabled access and toilet, 72 seats
  • BTN economy class (2+3 seating, fixed), 88 seats

In 2009 a new code was introduced in conjunction with the formation of 'pure' 5-car N sets for standard gauge use:

  • BDN economy class (2+3 seating, fixed) with disabled access and toilet (interior similar to a BZN carriage), 72 seats.[18]

In service[edit]

VicRail & V/Line Orange Era (1981-1995)[edit]

The first N sets introduced, N1 and N2, entered service on the Melbourne-bound train from South Geelong, at 6:50am on Monday October 5, 1981. The train split at Spencer Street station, with set N1 running to then from Horsham before forming an evening Geelong run, and set N2 running to Ballarat and return, then to South Geelong in the evening and shunting back to Geelong yard. On Saturday 10th one set ran to Spencer Street then formed a return Horsham (same as weekdays, excluding South Geelong), while the other set ran four return Geelong trips. On Sunday 11th both sets were coupled, for a Geelong to Spencer St run, then a return Bendigo and Swan Hill run, then back to Geelong. Set N3 entered service on one of the five Warrnambool/Ballarat/Shepparton rosters, replacing a set of cars CE-AS-BEa/c-BW; those cars were split, with the AS to a Gippsland set and the BEac to a Numurkah set. Set N4 then became the first "spare" N roster, available for service form 19 May 1982 if one of the other three was unable to run for any reason.[19] The fifth set entered service on 19 June, running Tuesdays to Friday on the 7am from Ballarat to Spencer Street with the return departure at 5:58pm. The set also ran a Horsham 9:30am outbound, 4:15pm inbound on Saturdays, and joined the existing Horsham train for extra capacity on Sundays.

The plan as at early 1982 was for all 54 carriages (not yet 57) to be in service by the end of 1983, running services to Warrnambool, Horsham, Shepparton, Geelong and some Bendigo services. All other services were to be provided by the existing S, Z and airconditioned E carriages, plus interurban Comeng type trains running to Traralgon. All carriages were to be formed into semi-fixed 3 or 4-car sets, with schedules built around standard consists to keep runs fast and simple. Additionally, all sets were to include only one conductor/guard van, rather than one each end, to maximise capacity for length and weight of each train set. The roster at the time worked with fourteen interurban trains (plus four on the electrified eastern region), so that would allow enough N sets spare and in rostered maintenance.[20]

As of June 1982, the roster included four N sets in service, N3 through N6, with one spare and one undergoing modifications. At the time, set N7 was due to be introduced on the Gippslander run to Bairnsdale on the week beginning 31 May; N8 and N9 had already entered service, and were stabled at Ballarat and Bendigo respectively, and had replaced CE-AS-BEac-BWL sets. The AS cars went to Ballarat Workshops for rebuilding, and the airconditioned BE cars replaced non-airconditioned cars in other sets. Further rebalancing of stock allowed the N sets to run on Dimboola trains, as accelerated schedules made return trips practical.[21] The fleet roster at the time was expected to last at least until the end of October, at which point half of the N cars would have been delivered.

An excerpt of the roster "N9" (i.e. the 9th roster post New Deal) as printed in the September 1982 Newsrail is provided below (amended November 1982 p. 283), showing the N car runs. Aside from these seven entries, a further 30 runs were scheduled, most including at least one airconditioned carriage. "SSS" is shorthand for Spencer Street station, meaning the platforms and not indicating the shunt in or out of yards.

Run Monday to Friday Saturday Sunday
Dep. SSS To/From Arr. SSS Dep. SSS To/From Arr. SSS Dep. SSS To/From Arr. SSS
01 South Geelong 0800 0800 Geelong 1040 0935 Swan Hill 2120
0835 Horsham 1845 1100 Geelong 1337 2245 Geelong (empty)
1910 Geelong 2213 1400 Geelong 1640
2325 Geelong 1700 Geelong 1937
form #11 form #01 form #11
02 South Geelong 0800 0835 Horsham 1855 0935 Swan Hill 2120
0932 Ballarat 1350 2245 Geelong (empty)
1647 South Geelong
Geelong (Friday only, empty) 2135
form #01 form #02 form #13
10 Geelong 0824 Geelong 0840 0930 Horsham 2045
0905 Shepparton 1457 0915 Shepparton 1855 2110 Geelong
1525 South Geelong 1808
1830 Bendigo
forms #14 forms #10 forms #02
11 Geelong 0824 Geelong 0840 Warrnambool 2020
0925 Warrnambool 1708 0925 Warrnambool 1650 2245 Geelong (empty)
1740 Geelong 2043 1825 Warrnambool
2110 Geelong
form #10 form #11 form #10
12 Ballarat 0840 Stable Albury 0930 Horsham 2045
1000 Bendigo 1605 2110 Geelong
1647 South Geelong
South Geelong (Friday only, empty) 2135
Form #02 Form #13 Form #01
13 South Geelong (Monday only) 0900 Ballarat 0945 Albury 1848
Ballarat (Monday excluded) 0940 1800 Ballarat 1915 Bendigo
1520 Ballarat 1953
2030 Ballarat (Friday excluded)
2040 Albury (Friday only)
Form #12 Form #14 Form #14
14 Bendigo 0910 Bendigo 0925 Ballarat 1048
1445 South Geelong 1740 1300 Ballarat 1745 1315 Ballarat 1755
1758 Ballarat 1830 Ballarat
Form #13 Form #12 Form #12

Roster N10 started 31 October 1982 with ten N sets in service, two with BRN buffet cars and eight all-sitting sets; of the latter, two were rostered as spares and six were in service. The buffet sets (N7 and N10) were rostered on the Warrnambool (1255 ex Spencer Street, returning 1600 in lieu of 1700 as above) and Horsham day return schedules, plus the 0835 and 1825 Saturday Warrnambool runs.

