Viceroy of Liangguang

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Viceroy of Liangguang
Traditional Chinese 兩廣總督
Simplified Chinese 两广总督
Governor-General, Commander and Quartermaster, Supervisor of Waterways, and Inspector-General of the Two Expanses and Surrounding Areas
(full title)
Traditional Chinese 總督兩廣等處地方,提督軍務、糧餉、管理河道兼巡撫事
Simplified Chinese 总督两广等处地方,提督军务、粮饷、管理河道兼巡抚事

The Viceroy of Liangguang or Viceroy of the Two Guangs, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General, Commander and Quartermaster, Supervisor of Waterways, and Inspector-General of the Two Expanses and Surrounding Areas, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The two Guangs referred to Guangdong and Guangxi provinces. The areas under the Viceroy's jurisdiction included present-day Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, as well as Hainan Province.

History[edit]

Ming dynasty[edit]

The office of the Viceroy of Liangguang originated in 1452 during the Ming dynasty. The Jingtai Emperor accepted Yu Qian's proposal to create the office and appointed Wang Ao (王翱) as the first viceroy.

In 1465, the Chenghua Emperor appointed Han Yong (韓雍) as Left Censor-in-Chief and Viceroy of Liangguang. The office was formalised in 1469, with the administrative headquarters fixed in Wuzhou, Guangxi.

In 1536, during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor, the viceroy Qian Rujing (錢如京) created a separate administrative branch in Zhaoqing, Guangdong. In 1564, the headquarters shifted from Wuzhou to Zhaoqing after Wu Guifang (吳桂芳) sought approval from the Jiajing Emperor.

Qing dynasty[edit]

The office was recreated in 1644 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor in the Qing dynasty. It was called "Viceroy of Guangdong" (廣東總督) even though its jurisdiction included Guangxi. The headquarters were in Guangzhou, Guangdong. In 1655, the headquarters shifted back to Wuzhou.

In 1663, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, the office was split into two: Viceroy of Guangdong and Viceroy of Guangxi. The headquarters of the Viceroy of Guangdong moved to Lianzhou (廉州; present-day Hepu County, Guangxi). A year later, the Viceroy of Guangxi was merged with the Viceroy of Guangdong, and the headquarters shifted back to Zhaoqing.

In 1723, during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, the office was divided into Guangdong and Guangxi again, but were merged again within the following year. In 1729, in response to a rebellion by the Miao people, the Yongzheng Emperor placed Guangxi under the jurisdiction of the Viceroy of Yun-Gui to facilitate the coordination of military operations. In 1734, Guangdong and Guangxi were merged under a single office, Viceroy of Liangjiang, and had remained like this until 1905.

In 1746, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor, the headquarters of the Viceroy of Liangguang shifted to Guangzhou and remained there permanently.

In 1905, during the reign of the Guangxu Emperor, the Viceroy of Liangguang concurrently held the position of Provincial Governor of Guangdong.

List of Viceroys of Liangguang[edit]

