Viceroy of Shaan-Gan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
Traditional Chinese 陝甘總督
Simplified Chinese 陜甘总督
Governor-General of Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs
Traditional Chinese 總督陜西甘肅等處地方,提督軍務、糧餉、管理河道兼巡撫事
Simplified Chinese 总督陕西甘肃等处地方,提督军务、粮饷、管理河道兼巡抚事

The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan had jurisdiction over Shaanxi and Gansu provinces (hence the name "Shaan(xi)-Gan(su)"), as well as western Inner Mongolia.

History[edit]

Ming dynasty[edit]

The office of Viceroy of Shaan-Gan originated in the early Ming dynasty with the garrisoning of military forces in three towns along the northern border of Shaanxi Province. The three garrisons were called "Xunfu of Yansui" (延綏巡撫), "Xunfu of Ningxia" (寧夏巡撫) and "Xunfu of Gansu" (甘肅巡撫).

In 1497, when the Mongols of the Northern Yuan dynasty made intrusions across the border, the Hongzhi Emperor put Wang Yue (王越) in charge of coordinating military actions in Shaanxi, Yansui, Ningxia and Gansu.

In the early reign of the Zhengde Emperor (r. 1505–1521), the Mongols invaded Guyuan. The general Cao Xiong (曹雄) rejected external help from reinforcements. Yang Yiqing (楊一清) led lightly armed cavalry to launch a surprise attack on the Mongols and succeeded in driving them back. After this incident, Yang Yiqing recognised that military operations in Yansui, Ningxia and Gansu had to be better coordinated, hence he urged the imperial court to appoint a viceroy to oversee the three areas. Liu Daxia (劉大夏) nominated Yang Yiqing for that position.

The office of the viceroy was created in 1525, during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor, under the name "tidu of military affairs" (提督軍務). The office was renamed to "zongzhi" (總制) in 1528, and to "zongdu" (總督) in 1540. The headquarters were located at Huamachi (花馬池; present-day Yanchi County, Ningxia).

Qing dynasty[edit]

The office was recreated in 1645, during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor, as "Viceroy of the Three Borders in Shaanxi" (陝西三邊總督), with the headquarters at Guyuan. In 1653, the Viceroy's jurisdiction expanded to include Sichuan Province, hence the office was renamed "Viceroy of (Si)Chuan and the Three Borders in Shaanxi" (川陝三邊總督). In 1656, the office was renamed "Viceroy of (Si)Chuan-Shaan(xi)" (川陝總督) and its headquarters were relocated to Hanzhong. In 1661, the office changed its name to "Viceroy of Shaanxi" (陝西總督) after Sichuan was removed from its jurisdiction.

In 1666, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, the Viceroy's jurisdiction expanded to include Shanxi Province, hence it was renamed "Viceroy of Shan(xi)-Shaan(xi)" (山陝總督), with its headquarters in Xi'an. Shanxi was removed in 1672, and Sichuan was added again in 1680.

In 1723, the Yongzheng Emperor ordered that all Viceroys who also held the position of Secretary of Defence (兵部尚書) would concurrently be appointed as Right Censor-in-Chief (右都御史) of the Detection Branch (都察院) in the Censorate. Those Viceroys who did not hold the position of Secretary of Defence would be concurrently appointed as Right Vice Secretary of Defence (兵部右侍郎) and Right Vice Censor-in-Chief (右副都御史). In 1725, Yue Zhongqi (岳鍾琪) became the first Han Chinese outside of the Han Military Eight Banners to become a Viceroy when he was appointed as Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan. In 1731, the office was renamed "Viceroy of Shaanxi" (陝西總督) and its jurisdiction covered Shaanxi and Gansu; a separate Viceroy of Sichuan was created for Sichuan.