The additional ACN-BN-BN set ran the 0615 (formerly 0620) from South Geelong, going on to form the 0755 to Horsham; after returning to Melbourne it replaced the former 1315 railcar and trailer to Shepparton, as the new 1255 departure running parallel to the outbound Warrnambool. On Saturdays it ran the 0700 city to South Geelong, and on Sunday it ran to Numurkah.[22] The 1740 to Geelong was downgraded to a non-airconditioned timber set, but the 1645 to South Geelong was increased to the 1605 from Bendigo (as above), plus the 1600 N set arrival from Warrnambool.[22] While previously the 0824 double N set formed the Warrnambool and Shepparton services, these were retimed to 0835 and 0855 respectively and formed by the 0800 (retimed to 0758) arrival. Instead, the 0824 double set arrival from Geelong was shunted to Spencer Street yard until the afternoon, leaving other sets to take the Ballarat and Horsham services.[23]

Around the same time, the proposals for Comeng interurban trains for the Traralgon line were dropped, as they would not have been available until 1986; and so concepts for further carriages following the delivery of the 54 N cars were being prepared.[21] In practice the further order never developed.

By late 1983, roster N18 had fifteen of the eighteen N sets in service and the remaining three under rostered maintenance. This included regularly running on the Gippsland line in lieu of the proposed interurban services. Under that roster, N sets ran return trips:[24]

  • 1 per week to Albury (Friday night outbound, Sunday morning return)
  • 34 per week to Ballarat
  • 9 per week to Bendigo
  • 7 per week to Cobram
  • 6 per week to Dimboola (Sunday excluded)
  • 38 per week to Geelong (including one double set, Sunday to Thursday)
  • 7 per week to Horsham (including one double set on Sunday)
  • 10 per week to Kyneton
  • 6 per week to Shepparton (Sunday excluded)
  • 17 per week to South Geelong (including one double set, Monday to Friday)
  • 1 per week to Swan Hill (double set, Sunday only)
  • 26 per week to Traralgon (including one double set on Sunday)
  • 17 per week to Warrnambool (including one double set on Saturday)

V/Line Passenger Red Era (1995-2007)[edit]

All N type carriages were transferred across to V/Line Passenger when the country rail operator was split between freight and passenger divisions in 1995.

V/Line Passenger Grey Era (2007-Current)[edit]

Since then various complete sets have been released from refurbishment (VN4, FN6, VN12, FN13, FN14, VN17).

Carriage sets[edit]

The N cars appear in fixed sets not altered in ordinary service. The sets are numbered between 1 and 19. Initially issued to service as 3-car sets, from 1995 additional cars of the BCZ, ACZ, BS, BZN or BTN type were attached to give longer sets. Additional cars may also be temporarily attached or detached to a set without the set code being altered.

  • N: 3-car set ACN-BRN-BN
  • FN: 4-car set ACN-BRN-(mix of 2x N/Z cars); while Z cars out of service, 1x temporary 4N set ACN-BRN-BN-BN.
  • VN: 5-car set ACN-BRN-(mix of 3x N/Z cars); while Z cars out of service, 2x temporary 5N set ACN-BRN-ACN-BRN-BN.
  • SN: 5-car set ACN-BRN-BDN-BN-BN on standard gauge. Usually includes a PCJ power van, but this is not counted in the set definition.

The original plan was for 10, then 18 three car sets each of BN-BN-ACN; but when the cars needed on-board food supplies, set N07 had car BRN20 fitted with a buffet module in place of about 20 seats at the east end. Sets N08 and N09 were released as normal BN-BN-ACN sets while N07 was trialled, and when it was deemed a success and followed by N10 as BN-BRN-ACN, sets N11 through N18 were built as BRN-BRN-ACN. Then, as each set was made ready for service, the newest BN-BN-ACN set was recalled to the workshops for mixing cars, so that all sets ended up as BN-BRN-ACN. Set N19, built at the end of the program, was released as BN-BRN-ACN from the start, and at the end of the program BRN20 returned to the workshops for modifications to match the rest of the fleet.

Set history[edit]

Note: Colours are representative only, and do not directly correlate to liveries worn in the era. Also, the zero prefix in sets 1-9 below are incorrect but useful for sorting and searching purposes.