Ming dynasty[edit]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
1 Wang Ao
王翱
王翱.png 1452 1453 Promoted to Secretary of Personnel
2 Han Yong
韓雍
1465 Concurrently Left Censor-in-Chief
3 Qin Hong
秦紘
1489 1495 Concurrently Right Censor-in-Chief; later dismissed from office
4 Deng Tingzan
鄧廷瓚
1495 1497 Concurrently a Provincial Governor; later promoted to Left Censor-in-Chief
5 Pan Fan
潘蕃
1501 1506 Concurrently Right Censor-in-Chief; later promoted to Left Censor-in-Chief
6 Xiong Xiu
熊繡
1506 1514 Concurrently Right Deputy Censor-in-Chief; later promoted to Censor-in-Chief in Nanjing
7 Zhou Nan
周南
1514 1515 Retired
8 Chen Jin
陳金
1515 1519 Later promoted to Censor-in-Chief
9 Zhang Ding
張嵿
1522 1525 Concurrently Right Censor-in-Chief; later promoted to Censor-in-Chief in Nanjing and Secretary of Works
10 Yao Mo
姚鏌
1525 1527 Concurrently Right Censor-in-Chief
11 Wang Shouren
王守仁
Wang-yang-ming.jpg 1527 1529 Concurrently Secretary of Defence in Nanjing and Left Censor-in-Chief
12 Zhang Jing
張經
1537 1544 Promoted to Left Vice Secretary of Defence
13 Tao Xie
陶諧
Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
14 Bao Xiangxian
鮑象賢
Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
15 Zhang Yue
張岳
1544 1545 Concurrently Right Deputy Censor-in-Chief
16 Wu Guifang
吳桂芳
1563 1566 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
17 Tan Lun
譚綸
1567 1568
18 Zhang Han
張瀚
1568 1569 Concurrently Left Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
19 Liu Tao
劉燾
1569 1570 Concurrently Left Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
20 Li Qian
李遷
1570 1571 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Censor-in-Chief
21 Yin Zhengmao
殷正茂
1571 1575 Concurrently Secretary of Defence in Nanjing
22 Ling Yunyi
凌雲翼
1575 1578 Concurrently Left Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
23 Liu Yaohui
劉堯誨
Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
24 Chen Rui
陳瑞
1582 1583 Concurrently Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
25 Guo Yingping
郭應聘
1583 1584 Concurrently Secretary of Defence
26 Wu Wenhua
吳文華
1584 1587 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
27 Wu Shan
吳善
1587 1588 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
28 Liu Jiwen
劉繼文
1588 1591 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
29 Xiao Yan
蕭彥
1591 1592 Concurrently Right Deputy Censor-in-Chief
30 Chen Ju
陳榘
1593 1594 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Revenue
31 Chen Dake
陳大科
1595 1598 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
32 Dai Yao
戴耀
1598 1609 Concurrently Secretary of Defence and Right Deputy Censor-in-Chief
33 Zhang Minggang
張鳴岡
1610 1614 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
34 Zhou Jiamo
周嘉謨
1615 1617 Concurrently Provincial Governor of Yunnan
35 Xu Honggang
許宏鋼
1618 1620 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
36 Chen Bangzhan
陳邦瞻
1620 1621 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
37 Hu Yingtai
胡應台
1621 1624 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
38 He Shijin
何士晉
1624 1625 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
39 Shang Zhouzuo
商周祚
1625 1626 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
40 Li Fengjie
李逢節
1627 1628 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
41 Wang Zunde
王尊德
1628 1631 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence; died in office
42 Wang Yehao
王業浩
1631 1632 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
43 Xiong Wencan
熊文燦
1632 1637 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
44 Zhang Jingxin
張鏡心
1637 1641 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
45 Shen Youlong
沈猶龍
沈猶龍.jpg 1641 1644 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence

Southern Ming dynasty[edit]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
46 Ding Kuichu
丁魁楚
1644 1644 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
47 Wang Huacheng
王化澄
1646 1646 Concurrently Provincial Governor of Guangdong
48 Lin Jiading
林佳鼎
February 1646 1647
49 Zhu Zhijian
朱治澗
1647 1647 Concurrently Vice Secretary of Defence
50 Li Chengdong
李成棟
1648 April 1649
51 Li Qipeng
李棲鵬
April 1649 April 1649
52 Yan Keyi
閻可義
August 1649 August 1649 Died of illness in office
53 Li Jianjie
李建捷
September 1649 September 1649
54 Luo Chengyao
羅承耀
September 1649 September 1649
55 Du Yunhe
杜允和
October 1649 1650 Retreated from Guangzhou after the city fell to Qing forces led by Shang Kexi and Geng Jimao
56 Lian Chengbi
連城璧
1650 1659