In 1736, the Qianlong Emperor abolished the Viceroy of Sichuan and recreated the office of Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan. In 1748, he split the Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan into Viceroy of Sichuan and Viceroy of Shaan-Gan, but reversed the changes again in 1759 and established a separate Viceroy of Gansu, with its headquarters in Suzhou (肅州; present-day Suzhou District, Jiuquan, Gansu). In 1760, the Qianlong Emperor abolished the Viceroy of Gansu and restored the two offices of Viceroy of Sichuan and Viceroy of Shaan-Gan. The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan was headquartered in Lanzhou and concurrently held the appointment of a Provincial Governor.

In 1882, during the reign of the Guangxu Emperor, the newly established Xinjiang Province was included under the jurisdiction of the Viceroy of Shaan-Gan.

List of Viceroys of Shaan-Gan[edit]

Ming dynasty[edit]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
1 Wang Yue
王越
1474 1498 As "Zongzhi of Military Affairs at the Three Borders" (總制三邊軍務) in 1474, then "Zongzhi and Xunfu of Affairs in Gan, Liang and the Borders" (總制甘、涼邊務兼巡撫) from 1497 to 1498
2 Qin Hong
秦紘
1501 1504 As "Zongzhi of Military Affairs at the Three Borders" (總制三邊軍務)
3 Li Yue
李鉞
1522 1523 As "Zongzhi of Military Affairs in Shaanxi and the Three Borders" (總制陝西三邊軍務)
4 Yang Yiqing
楊一清
Yang Yiqing.png 1525 1525
5 Wang Xian
王憲
1525 1528 As "Supervisor of Military Affairs in Shaanxi and the Three Borders" (督陝西三邊軍務)
6 Wang Qiong
王瓊
Wangq.jpg 1528 1532
7 Li Wen
李汶
1535
8 Zeng Xian
曾銑
1546 1548 As "Viceroy of Military Affairs in Shaanxi and the Three Borders" (總督陝西三邊軍務)
9 Gu Qizhi
顧其志
1610
10 Huang Jiashan
黃嘉善
11 Liu Minkuan
劉敏寬
12 Zhang Heming
張鶴鳴
13 Yang Yingping
楊應聘
14 Qi Guangzong
祁光宗
1615 As "Viceroy of Military Affairs in Gan, Liang and the Three Borders" (總督甘、涼三邊軍務)
15 Li Qiyuan
李起元
As "Viceroy of Military Affairs in Shaanxi and the Three Borders" (總督陝西三邊軍務)
16 Wu Zhiwang
武之望
1628
17 Yang He
楊鶴
1629
18 Hong Chengchou
洪承疇
洪承畴.jpg 1631
19 Zheng Chongjian
鄭崇儉
1639
20 Ding Qirui
丁啟睿
1640