Code Set No. From To Car F Car E Car D Car C Car B Car A (East end) Capacity Weight Length Changes to achieve Notes
N 01 1981-09-16 1983-09-20 n/a n/a n/a BN01 BN02 ACN03 228 129t 69m As built
N 01 1983-09-20 n/a n/a n/a BN02 BRN53 ACN03 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N01 & N18 - gain BRN53, lose BN01
FN 01 n/a n/a B??2?? BN02 BRN53 ACN03 180t 91m Power-operated doors fitted 2006-12-16.[25] Operating as FN by 2001-02-17.[25]
SN 01 2016-09-03 n/a BN19 BN02 BDN50 BRN53 ACN03 366+1W 215t 114m Add BN19 ex N07, add BDN50 ex N05 Standard gauge from 2011-mm-dd
SN 01 2016-09-21 Current n/a n/a BN19 BDN50 BRN53 ACN03 283+1W 172t 91m Lose BN02 to future set SN08
N 02 1981-10-02 1983-08-03 n/a n/a n/a BN04 BN05 ACN06 228 129t 69m As Built
N 02 1983-08-03 During/after 2005 n/a n/a n/a BN05 BRN50 ACN06 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N02 & N17 - gain BRN50, lose BN04 Operating as N set until 2005.[26]
FN 02 Converted to FN sometime during/after 2005.[26] Before 2009-12-11.[27][28] n/a n/a B??2?? BN05 BRN50 ACN06 180t 91m Power-operated doors fitted 2007-02-01.[29] BN05 to SN15, BRN50 converted to BDN50 to SN1 and ACN6 converted to BDN6 to SN16
N 03 1981-12-18 1983-07-16 n/a n/a n/a BN07 BN08 ACN09 228 129t 69m As Built
N 03 1983-07-16 2007-10-16 n/a n/a n/a BN08 BRN47 ACN09 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N03 & N16 - gain BRN47, lose BN07 May have been operating as 3-car set as late as 2005.[26][30]
FN 03 2007-10-17 2008-11-04 n/a n/a BTN254 BN08 BRN47 ACN09 295 180t 91m Gain BTN254 ex VN18[31]
FN 03 2008-11-05 n/a n/a BZN262 BN08 BRN47 ACN09 283+1W 180t 91m BTN254 removed, BZN262 attached but possibly not formal part of consist.[32][33]
"FN" 03 2016-10-16 n/a n/a n/a BN08 BRN47 ACN09 207 130t 69m Z cars withdrawn account bogie cracking issues.
FN 03 2016-10-17 2016-10-24 n/a n/a BZN261 BN08 BRN47 ACN09 283+1W 180t 91m BZN261 returned to service.
FN 03 2016-10-24 2017-04-24 n/a n/a BZN256 BN08 BRN47 ACN09 283+1W 180t 91m BZN256 returned to service; replaced BZN261.
VN 03 2017-04-24 n/a BTN264 BZN256 BN08 BRN47 ACN09 371+1W 230t 114m Gain BTN264 ex FN14.
N 04 1982-02-19 1983-04-19 n/a n/a n/a BN10 BN11 ACN12 228 129t 69m As Built
N 04 1983-04-19 Before 2003-06-16[34] n/a n/a n/a BN11 BRN44 ACN12 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N04 & N15 - gain BRN44, lose BN10
FN 04 Before 2003-06-16[34] n/a n/a B??2? BN11 BRN44 ACN12 180t 92m Gain Z car.
N 04 2009-01-12[35] n/a n/a n/a BN11 BRN44 ACN12 207 130t 69m Repainted. Z car removed.
VN 04 2009-01-12[35] n/a BTN2?? BZN267 BN11 BRN44 ACN12 371+1W 230t 114m Refurbished, repainted, BTN2?? and BZN267 added.
"VN" 04 2016-10-01 n/a n/a n/a BN11 BRN44 ACN12 206 130t 69m BTN and BZN removed account bogie issues.
FN 04 2016-10-01 2016-11-01 n/a n/a BZN267 BN11 BRN44 ACN12 274+1W 180t 91m BZN restored.
FN 04 2016-11-01 2016-12-23 n/a n/a n/a BN11 BRN44 ACN12 207 130t 69m BZN267 to set FN14. Set to Newport Workshops for exams.
FN 04 2016-12-23 Current n/a n/a BZN267 BN11 BRN44 ACN12 274+1W 180t 91m Return BZN267 ex set FN14.
N 05 1982-03-12 1983-03-18 n/a n/a n/a BN13 BN14 ACN15 228 129t 69m As Built
N 05 1983-03-18 After 2005-03-20[26] n/a n/a n/a BN13 BRN40 ACN15 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N05 & N14 - gain BRN40, lose BN14
FN 05 After 2005-03-20[26] n/a n/a n/a BN13 BRN40 ACN15 207 130t 69m Fitted with composite brake blocks late 2005.[36]
FN 05 Before 2010-11-02[37] n/a n/a BZN262 BN13 BRN40 ACN15 283+1W 180t 91m Gain Z car.
FN 05 Before 2010-11-02[37] n/a n/a BZN262 BN13 BRN40 ACN15 283+1W 180t 91m
FN 05 By 2010-11-02 Current[38][39] n/a n/a BZN266 BN13 BRN40 ACN15 283+1W 180t 91m
VN 05 Soon n/a BZN273 BZN266 BN13 BRN40 ACN15 359+2W 230t 114m BZN273 ex set FN10
N 06 1982-04-02 1983-02-25 n/a n/a n/a BN16 BN17 ACN18 228 129t 69m As Built
N 06 1983-02-25 Before 2003-03-23[26][40] n/a n/a n/a BN17 BRN38 ACN18 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N06 & N13 - gain BRN38, lose BN16 BRN38 under maintenance as at 10 October 1988, removed from set and BRS230 attached at west end.[41]
FN 06 Before 2003-03-23[26][40] Before 2007-09-23 n/a n/a B??2?? BN17 BRN38 ACN18 180t 91m Circa 2007, often ran with BCZ259[42]