Qing dynasty[edit]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
Viceroy of Guangdong
(including Guangxi)
(1644–1661)
1644 15 June 1647 Vacant
1 Tong Yangjia
佟養甲
15 June 1647 1651
1651 12 July 1653 Vacant
2 Li Shuaitai
李率泰
12 July 1653 16 March 1656
3 Wang Guoguang
王國光
16 March 1656 10 July 1658
4 Li Qifeng
李棲鳳
10 July 1658 2 November 1661
Viceroy of Guangdong
(1661–1665)
5 Li Qifeng
李棲鳳
2 November 1661 2 April 1665
6 Lu Xingzu
盧興祖
2 April 1665 4 July 1665
Viceroy of Guangxi
(1661–1665)
Yu Shiyue
于時躍
1661 1663
Qu Jinmei
屈盡美
1663 1665
Viceroy of Liangguang
(1665–1723)
7 Lu Xingzu
盧興祖
4 July 1665 30 December 1667
8 Zhou Youde
周有德
Zhou Youde.jpg 30 January 1668 6 February 1670
9 Jin Guangzu
金光祖
6 March 1668 1 February 1682
10 Wu Xingzuo
吳興祚
1 February 1682 8 August 1689
11 Shi Lin
石琳
19 August 1682 17 December 1702
12 Guo Shilong
郭世隆
17 December 1702 23 January 1707
13 Zhao Hongcan
趙弘燦
30 January 1707 19 November 1716
14 Yang Lin
楊琳
25 November 1716 9 September 1723
Viceroy of Guangdong
(1723–1724)
15 Yang Lin
楊琳
9 September 1723 26 April 1724
Viceroy of Guangxi
(1723–1724)
Kong Yuxun
孔毓珣
1723 1724
Viceroy of Liangguang
(1724–1728)
16 Kong Yuxun
孔毓珣
26 April 1724 11 November 1728
Viceroy of Guangdong
(Guangxi was under the Viceroy of Yun-Gui)
(1728–1734)
17 Kong Yuxun
孔毓珣
11 November 1728 29 March 1729
18 Hao Yulin
郝玉麟
29 March 1729 21 March 1732
Zhang Pu
張溥
14 October 1731 25 February 1732 Acting Viceroy
Emida
鄂彌達
21 March 1732 17 October 1732 Acting Viceroy
19 Emida
鄂彌達
21 March 1732 5 January 1735
Viceroy of Liangguang
(1734–1905)
20 Emida
鄂彌達
5 January 1735 30 August 1738
21 Ma'ertai
馬爾泰
30 August 1738 10 August 1744
Qingfu
慶復
28 May 1741 28 January 1743 Acting Viceroy
Celeng
策楞
28 January 1743 17 July 1743 Acting Viceroy
22 Nasutu
那蘇圖
10 August 1744 14 May 1745
23 Celeng
策楞
14 May 1745 28 October 1748
24 Yin Jishan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 28 October 1748 24 November 1748
25 Shuose
碩色
24 November 1748 9 February 1750
26 Chen Dashou
陳大受
9 February 1750 14 November 1751
27 Arigun
阿里袞
Arigun.jpg 14 November 1751 24 February 1753
Bandi
班第
Meritorious Officers Paintings of Ziguang Ge-Bandi.JPG 16 October 1753 3 May 1754 Acting Viceroy
28 Celeng
策楞
16 October 1753 3 May 1754
29 Yang Yingju
楊應琚
3 May 1754 31 August 1757
30 Henian
鶴年
31 August 1757 14 January 1758
Li Shiyao
李侍堯
Li Shiyao.jpg Acting Viceroy
31 Chen Hongmou
陳弘謀
陈弘谋.jpg 14 January 1758 27 May 1758
32 Li Shiyao
李侍堯
Li Shiyao.jpg 27 May 1758 27 May 1761
33 Suchang
蘇昌
27 May 1761 22 July 1764
34 Li Shiyao
李侍堯
Li Shiyao.jpg 22 July 1764 25 February 1777
Yang Tingzhang
楊廷璋
22 July 1765 24 April 1767 Acting Viceroy
35 Yang Jingsu
楊景素
25 February 1777 19 March 1778
36 Guilin
桂林
19 March 1778 11 January 1780
37 Bayansan
巴延三
11 January 1780 20 February 1784
38 Shuchang
舒常
20 February 1784 26 February 1785
Sun Shiyi
孫士毅
Sun Shiyi.jpg 26 February 1785 1 September 1785 Acting Viceroy
39 Fulehun
富勒渾
1 September 1785 23 May 1786
40 Sun Shiyi
孫士毅
Sun Shiyi.jpg 23 May 1786 19 February 1789
41 Fuk'anggan
福康安
Fuk'anggan.jpg 19 February 1789 14 September 1793
42 Changlin
長麟
14 September 1793 5 July 1796
43 Zhu Gui
朱珪
朱珪.jpg 5 July 1796 29 September 1796
44 Jiqing
吉慶
29 September 1796 17 December 1802
45 Changlin
長麟
17 December 1802 26 January 1803
Hutuli
瑚圖禮
Acting Viceroy
46 Woshibu
倭什布
26 January 1803 30 January 1805
47 Nayancheng
那彥成
30 January 1805 12 December 1805
48 Wu Xiongguang
吳熊光
12 December 1805 6 January 1809
49 Yongbao
永保
6 January 1809 20 February 1809
50 Bailing
百齡
20 February 1809 16 February 1811
51 Songyun