Qing dynasty[edit]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
Viceroy of Shaanxi and the Three Borders
(1645–1653)
1 Wang Wenkui
王文奎
1645
2 Meng Qiaofang
孟喬芳
1645 1653
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan and the Three Borders
(1653–1656)
3 Meng Qiaofang
孟喬芳
1653 1654
4 Jin Li
金礪
1654 1656
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
(1656–1661)
5 Jin Li
金礪
1656 1656
6 Ma Zhixian
馬之先
1656 1657
7 Li Guoying
李國英
1657 1661
Viceroy of Shaanxi
(1661–1666)
8 Bai Rumei
白如梅
1661 1666
Viceroy of Shan-Shaan
(1666–1672)
9 Bai Rumei
白如梅
1666 1666
10 Lu Chongjun
盧崇峻
1666 1667
11 Moluo
莫洛
1668 1670
12 Luoduo
羅多
1671 1672
13 Eshan
鄂善
1672 1672
Viceroy of Shan-Shaan
(excluding Shanxi)
(1672–1680)
14 Eshan
鄂善
1672 1673
15 Hazhan
哈占
1673 1680
Viceroy of Shan-Shaan
(including Sichuan)
(1680–1731)
16 Hazhan
哈占
1680 1683
17 Xifo
禧佛
1683 1686
18 Tuna
圖納
1686 1688
19 Gesitai
葛思泰
1688 1692
20 Folun
佛倫
1692 1694
21 Wuhe
吳赫
1694 1699
Xierda
席爾達
1699 1701 Acting Viceroy
22 Gioro-Huaxian
覺羅華顯
1701 1704
23 Boji
博霽
1704 1708
24 Qi Shiwu
齊世武
1708 1709
25 Yin Tai
殷泰
1709 1713
26 Ehai
鄂海
1713 1718
27 Nian Gengyao
年羹堯
年羹尧.jpg 1719 1725
28 Yue Zhongqi
岳鍾琪
1725 1729
Tulišen
圖理琛
1725 1725 Acting Viceroy
29 Yue Zhongqi
岳鍾琪
1729 1732
Chalang'a
查郎阿
1729 1731 Acting Viceroy
Viceroy of Shaanxi
(1731–1736)
30 Chalang'a
查郎阿
1731 1732
Liu Yuyi
劉於義
1732 1735 Acting Viceroy
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
(1736–1748)
31 Chalang'a
查郎阿
1736 1738
Liu Yuyi
劉於義
1736 1737 Acting Viceroy
32 Emida
鄂彌達
1738 1740
33 Yin Jishan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 1740 1742
Ma'ertai
馬爾泰
1742 1743 Acting Viceroy
34 Qingfu
慶復
1743 1747
35 Zhang Guangsi
張廣泗
1747 1748
Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
1747 Acting Viceroy
Furdan
傅爾丹
1748 Acting Viceroy
Fuheng
傅恆
Qing General Fu Heng.jpg 1748 Acting Viceroy
36 Celeng
策楞
1748
Yin Jishan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 1748 Acting Viceroy
Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
(excluding Sichuan)
(1748–1759)
37 Yin Jishan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 1748 1749
38 Hubao
瑚寶
1749 1749
39 Yin Jishan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 1750 1751
40 Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
1751 1753
Yin Jishan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 1753 1753 Acting Viceroy
41 Yongchang
永常
1753 1754
Liu Tongxun
劉統勛
1754 1755 Acting Viceroy
42 Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
1755 1759
43 Wu Dashan
吳達善
1759 1759
Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
(1760–1911)
44 Yang Yingju
楊應琚
1760 1766 Started his term as Viceroy of Gansu in 1759, then as Viceroy of Shaan-Gan from 1760 onwards
45 Wu Dashan
吳達善
1766 1768
46 Mingshan
明山
1769 1771
47 Wu Dashan
吳達善
1771 1771
48 Wenshou
文綬
1771 1772
49 Haiming
海明
1772 1772
Lergiyen
勒爾謹
1772 1772 Acting Viceroy
50 Lergiyen