"FN" 06 Before 2013-02-14[43] n/a BN14 BRN41 ACN42 BRN38 ACN18 326 217t 114m BN17 to set FN09. Z cars withdrawn account bogie cracking issues. Absorbed set N14. Was officially referred to as a 5N set, to distinguish from sets with Z carriages.
FN 06 n/a n/a BN14 BRN41 BRN38 ACN18 274 174t 91m ACN42 withdrawn account damaged spring
"FN" 06 2016-09-25 n/a n/a n/a BN17 BRN38 ACN18 207 130t 69m BRN41-BN14 to Set N08. Recover BN17 ex set FN09.
FN 06 2016-09-25 n/a n/a BZN274 BN17 BRN38 ACN18 279+1W 180t 91m Gain BZN274.
FN 06 2016-09-25 n/a BTN259 BZN274 BN17 BRN38 ACN18 367+1W 230t 114m Gain BTN259 ex VN12.
N 07 1982-05-14 n/a n/a n/a BN19 BRN20 ACN21 207 130t 69m As Built First set with buffet. BRN20 originally had buffet module on reverse side, later swapped. Ran as ACN21-BN11-BRS224 (BN11 ex N4) 1987-03-12 until 1987-04-16.[44]
N 07 2007-06-05[27][45][46] n/a n/a n/a BN19 BRN20 ACN21 207 130t 69m Repainted. Set dissolved following Kerang crash 5 June 2007, BRN20 extensively damaged now awaiting scrap, BN19 and ACN21 spare. BN19 reallocated; ACN21 used in new set SN07, recycling old BS carriages. By 2010-01-27, both cars properly redeployed.[27][45][46][47]
SN 07 2007-09-21[48][49] 2008-12-28[50] BS217 BS219 BS216 BS218 BS215 ACN21 372 280t 137m Created new. Temporary set to replace lost set N7 following Kerang crash, using S type carriages.[51] Carriages BS215 and BS216 were not fitted with retention toilets, and were sealed off.[52] Shortly after introduction to service BS218 was removed due to faulty air conditioning, but it rejoined the set soon after.[53] Set became SZ7 for the 2009-2010 period, after ACN21 was converted to BDN21 on standard gauge and ACZ257 was converted to BCZ257.
N 08 1982-06-07 1982-12-17 n/a n/a n/a BN22 BN23 ACN24 228 129t 69m As Built
N 08 1982-12-17 n/a n/a n/a BN22 BRN34 ACN24 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N08 & N12 - gain BRN34, lose BN23
N 08 After February 2005[26] n/a PH453 BN22 BRN34 ACN24 D322 207 + 25 tonnes 206t 85m Regular roster 12:40pm Spencer Street to Warrnambool, return 5:45pm, run behind S302. PH van for head-end power, and D van for noise.[54][55]
FN 08 After February 2005[26][56] Before 2010-01-24.[28] n/a n/a B??2?? BN22 BRN34 ACN24 180t 91m Z car ex-AZ per windows
FN 08 Before 2010-01-24.[28] n/a n/a B??2?? B??2?? BRN34 ACN24 187t 91m BN22 to set SN16
"FN" 08 Before 2013-02-14[43] n/a BN55 BRN56 ACN57 BRN34 ACN24 326 217t 114m Z cars withdrawn due to bogie cracking issues. Absorbed set N19. Was officially referred to as a 5N set, to distinguish from sets with Z carriages.
FN 08 n/a n/a BN14 BRN41 BRN34 ACN24 274 174t 92m Gain BN14, BRN41 from set N14
"FN" 08 End of 2016 n/a n/a n/a n/a BRN34 ACN24 119 087t 46m Under conversion to standard gauge
SN 08 End of 2016 Current n/a n/a BN10 BDN02 BRN34 ACN24 283+1W 172t 91m Gain BDN02 ex SN01 (was BN02) and BN10 ex SN15. Repainted into livery based on VLocity scheme.
N 09 1982-07-02 1982-11-26 n/a n/a n/a BN25 BN26 ACN27 228 129t 69m As Built ACN available for service on 1982-06-30
N 09 1982-11-26 Before 2004-05-13[57] n/a n/a n/a BN26 BRN32 ACN27 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N09 & N11 - gain BRN32, lose BN25
FN 09 Before 2004-05-13[57] Before 2013-01-15[58] n/a n/a B??2??[59] BN26 BRN32 ACN27 180t 91m Power operated doors fitted 2006-11-08.[60] Z car range 264-276.[59]
"FN" 09 Before 2013-01-15[58] Before 2013-02-14[43] n/a n/a n/a BN26 BRN32 ACN27 207 130t 69m Z cars withdrawn due to bogie cracking issues.[60]
FN 09 Before 2013-02-14[43] After 2013-06-11[61] n/a n/a BN17 BN26 BRN32 ACN27 295 173t 91m BN17 ex set FN06.
"FN" 09 After 2013-06-11[61] 2016-01-xx n/a n/a n/a BN26 BRN32 ACN27 207 129t 69m BN17 returned to set FN06.[58]
FN 09 2016-01-xx n/a n/a BCZ257 BN26 BRN32 ACN27 255+1W 179t 91m Gain BCZ257; not always, but usually attached.
FN 09 Current n/a n/a BZN265 BN26 BRN32 ACN27 283+1W 180t 91m Lose BCZ257 to FN19, gain BZN265.
N 10 1982-10-29 Sometime before February 2007.[47] n/a n/a n/a BN28 BRN29 ACN30 207 130t 69m As Built
FN 10 Sometime before February 2007.[47] n/a n/a BZN276[62] BN28 BRN29 ACN30 283+1W 180t 91m
"FN" 10 2016-08-xx n/a n/a n/a BN28 BRN29 ACN30 207 130t 69m Assumed during Z car withdrawals
FN 10 2016-08-xx 2016-09-23 n/a n/a BTN268 BN16 BRN37 ACN39 295 180t 92m Gain BTN268.
