View of Lanzhou
Location of Lanzhou City (yellow) in Gansu and the PRC
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Mayor||Yuan Zhanting (袁占亭)|
|• Deputy Mayor||Cai Ming|
|• Prefecture-level city||13,300 km2 (5,100 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,088 km2 (420 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,616,163|
|• Density||270/km2 (700/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|License plate prefixes||甘A|
|GDP (2008)||CNY 84.6 billion|
|- per capita||CNY 25,566|
|Literal meaning||"[Gao] Lan prefecture"|
Lanzhou (Chinese: 兰州; [lǎnʈʂə́ʊ]) is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China. A prefecture-level city, it is a key regional transportation hub, allowing areas further west to maintain railroad connections to the eastern half of the country. Lanzhou is home to 3,616,163 inhabitants at the 2010 census and 2,177,130 in the built-up area (urban) of 1,088 square kilometres (420 sq mi).
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Sport
- 4 Administrative divisions
- 5 Tourism
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Places of interest
- 9 Media
- 10 Culture
- 11 Colleges and universities
- 12 Healthcare
- 13 Sister cities
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
In 81 BC, under the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), it was taken from the Huns' Huandi Chanyu and made the seat of Jincheng commandery (jùn), and later of the Jincheng county (xiàn), later renamed Yunwu. The city used to be called the Golden City, and since at least the first millennium BC it was a major link on the ancient Northern Silk Road, and also an important historic Yellow River crossing site. To protect the city, the Great Wall of China was extended as far as Yumen.
After the fall of the Han dynasty, Lanzhou became the capital of a succession of tribal states. In the 4th century it was briefly the capital of the independent state of Liang. The Northern Wei dynasty (386–534) reestablished Jincheng commandery, renaming the county Zicheng. Mixed with different cultural heritages, the area at present-day Gansu province, from the 5th to the 11th century, became a center for Buddhist study. Under the Sui Dynasty (581–618) the city became the seat of Lanzhou prefecture for the first time, retaining this name under the Tang dynasty (618–907). In 763 the area was overrun by the Tibetan Empire and in 843 was conquered by the Tang. Later it fell into the hands of the Western Xia dynasty (which flourished in Qinghai from the 11th to 13th century) and was subsequently absorbed by the Song dynasty (960–1126) in 1041. The name Lanzhou was reestablished, and the county renamed Lanzhuan.
The city acquired its current name in 1656, during the Qing dynasty. When Gansu was made a separate province in 1666, Lanzhou became its capital.
In 1739 the seat of Lintao was transferred to Lanzhou, which was later made a superior prefecture called Lanzhou.
Lanzhou was badly damaged during the Dungan revolt in 1864–1875. In the 1920s and 1930s it became a center of Soviet influence in northwestern China. During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) Lanzhou, linked with Xi'an by highway in 1935, became the terminus of the 3,200 km (2,000 mi) Chinese–Soviet highway, used as a route for Soviet supplies destined for the Xi'an area. This highway remained the primary traffic route of northwestern China until the completion of the railway from Lanzhou to Urumqi, Xinjiang. During the war Lanzhou was heavily bombed by the Japanese.
During the 1937 Japanese invasion of China, the Guominjun Muslim Generals Ma Hongkui and Ma Bufang protected Lanzhou with their cavalry troops, putting up such resistance that the Japanese never captured Lanzhou.
- Area: 13,300 km2 (5,100 sq mi)
- Elevation: 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) above sea level
- China's northwest geographical center
- More than 20 square kilometres (7.7 sq mi) of urbanisation along the southern banks of the Yellow River.
- Zonary basin
- Mountains are located on the south and north sides of the city:
- The Yellow River flows through from west to east.
Lanzhou is situated on the upper reaches of the Yellow River where it emerges from the mountains and has been a center since early times, being at the southern end of the route leading via the Hexi Corridor across Central Asia. It commands the approaches to the ancient capital area of Chang'an (modern Xi'an) in Shaanxi province from both the west and the northwest, as well as the area of Qinghai Lake via the upper waters of the Yellow River and its tributaries.
