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In the Catholic Church, the Vicegerent is a titular archbishop who serves in the Diocese of Rome as the chief assistant to the Cardinal Vicar General of Rome.  In England, King Henry VIII's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, was named "Vicegerent in spirituals." Cromwell's real role in the Church of England was as Vicar-General to the king and an active figure for the courtly protestants.
In Southeast Asia
Patih or Pepatih is a regent title equivalent to vicegerent which was traditionally used among Austronesian polities of insular Southeast Asia, in particular those of Java and the Malay world. In the first place it denoted the chief minister of a kingdom or (in the case of Java) a traditional regency. Lesser ministers could also be known by the title. In some cases the headmen of local communities could be termed Patih, for example on 16th-century Java and in Banjarmasin in southeastern Kalimantan.
In his capacity of chief minister in a realm, the Patih was the right hand and representative of the ruler. The commands of the ruler were transferred to the regional or local chiefs via the Patih. In the Javanese kingdoms the Patih had his own palace, the Pepatihan, and carried a particular name; in Yogyakarta his name as regent was Danurejo, in Surakarta (Solo) it was Joyonegoro.
- Thomas Cromwell, Vicegerent of Henry VIII, appointed 1535.
- The Byzantine Emperors held as a title "God's Vicegerent on Earth".
- Milton, in his work Paradise Lost, titles the Son "The Vicegerent", in Book 10.
- Random House Dictionary (2009 ed.)
- Pope Paul VI (January 6, 1977), "2. Norme, §3-4", Vicariae potestatis in urbe, apostolic constitution (in Italian), St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, Rome, retrieved 2014-04-09
- Rev. Thomas F. Knox (1876), "Studies in Biography - No V. The Last Survivor of the Ancient English Hierarchy, part II", The Month and Catholic Review (February ed.), Simpkin, Marshall, XXVI: 139, retrieved 2014-03-09
- A. Cortesão (1944), The Suma Oriental of Tomé Pires, Vol. I-II. London: Hakluyt Society; J.J. Ras (1968), Hikajat Bandjar; A Study in Malay Histiography. The Hague: M. Nijhoff.
- G.F.E. Gonggrijp (1934), Geïllustreerde Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch-Indië. Leiden: Leidsche Uitgeversmaatschappij, p. 1154.
- W.L. Olthof (1987), Babad Tanah Djawi. Dordrecht: Foris.
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