FN 10 2016-09-24 n/a n/a BZN252[62] BN28 BRN29 ACN30 283+1W 180t 91m Gain BZN252; BTN268 to FN13
FN 10 Current n/a BTN251 BZN273 BN28 BRN29 ACN30 371+1W 230t 114m Lose BZN252 to set FN13; gain BZN273 ex FN19 and BTN251 ex workshops
FN 10 Soon n/a BTN251 BZN262 BN28 BRN29 ACN30 371+1W 230t 114m Lose BZN273 to set FN13; gain BZN262 ex workshops
N 11 1982-11-29 1982-11-29 n/a n/a n/a BRN31 BRN32 ACN33 186 131t 69m As Built Did not enter service.
N 11 1982-11-29 After 2005-04-11, before 2006-01-16.[63][64] n/a n/a n/a BN25 BRN31 ACN33 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N09 & N11 - gain BN25, lose BRN32
FN 11 After 2005-04-11, before 2006-01-16.[63][64] n/a n/a B??2?? BN25 BRN31 ACN33 180t 91m
"FN" 11 2013-11-01 n/a n/a n/a BN25 BRN31 ACN33 207 130t 69m Z cars withdrawn account bogie cracking issues.[65]
FN 11 2013-11-01 n/a n/a BZN271 BN25 BRN31 ACN33 271+1W 179t 91m Add BZN271, except from 2016-09-05 to 2016-09-22.
FN 11 Current n/a n/a BZN276 BN25 BRN31 ACN33 271+1W 179t 91m Lose BZN271 to VN19; gain BZN276 ex Workshops
FN 11 Soon n/a BTN268 BZN276 BN25 BRN31 ACN33 371+1W 230t 114m Gain BTN268 ex Workshops
N 12 1982-12-17 1982-12-17 n/a n/a n/a BRN34 BRN35 ACN36 186 131t 69m As built. Did not enter service.
N 12 1982-12-17 n/a n/a n/a BN23 BRN35 ACN36 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N08 & N12 - gain BN23, lose BRN34
VN 12 2008-01-23[66][67] n/a B??2?? B??2?? BN23 BRN35 ACN36 230t 114m Z cars added, both ex-BZ range 264-276.
VN 12 2008-01-23[66][67] n/a B??2?? B??2?? BN23 BRN35 ACN36 230t 114m Repainted. Both Z cars ex-BZ range 264-276.
"VN" 12 n/a n/a n/a BN23 BRN35 ACN36 207 130t 69m Z cars withdrawn account bogie cracking issues.[68]
VN 12 n/a BTN259 BZN272 BN23 BRN35 ACN36 371+1W 230t 114m Gain BZN272 and BTN259.
VN 12 Current n/a n/a BZN272 BN23 BRN35 ACN36 283+1W 180t 91m Lose BTN259 to VN06
N 13 1983-02-14 1983-02-14 n/a n/a n/a BRN37 n/a ACN39 118 77t 46m As Built. Did not enter service. BRN38 entered service 1983-02-25 in set N06.
N 13 1983-02-14 Before 2005-03-19[69] n/a n/a n/a BN16 BRN37 ACN39 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N06 & N13 - gain BN16, lose BRN38
N 13 Before 2005-03-19[69] After 2007-09-23[70] n/a n/a n/a BN16 BRN37 ACN39 207 130t 69m Repainted
FN 13 After 2007-09-23[70] n/a n/a B??2?? BN16 BRN37 ACN39 180t 91m Z car added. Red or grey?
"FN" 13 2016-09-23 n/a n/a n/a BN16 BRN37 ACN39 207 130t 69m Repainted; Z car removed[71]
FN 13 2016-09-23 n/a n/a BTN268 BN16 BRN37 ACN39 295 180t 92m Gain BTN268.
FN 13 Current n/a n/a BZN252 BN16 BRN37 ACN39 283+1W 180t 91m Lose BTN268 to VN11, gain BTN252
N 14 1983-03-25 1983-03-25 n/a n/a n/a BRN40 BRN41 ACN42 186 131t 69m As Built Did not enter service.
N 14 1983-03-25 1997-04-xx[72][73] n/a n/a n/a BN14 BRN41 ACN42 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N05 & N14 - gain BN14, lose BRN40
N 14 1997-04-xx[72][73] 2006-08-07 n/a n/a n/a BN14 BRN41 ACN42 207 130t 69m Repainted
FN 14 2006-08-07 n/a n/a BZN261 BN14 BRN41 ACN42 275+1W 180t 91m Add BZN261
FN 14 2013-01-13 n/a n/a BZN261 BN14 BRN41 ACN42 275+1W 180t 91m Repainted. Various stripe patterns applied.[74][74][75][76][77][78][79]
"FN" 14 2013-01-13 2016-09-25 (tbc) n/a n/a n/a BN14 BRN41 ACN42 207 130t 69m Z cars withdrawn account bogie cracking issues. May not have operated for long, if at all. Cars quickly absorbed into set "FN"06 as temporary measure.[43] Later, ACN42 pulled from set account spring issue; BRN41-BN14 shifted to set 4N08.
FN 14 2016-09-25 (tbc) 2016-10-03 n/a n/a n/a BTN264 BRN41 ACN42 206 137t 91m Set reassembled, but BN14 not available account level crossing damage. Gain BTN264 in lieu.
FN 14 2016-10-03 2016-11-01 n/a n/a n/a n/a BRN41 ACN42 206 137t 46m BTN264 removed for "G" exam. BN14 under maintenance following level crossing damage. BRN41/ACN42 stored during Bendigo line shut October 2016.
FN 14 2016-11-01 2016-12-22 n/a n/a BZN267 BTN263 BRN41 ACN42 274+1W 186t 91m Gain BTN263 and BZN267. BN14 under maintenance following level crossing damage.
"FN" 14 2016-12-23 Current n/a n/a n/a BTN263 BRN41 ACN42 274 187t 69m Lose BZN267 to FN4. BN14 under maintenance following level crossing damage.
VN 14 Soon n/a BTN254 BZN258 BN14 BRN41 ACN42 371+1W 230t 114m May enter service as "VN"14 without Z cars temporarily.