Climate and environment
Lanzhou is situated in the temperate zone and enjoys a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with hot summers and cold and very dry winters. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −5.3 °C (22.5 °F) in January to 22.4 °C (72.3 °F) in July. The mean annual temperature is 9.75 °C (49.5 °F), while annual rainfall is 315 millimetres (12.4 in), almost all of which falls from May to October. The winters are so dry that snow is extremely rare. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 50 percent in December to 59 percent in February, sunshine is generous but not abundant, as the city receives 2,424 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Lanzhou (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.1
|Average high °C (°F)||1.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−10.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||1.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.9||2.4||4.5||5.3||7.5||9.4||11.4||11.2||9.9||6.3||1.7||1.0||72.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||54||49||48||45||48||54||59||63||66||66||60||58||55.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||155.7||179.3||195.4||224.5||245.9||234.7||244.8||241.1||191.5||186.0||174.0||151.2||2,424.1|
|Percent possible sunshine||51||59||53||57||57||54||55||58||52||53||57||50||54.7|
|Source #1: China Meteorological Administration|
|Source #2: Weather China|
The city is located in a narrow and curved river valley with surrounding mountains causing it to be hemmed in blocking a free flow of air. Lanzhou repeatedly has had the worst air quality of any of 84 Chinese cities surveyed. According to the Blacksmith Institute, Lanzhou is one of the 30 most polluted cities in the world, with its TSP (total suspended particle) rating 247 percent above that of the Gansu State recommendation. Air quality is so poor that at times one cannot see Lanshan, the mountain rising up along the south side of the city. At one point, a controversial suggestion was put forward to bulldoze a mountain adjacent to the city, in order to let fresh air into the bowl where Lanzhou is situated. Lanzhou is also the home of many factories, including some involved in petroleum processing, and suffers from large dust storms kicked up from the Gobi Desert, especially in the winter and spring. In 2011, using Chinese statistics, the World Health Organization reported that Lanzhou has the worst air quality (annual mean PM10 ug/m3 of 150) among eleven western Chinese cities, and is even worse than Beijing with its reading of 121.
According to the National Environmental Analysis released by Tsinghua University and The Asian Development Bank in January 2013, Lanzhou is among one of ten most air polluted cities in the world. Also according to this report, 7 of 10 most air polluted cities are in China, including Taiyuan, Beijing, Urumqi, Lanzhou, Chongqing, Jinan and Shijiazhuang.
The reach of the Yellow River at Lanzhou carries a high load of silt, giving the river its characteristic muddy appearance; however water quality in this reach is better than the "fetid outflow that barely passes for water two hours downstream".
On April 11, 2014 Lanzhou officials advised residents not to drink tap water, because benzene levels were 20 times the national limit of 10 micrograms per liter. The city water supply suspected industrial chemical production to be the culprit, similar to what happened in 2005 Jilin chemical plant explosions.
Lanzhou experiences earthquakes regularly, although usually at low intensities. In 1920 a large earthquake was experienced killing more than 100,000 people in Eastern Gansu province, although only 42 were killed in Lanzhou itself, the low number being attributed to the strong yet flexible nature of the wooden buildings in the city.
Lanzhou previously had a professional soccer team named Gansu Tianma F.C. from 1999 to 2003. The team played in Chinese Football Association Yi League from 1999 to 2001 and bought a position in the Jia League from Tianjin Lifei. The team relocated to Ningbo, Zhejiang and changed their name to Ningbo Yaoma (Simplified Chinese: 宁波耀马) in 2003. The team later relegated to the Yi League in 2004 and sold to Dongguan Dongcheng, who moved the club to the Hong Kong First Division League.