勒爾謹
1772 1776
Bi Yuan
畢沅
毕沅.jpg 1776 1776 Acting Viceroy
51 Lergiyen
勒爾謹
1776 1781
52 Li Shiyao
李侍堯
Li Shiyao.jpg 1781 1784
Bi Yuan
畢沅
毕沅.jpg 1783 1783 Acting Viceroy
53 Fuk'anggan
福康安
Fuk'anggan.jpg 1784 1787
Qinggui
慶桂
1785 1785 Acting Viceroy
Yongbao
永保
1786 1786 Acting Viceroy
Lebao
勒保
1787 1787 Acting Viceroy
54 Lebao
勒保
1788 1795
55 Yimian
宜綿
1795 1796
Lu Youren
陸有仁
1796 1797 Acting Viceroy
Yingshan
英善
1797 1797 Acting Viceroy
56 Yimian
宜綿
1797 1799
Hengrui
恆瑞
1799 1799 Acting Viceroy
57 Songyun
松筠
1799 1800
58 Changlin
長麟
1800 1801
59 Huiling
惠齡
1801 1804
Nayancheng
那彥成
1804 1804 Acting Viceroy
60 Woshibu
倭什布
1804 1806
61 Quanbao
全保
1806 1807
Fang Weidian
方維甸
1806 1806 Acting Viceroy
62 Changling
長齡
1807 1809
Cai Tingheng
蔡廷衡
1807 1807 Acting Viceroy
Hening
和寧
1809 1809
63 Songyun
松筠
1809 1809
64 Nayancheng
那彥成
1810 1813
65 Changling
長齡
1813 1814
66 Xianfu
先福
1814 1817
Gao Qi
高杞
1814 1814 Acting Viceroy
Hening
和寧
1817 1817 Acting Viceroy
67 Changling
長齡
1817 1822
Zhu Xun
朱勳
1821 1821 Acting Viceroy
68 Nayancheng
那彥成
1822 1825
69 Changling
長齡
1825 1825
Eshan
鄂山
1825 1825 Acting Viceroy
Yang Yuchun
楊遇春
1825 1826 Acting Viceroy
Eshan
鄂山
1826 1826 Acting Viceroy
70 Yang Yuchun
楊遇春
1827 1835
Eshan
鄂山
1830 1830 Acting Viceroy
71 Husong'e
瑚松額
1835 1840
72 Na'erjing'e
訥爾經額
1840 1840
Husong'e
瑚松額
1840 1840 Acting Viceroy
Enteheng'e
恩特亨額
1840 1841 Acting Viceroy
73 Enteheng'e
恩特亨額
1841 1842
74 Funiyang'a
富呢揚阿
1842 1845
75 Huiji
惠吉
1845 1845
Deng Tingzhen
鄧廷楨
Deng Tingzhen.png 1845 1845 Acting Viceroy
76 Buyantai
布彥泰
1845 1849
Lin Zexu
林則徐
Commissioner Lin 2.png 1845 1845 Acting Viceroy
Yang Yizeng
楊以增
1847 1847 Acting Viceroy
Qishan
琦善
1849 1849 Acting Viceroy
77 Qishan
琦善
1849 1851
Saying'a
薩迎阿
1851 1851 Acting Viceroy
78 Yutai
裕泰
1851 1851
Shuxing'a
舒興阿
1851 1851 Acting Viceroy
79 Shuxing'a
舒興阿
1851 1853
Yi Tang
易棠
1853 1853 Acting Viceroy
80 Yi Tang
易棠
1854 1856
81 Yue Bin
樂斌
1856 1860
Changji
常績
1856 1856 Acting Viceroy
Lin Yangzu
林揚祖
1859 1860 Acting Viceroy
Fuji
福濟
1860 1860 Acting Viceroy
82 Yue Bin
樂斌
1860 1861
83 Linkui
麟魁
1862 1862
Shen Zhaolin
沈兆霖
1862 1862 Acting Viceroy
Enlin
恩麟
1862 1862 Acting Viceroy
84 Xilin
熙麟
1862 1864
85 Yang Yuebin
楊岳斌
1864 1866
Duxing'a
都興阿
1864 1864 Acting Viceroy
Enlin
恩麟
1864 1864 Acting Viceroy
85 Zuo Zongtang
左宗棠
Zuo Zongtang2.jpg 1866 1866
Mutushan
穆圖善
1866 1866 Acting Viceroy
86 Mutushan
穆圖善
1867 1869
87 Zuo Zongtang
左宗棠
Zuo Zongtang2.jpg 1869 1880
88 Yang Changjun
楊昌濬
1880 1881
89 Zeng Guoquan
曾國荃
平定粵匪功臣像─曾國荃像.jpg 1881 1881
90 Tan Zhonglin
譚鍾麟
1881 1888
91 Yang Changjun
楊昌濬
1888 1895
Tao Mo
陶模
1895 1895 Acting Viceroy
92 Tao Mo
陶模
1896 1899
Wei Guangtao
魏光燾
Wei Guangtao.jpg 1899 1899 Acting Viceroy
93 Wei Guangtao
魏光燾
Wei Guangtao.jpg 1900 1900
94 Songfan
崧蕃
1900 1905
He Fukun
何福堃
1900 1901 Acting Viceroy
Li Tingxiao
李廷簫
1900 1900 Acting Viceroy
95 Shengyun
升允
1905 1909
96 Changgeng
長庚
1909 1911

References[edit]