N 15 1983-04-19 1983-03-30 n/a n/a n/a BRN43 n/a ACN45 118 77t 46m As Built Did not enter service. BRN44 entered service 1983-04-19 in set N04.
N 15 1983-03-30 Before 2009-12-11[27] n/a n/a n/a BN10 BRN43 ACN45 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N04 & N15 - gain BN10, lose BRN44
VN 15 2009-12-11[27] Before 2011-04-01 n/a BN05 BN10 BDN21 BRN43 ACN45 336+1W 215t 114m BDN21 ex Set #07 as ACN21; BN05 ex Set #02[27]
SN 15 2011-04-01[27] Soon n/a BN05 BN10 BDN21 BRN43 ACN45 336+1W 215t 114m Convert to Standard Gauge
SN 15 Soon n/a n/a BN05 BDN21 BRN43 ACN45 283+1W 172t 91m BN10 to SN08
N 16 1983-06-03 1983-06-03 n/a n/a n/a BRN46 n/a ACN48 118 77t 46m As Built Did not enter service. BRN47 entered service 1983-07-16 in set N03.
N 16 1983-06-03 before 2007-11-16[80] n/a n/a n/a BN07 BRN46 ACN48 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N03 & N16 - gain BN07, lose BRN47
N 16 after 2007-11-16[80] n/a n/a n/a BN07 BRN46 ACN48 207 130t 69m Repainted
SN 16 2010-01-24 2011-04-28 n/a BN22 BN07 BDN06 BRN46 ACN48 336+1W 215t 114m BDN06 ex Set #02 as ACN06; BN22 ex Set #08
SN 16 2011-04-28 Current n/a BN22 BN07 BDN06 BRN46 ACN48 336+1W 215t 114m Convert to Standard Gauge
N 17 1983-07-21 1983-07-21 n/a n/a n/a BRN49 n/a ACN51 118 77t 46m As Built Did not enter service. BRN50 entered service 1983-08-03 in set N02.
N 17 1983-07-21 Before 2001-02-18[73] n/a n/a n/a BN04 BRN49 ACN51 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N02 & N17 - gain BN04, lose BRN50
VN 17 Before 2001-02-18[73] 2006-07-23[81] n/a BS217 BZN258 BN04 BRN49 ACN51 269+1W 227t 92m Gain 1x S, 1x Z cars. Repainted. Ran with BZ267 in place of BZN258 during 2005.[54]
VN 17 2006-07-23[81] Before 2015-04-06[82] n/a BTN2?? BZN258 BN04 BRN49 ACN51 371+1W 230t 92m Swap BS217 for a Z car. Operated without BZN for a time in 2005, possibly longer.[26]
"VN" 17 Before 2015-02-18[73] n/a n/a B??2?? BN04 BRN49 ACN51 180t 92m Repainted. Four-car set.[83]
VN 17 2016-10-20 n/a BTN253 BZN276[84] BN04 BRN49 ACN51 371+1W 230t 114m Add BTN253.
VN 17 2016-10-20[84] 2016-10-24[84] n/a BTN253 BN04 BRN49 ACN51 295 180t 91m BZN276 temporarily withdrawn.
VN 17 2016-10-24 Current n/a BTN253 BZN261[84] BN04 BRN49 ACN51 371+1W 230t 114m BZN261 added ex FN03. Will be moved to FN14 around end of October 2016, same time as BN14 re-enters service on that set.[84]
VN 17 Soon n/a BTN263 BZN261 BN04 BRN49 ACN51 371+1W 230t 114m Lose BTN253 to VN18; gain BTN263 ex FN14
N 18 1983-09-09 1983-09-09 n/a n/a n/a BRN52 n/a ACN54 118 77t 46m As Built Did not enter service. BRN53 entered service 1983-09-20 in set N01.
N 18 1983-09-09 n/a n/a n/a BN01 BRN52 ACN54 207 130t 69m Swap between Sets N01 & N18 - gain BN01, lose BRN53
VN 18 n/a BS2?? BS2?? BN01 BRN52 ACN54 305 224t 91m Repainted. Gain 2x S cars. Ran without BS217 2006-01-03 to 2006-01-31.[85]
FN 18 Before 2008-02-24[86] Before 2012-05-14[87] n/a n/a BTN254 BN01 BRN52 ACN54 295 180t 91m Lose 2x S cars. Gain BTN254.[85]
VN 18 Before 2012-05-14[87] Before 2016-06-09[88] n/a BTN254 BZN258[87] BN01 BRN52 ACN54 371+1W 230t 114m Gain BZN258.
N 18 Before 2016-06-09[88] 2016-09-09 n/a n/a n/a BN01 BRN52 ACN54 207 130t 69m Z cars withdrawn account bogie cracking issues.
FN 18 2016-09-09 Current n/a n/a BZN275 BN01 BRN52 ACN54 283+1W 180t 91m BZN275 returned to service
VN 18 Soon n/a BTN253 BZN275 BN01 BRN52 ACN54 371+1W 230t 114m Gain BTN253 ex VN17
N 19 1984-04-06 Before 2005-mm-dd n/a n/a n/a BN55 BRN56 ACN57 207 130t 69m As Built.
N 19 Before 2005-mm-dd n/a n/a n/a BN55 BRN56 ACN57 207 130t 69m Repainted. Fitted with power doors in 2005.[89]
FN 19 Before 2007-12-27[90] After 2007-12-27[90] n/a n/a B??2?? BN55 BRN56 ACN57 180t 91m Z car added, number 264-276 range.[90]
FN 19 After 2007-12-27[90] n/a n/a B??2?? BN55 BRN56 ACN57 180t 91m Repainted
"FN" 19 After 2007-12-27[90] Before 2016-09-23. n/a n/a n/a BN55 BRN56 ACN57 207 130t 69m Z cars withdrawn account bogie cracking issues.[91] Cars absorbed into set "FN"08 as temporary measure.[43]
FN 19 Before 2016-09-23. Before 2016-10-11. n/a n/a BZN273 BN55 BRN56 ACN57 283+1W 180t 91m
FN 19 Before 2016-10-11. n/a n/a BZN265 BN55 BRN56 ACN57 283+1W 180t 91m Swap BZN273 for BZN265.
VN 19 Soon n/a BCZ257 BZN271 BN55 BRN56 ACN57 335+1W 230t 114m Gain BZN271 ex FN11 and BCZ257 ex FN09.