Former England international Paul Gascoigne played four games in both a playing and coaching role for Gansu in 2003, scoring two goals, before returning to England after falling out with the club, as his mental state meant that he had to return to America for treatment against drink and depression.
|Name||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population
|Chengguan District||城关区||Chéngguān Qū||1,278,745||220||5,812.47|
|Qilihe District||七里河区||Qīlǐhé Qū||561,020||397||1,413.14|
|Xigu District||西固区||Xīgù Qū||364,050||385||945.58|
|Anning District||安宁区||Ānníng Qū||288,510||86||3,354.76|
|Honggu District||红古区||Hónggǔ Qū||136,101||575||236.69|
|Yongdeng County||永登县||Yǒngdēng Xiàn||418,789||6,090||68.76|
|Gaolan County||皋兰县||Gāolán Xiàn||131,785||2,556||51.55|
|Yuzhong County||榆中县||Yúzhōng Xiàn||437,163||3,362||130.03|
Lanzhou New Area
On 20 August 2012, Lanzhou New Area was approved by the State Council of China's Central Government as the fifth state-level new special economic development zone (followed by Pudong of Shanghai, Binhai of Tianjin, Liangjiang of Chongqing, Zhoushan of Zhejiang), which is also the first state-level new area in the northwest of China.
- The Five Spring Mountain Park（五泉山公园）was built at the northern side of Gaolan Mountain, is famous for its five springs and several Buddhist temples.
- The Yellow River Bridge(黄河铁桥) has connected the transport hub of Lanzhou to the mainland and northwest since the Ming dynasty when people began to envisage such a crossing to conquer the Yellow River .
- Baita Mountain Park(白塔山公园) was built close to the mountains at an elevation of 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) and opened in 1958 across the Yellow River bridge.
Since 1949 Lanzhou has been transformed from the capital of a poverty-stricken province into the center of a major industrial area. The GDP per capita of Lanzhou was 25,566 (RMB) (US$3,681) in 2008, ranking it at number 134 among 659 Chinese cities.
The International Solar Energy Center (UNIDO-ISEC) is located in Lanzhou's Chengguan district.
There is a thermal generating plant supplied with coal from fields in Qinghai. In addition, there is a hydroelectric station at Zhulama Gorge in Gansu, and a large multipurpose dam has been built in the Liujia Gorge on the Yellow River above Lanzhou.
Gansu has one of the largest oil refineries in the country and Lanzhou itself is the center of the province's petrochemical industry. Lanzhou has a large refinery linked to the fields at Yumen by pipeline. It also manufactures equipment for the oil industry.
Lanzhou has a large textile industry, particularly noted for the production of woolen and leather goods. In addition, Lanzhou produces locomotives and rolling stock for the northwestern railways, as well as machine tools and mining equipment. aluminum products, industrial chemicals, and fertilizers are produced on a large scale, and there is a large rubber industry. Copper is mined in nearby Gaolan.
Lanzhou has been one of the centers of China's national nuclear power industry since the 1960s.
- Lanzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone
- Lanzhou High-tech Industrial Development Zone
- Lanzhou Airport serves as the main airport and is located 70 km (43 mi) north of Lanzhou. The airport opened for public service in 1970, and a new terminal was opened for travellers in February 2015. Flights from more than 20 cities depart and arrive at the airport. The airport has flights to several domestic major cities as well as international destinations including Hong Kong and St. Petersburg.
Lanzhou was the second city in northwest China to construct a subway line, in August 2012. The urban railway network, Lanzhou Metro, is planned to consist of six subway lines running 207 km (129 mi). The line is completely underground with a completion deadline of 2016.
Three of the subway lines, coded Line 1, Line 2 and Line 3, will extend 90 km (56 mi) in the city proper, while the three outer lines, coded Line 4, Line 5 and Line 6, will run 117 km (73 mi), connecting the city centre with Lanzhou Zhongchuan Airport, Yuzhong county and Gaolan county, respectively. The first two lines will cost about 23 billion yuan ($3.6 billion) and be completed by 2020.