松筠
16 February 1811 5 November 1811
52 Jiang Youxian
蔣攸銛
5 November 1811 22 October 1817
53 Ruan Yuan
阮元
阮元像.JPG 22 October 1817 22 June 1826
54 Li Hongbin
李鴻賓
22 June 1826 14 September 1832
55 Lu Kun
盧坤
14 September 1832 15 October 1835
56 Deng Tingzhen
鄧廷楨
Deng Tingzhen.png 15 October 1835 21 January 1840
57 Lin Zexu
林則徐
Commissioner Lin 2.png 21 January 1840 3 October 1840
Yiliang
怡良
28 September 1840 4 December 1840 Acting Viceroy
58 Qishan
琦善
4 December 1840 26 February 1841
59 Qi Gong
祁𡎴
26 February 1841 19 March 1844
60 Qiying
耆英
Portrait of Keying.jpeg 19 March 4 July 1848
Xu Guangjin
徐廣縉
3 February 1848 4 July 1848 Acting Viceroy
61 Xu Guangjin
徐廣縉
4 July 1848 7 September 1852
62 Ye Mingchen
葉名琛
Ye Mingchen.jpg 7 September 1852 26 January 1858 [1]
63 Huang Zonghan
黃宗漢
26 January 1858 4 May 1859
64 Wang Qingyun
王慶雲
4 May 1859 7 October 1859
Bogui
柏貴
4 May 1859 21 May 1859 Acting Viceroy
Lao Chongguang
勞崇光
勞崇光.jpg 21 May 1859 7 October 1859 Acting Viceroy
65 Lao Chongguang
勞崇光
勞崇光.jpg 7 October 1859 17 October 1862
66 Liu Changyou
劉長佑
17 October 1862 14 February 1863
Yan Duanshu
晏端書
14 February 1863 6 July 1863 Acting Viceroy
67 Mao Hongbin
毛鴻賓
6 July 1863 7 March 1865
Wu Tang
吳棠
7 March 1865 13 March 1865 Acting Viceroy
68 Ruilin
瑞麟
JUI-LIN, GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE TWO KWANG PROVINCES.jpg 13 March 1865 17 October 1874
Ruilin
瑞麟
JUI-LIN, GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE TWO KWANG PROVINCES.jpg 13 March 1865 25 September 1866 Acting Viceroy
69 Yinghan
英翰
17 October 1874 2 September 1875
Zhang Zhaodong
張兆棟
17 October 1874 31 March 1875 Acting Viceroy
70 Liu Kunyi
劉坤一
Liu Kunyi LOC ggbain 03677.jpg 2 September 1875 27 December 1879
Yukuan
裕寬
18 December 1878 27 December 1879 Acting Viceroy
71 Zhang Shusheng
張樹聲
27 December 1879 19 April 1882
Yukuan
裕寬
27 December 1879 20 May 1880 Acting Viceroy
Yukuan
裕寬
19 April 1882 6 May 1882 Acting Viceroy
72 Zeng Guoquan
曾國荃
平定粵匪功臣像─曾國荃像.jpg 6 May 1882 13 July 1883
73 Zhang Shusheng
張樹聲
13 July 1883 22 May 1884
74 Zhang Zhidong
張之洞
張之洞朝服照.jpg 22 May 1884 8 August 1889
75 Li Hanzhang
李瀚章
8 August 1889 13 April 1895
76 Tan Zhonglin
譚鍾麟
16 April 1895 19 December 1899 The office was renamed to "Viceroy of Liangguang and Provincial Governor of Guangdong" between 30 August and 1 November 1898.
Deshou
德壽
19 December 1899 24 May 1900 Acting Viceroy
77 Li Hongzhang
李鴻章
Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg 24 May 1900 9 July 1900
Deshou
德壽
9 July 1900 16 September 1900 Acting Viceroy
78 Lu Chuanlin
鹿傳霖
Lu Chuanlin.jpg 16 September 1900 26 September 1900
79 Tao Mo
陶模
26 September 1900 2 July 1902
Deshou
德壽
3 July 1902 18 April 1903
80 Cen Chunxuan
岑春煊
Cen Chunxuan (1).jpg 18 April 1903 23 July 1905
Viceroy of Liangguang and Provincial Governor of Guangdong
(1905–1911)
81 Cen Chunxuan
岑春煊
Cen Chunxuan (1).jpg 23 July 1905 11 September 1906
82 Zhou Fu
周馥
11 September 1906 28 May 1907
83 Cen Chunxuan
岑春煊
Cen Chunxuan (1).jpg 28 May 1907 12 August 1907
84 Zhang Renjun
張人駿
Zhang Renjun.jpg 12 August 1907 28 June 1909
Yuan Shuxun
袁樹勛
28 June 1909 29 October 1910 Acting Viceroy
Zengqi
增祺
29 October 1910 14 April 1911 Acting Viceroy
85 Zhang Mingqi
張鳴岐
4 April 1911 8 November 1911
86 Li Zhun
李準
26 November 1911 Never assumed office
Lu Rongting
陸榮廷
Lu Rongting.jpg July 1917 July 1917 During the Manchu Restoration attempt

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wong, J.Y. (1976). Yeh Ming-ch'en: Viceroy of Liang Kuang 1852-8. CUP Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-21023-2.