Image gallery[edit]

Model railways[edit]

HO Scale[edit]

As of July 2013, only HO scale plastic models of the N-series carriages are available produced by Auscision Models[92] (although there have been brass models released in the past). Each set contains one each of the ACN, BRN and BN cars, plus a D boxvan van thought to have run on occasion with that consist. No Z type cars, spare N cars or PCJ power vans have been made available in ready-to-run plastic. The same sets were rerun in 2016.

Pack Era D Set ACN BRN BN
VPS-05 (2013) VicRail orange/silver D305 N04 ACN12 BRN44 BN11
VPS-06 (2013) VicRail orange/silver D306 N06 ACN18 BRN38 BN17
VPS-07 (2013) V/Line orange/silver D316 N12 ACN36 BRN35 BN23
VPS-08 (2013) V/Line orange/silver D347 N19 ACN57 BRN56 BN55
VPS-09 (2013) V/Line orange, green, white, grey D325 N08 ACN24 BRN34 BN22
VPS-10 (2013) V/Line orange, green, white, grey D348 N16 ACN48 BRN46 BN07
VPS-11 (2013) V/LINE Passenger Mk1 red/blue/white D324 N05 ACN15 BRN40 BN13
VPS-12 (2013) V/LINE Passenger Mk1 red/blue/white D335 N13 ACN39 BRN37 BN16
VPS-13 (2013) V/LINE Passenger Mk1 red/blue/white, no bottom stripe D339 N14 ACN42 BRN41 BN14
VPS-14 (2013) V/Line Passenger Mk2 red/blue/white D302 N02 ACN06 BRN50 BN05
VPS-15 (2013) V/Line Passenger Mk2 red/blue/white D322 N11 ACN33 BRN31 BN25
VPS-16 (2013) V/Line Passenger Mk3 grey/red/purple/white (excl. D324) D324 N15 ACN45 BRN43 BN10

N Scale[edit]