Lanzhou Railway Station is a major railway hub of western China. Every day over 100 passenger trains originate or pass via this station. It is a vital focal point connecting the western Chinese provinces with the east. Lanzhou Railway Station is located on Huochezhan Dong Lu, in Chengguan district.
It has the following railway connections:
- Longhai Railway to the east (Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Lianyungang), with connection to the main railway of Eastern China supporting direct trains to Beijing, Shanghai, etc. Finished in 1953, it was the first railway to reach Lanzhou.
- Lanxin Railway to the west and northwest (with direct trains to western Gansu and Ürümqi, and further connections to other points in Xinjiang and to Kazakhstan)
- Lanqing Railway to the west and southwest, with direct service to Xining and Lhasa
- A line to the north and northeast, with direct service to Yinchuan and Baotou
Construction of new high-speed passenger-only railway lines is carried out both toward the east (the Xulan Passenger Dedicated Line) and the west (the Lanxin High-Speed Railway). These services will use an upgraded Lanzhou West Railway Station. The construction of Lanzhou–Zhongchuan Airport Intercity Railway between the city's airport and the city proper also started on 2012-12-21.
- Linked to neighboring provinces
- China National Highway 212
- China National Highway 213
- China National Highway 312
Other services connect to local and provincial areas
Places of interest
- Gansu People's Press, in Lanzhou, publishes Duzhe, the most widely circulated magazine in the People's Republic of China.
- Lanzhou Radio serves the Lhasa and Lanzhou province regions with news and music.
The city is the cultural centre of Gansu. It is home to many different ethnic groups and their respective cultures, but the most prominent three groups are the Han, Hui, and Zang.
- Chinese opera: Qinqiang Drama
- Cuisine: Lanzhou beef lamian noodles, the root of the lily, and many different kinds of mutton all feature into Lanzhou's distinct food culture.
- Islam in China: Xiguan Mosque, the mosque was constructed in the Ming dynasty and later rebuilt in 1990, and occupies an area of 467 square meters, and is one of the most influential mosques in China. The architecture of the mosque predominantly reflects that of Arab architecture.
Colleges and universities
The city is the seat of Lanzhou University, founded in 1909. The National Minorities Institute at Lanzhou and a number of scientific institutes are also located there.In particular, Northwest Normal University has been the key university at the provincial level, which has prepared over 100,000 teachers in schools across the province Gansu.
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor's degree programs are not listed.
- Lanzhou University, founded 1909
Other public institutions
- Eastern Gansu University
- Gansu Agricultural University, founded 1958
- Gansu College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (甘肃中医学院)
- Gansu Institute of Political Science and Law (甘肃政法学院)
- Gansu Lianhe University (甘肃联合大学)
- Gansu Political Science and Law Institute (甘肃政法学院)
- Institute of Technology, Lanzhou (兰州工业学院)
- Lanzhou City University (兰州城市学院), founded 1958
- Lanzhou Commercial College (兰州商学院) (Lanzhou Business Institute)
- Lanzhou Jiaotong University (兰州交通大学), founded 1958
- Lanzhou Medical College (兰州医学院) (Lanzhou Medical Institute)
- Lanzhou Niuroumian Cultural Research Institute (兰州牛肉面文化研究所)
- Lanzhou University of Technology, founded 1919 (formerly Gansu University of Technology)
- Northwest Nationalities University (西北民族大学)
- Northwest Normal University, founded 1902
- Tianshui Normal University (天水师范学院)
- Lanzhou Heavy Ion Cancer Treatment Center, joint venture by Sheng De Group, the city government and Chinese Academy of Sciences' Institution of Modern Physics
According to the provincial health bureau, about 42,000 people die of cancer every year in Gansu, accounting for 25 percent of the province's overall deaths. More than 1 billion yuan (146 million U.S. dollars) is spent annually on treating cancer in the province.
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- Liujiaxia Gorge and Bingling Temple
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Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)
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