As at 2019, no ready-to-run N scale models of the N type carriages are available.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bray, Vincent & Gregory, Steel & Special Coaching Stock of Victoria, 2009, ISBN 978-0-9775056-8-5, p.106
  2. ^ Bray, Vincent & Gregory, Steel & Special Coaching Stock of Victoria, 2009, ISBN 978-0-9775056-8-5, p.57 & p.104
  3. ^ "Discussion on FSH21". Railpage Australia Forums. www.railpage.com.au. Retrieved 12 June 2008.
  4. ^ Newsrail April 1981 p.73
  5. ^ Scott Martin and Chris Banger (October 2006). "'New Deal' for County Passengers - 25 years on". Newsrail. Australian Railway Historical Society (Victorian Division). p. 319.
  6. ^ "Level Crossing Collision V/Line Passenger Train 8042 and a Truck Near Kerang, Victoria 5 June 2007" (PDF). Chief Investigator, Transport and Marine Safety Investigations. Retrieved 16 March 2008.
  7. ^ "Media Release: NEW LOOK V/LINE FLEET TAKES TO THE TRACKS". www.dpc.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 16 March 2008.
  8. ^ a b Newsrail, February 1982, p.4
  9. ^ Newsrail June 1982 p.112
  10. ^ Newsrail September 1982 p.216
  11. ^ Newsrail June 1982 p.127
  12. ^ Newsrail August 1982, p.190
  13. ^ a b c Newsrail April 1982 p.76
  14. ^ Newsrail September 1982, p.196
  15. ^ Newsrail June 1982 p.126
  16. ^ Newsrail May 1983 p.102
  17. ^ Bray, Vincent & Gregory, Steel & Special Coaching Stock of Victoria, 2009, ISBN 978-0-9775056-8-5, p.107
  18. ^ "Wongm's Rail Gallery - BDN carriages". wongm.railgeelong.com. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
  19. ^ Newsrail August 1982, p.176
  20. ^ Newsrail, February 1982, p.7
  21. ^ a b Newsrail September 1982 p.201
  22. ^ a b Newsrail December 1982 p.293
  23. ^ Newsrail December 1982 p. 293
  24. ^ Newsrail October 1983 pp.262-267
  25. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=FN&number=1
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j http://vicsig.net/passenger/operation/airshow2005
  27. ^ a b c d e f g http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=SN&number=15
  28. ^ a b c http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=SN&number=16
  29. ^ http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=FN&number=2
  30. ^ http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=N&number=3
  31. ^ http://www.railpage.com.au/f-p925106.htm#925106
  32. ^ http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=FN&number=3
  33. ^ http://vicsig.net/passenger/operation/airshow2009
  34. ^ a b https://www.flickr.com/photos/dermis50/12149136953/in/album-72157640172672234/
  35. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=N&number=4
  36. ^ https://www.railpage.com.au/f-p391248.htm#391248
  37. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/12341
  38. ^ http://cdn.newsapi.com.au/image/v1/21674dfbce9323945e66e0100231b071?width=1024
  39. ^ http://vicsig.net/photo/20690
  40. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/986
  41. ^ Newsrail January 1989 p.29
  42. ^ http://vicsig.net/photo/8172
  43. ^ a b c d e f http://www.railpage.com.au/f-p1804466.htm#1804466
  44. ^ Newsrail January 1988 p.24
  45. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=N&number=7
  46. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=SN&number=1
  47. ^ a b c http://vicsig.net/passenger/operation/airshow2007
  48. ^ https://www.railpage.com.au/f-p915024.htm#915024
  49. ^ https://www.railpage.com.au/f-p898656.htm#898656
  50. ^ http://railpage.com.au:443/f-p1167315.htm#1167315
  51. ^ http://vicsig.net/passenger/photos/20070825-nps-acn21.jpg
  52. ^ https://www.railpage.com.au/f-p896535.htm#896535
  53. ^ https://www.railpage.com.au/f-p918299.htm#918299
  54. ^ a b https://www.railpage.com.au/f-p394931.htm
  55. ^ http://vicsig.net/photo/5252
  56. ^ http://vicsig.net/photo/9322
  57. ^ a b https://www.flickr.com/photos/dermis50/19894445710/in/album-72157634997413334/
  58. ^ a b c http://vicsig.net/photo/15804
  59. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/7231
  60. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=FN&number=9
  61. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/16604
  62. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/7229
  63. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/4528
  64. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/6798
  65. ^ http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=FN&number=11
  66. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/8986
  67. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/8565
  68. ^ http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=vN&number=12
  69. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/4497
  70. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/8173
  71. ^ http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=FN&number=13
  72. ^ a b Newsrail July 1997 p.225
  73. ^ a b c d e http://vicsig.net/photo/7504
  74. ^ a b https://railgallery.wongm.com/vline-new-livery/D451_5166.jpg.html
  75. ^ https://railgallery.wongm.com/vline-southern-cross/D783_8318.jpg.html
  76. ^ https://railgallery.wongm.com/vline-southern-cross/D461_6104.jpg.html
  77. ^ https://railgallery.wongm.com/vline-new-livery/X153_5349.jpg.html
  78. ^ https://railgallery.wongm.com/vline-new-livery/X153_5351.jpg.html
  79. ^ https://railgallery.wongm.com/vline-new-livery/X153_5353.jpg.html
  80. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/8433
  81. ^ a b http://www.railpage.org.au/vr/newsDetail.php?id=10&year=2006
  82. ^ http://vicsig.net/photo/19343
  83. ^ http://vicsig.net/photo/19342
  84. ^ a b c d e https://www.facebook.com/groups/VictorianRailwayEnthusiasts/permalink/1134212433281444/
  85. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=VN&number=18
  86. ^ http://vicsig.net/photo/8836
  87. ^ a b c https://www.flickr.com/photos/notinservice/7899972142/
  88. ^ a b http://vicsig.net/photo/20602
  89. ^ http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=N&number=19
  90. ^ a b c d e http://vicsig.net/photo/8577
  91. ^ http://vicsig.net/index.php?page=passenger&set=FN&number=14
  92. ^ http://www.auscisionmodels.com.au/N%20Car%20Page.htm

External links[edit]