Viceroy of Sichuan

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Viceroy of Sichuan
Traditional Chinese 四川總督
Simplified Chinese 四川总督
Governor-General of Sichuan Province and the Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Director of Civil Affairs
(full title)
Traditional Chinese 總督四川等處地方提督軍務、糧饟兼巡撫事
Simplified Chinese 总督四川等处地方提督军务、粮饟兼巡抚事

The Viceroy of Sichuan, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Sichuan Province and the Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. As its name suggests, the Viceroy of Sichuan had control over Sichuan (Szechuan) Province.

History[edit]

The origins of the Viceroy of Sichuan trace back to 1644, during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor, with the creation of the office of the Provincial Governor of Sichuan (四川巡撫). Its headquarters were in Chengdu. In 1645, the Qing government created the Viceroy of Huguang-Sichuan with Luo Xiujin (羅繡錦) as the first Viceroy overseeing both Huguang (present-day Hubei and Hunan) and Sichuan provinces.

In 1653, Sichuan was placed under the jurisdiction of the Viceroy of the Three Borders in Shaanxi, which was subsequently renamed "Viceroy of Chuan and the Three Borders in Shaanxi" (川陝三邊總督) with Meng Qiaofang (孟喬芳) as the officeholder. In 1656, the office was divided into two separate Viceroys for Shaanxi and Sichuan. The Viceroy of Sichuan was based in Chongqing. In 1661, the Viceroy of Sichuan relocated its headquarters to Hanzhong.

In 1668, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, the Viceroy of Huguang was abolished and merged into the Viceroy of Sichuan, which was then renamed "Viceroy of Chuan-Hu" (川湖總督) and based in Jingzhou. In 1670, the Viceroy of Chuan-Hu relocated to Chongqing. Four years later, the Viceroy of Chuan-Hu reverted back to pre-1668, separating into the Viceroy of Huguang and Viceroy of Sichuan. In 1680, the Kangxi Emperor merged the Viceroy of Sichuan with the Viceroy of Shaanxi under the "Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan" (川陝總督), with its headquarters in Xi'an. In 1718, a separate Viceroy was created for Sichuan, so the Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan stopped managing Sichuan. However, these changes were reversed in 1721.

In 1731, the Yongzheng Emperor split the Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan into the Viceroy of Sichuan and Viceroy of Shaan-Gan, with the latter headquartered in Chengdu.

In 1736, the Qianlong Emperor abolished the Viceroy of Sichuan and recreated the office of Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan. In 1748, during the campaign against the Jinchuan hill peoples in Sichuan, the Qianlong Emperor split the Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan into the Viceroy of Sichuan and Viceroy of Shaan-Gan. He merged the two Viceroys in 1759 but reversed the changes in the following year. The system had remained as such until the end of the Qing dynasty.

List of Viceroys of Sichuan[edit]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
Viceroy of Huguang-Sichuan
(1645–1652)
1 Luo Xiujin
羅繡錦
1645 1652
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan and the Three Borders
(1653–1656)
2 Meng Qiaofang
孟喬芳
1653 1654
3 Jin Li
金礪
1654 1656
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
(1656–1661)
4 Jin Li
金礪
1656 1656
5 Ma Zhixian
馬之先
1656 1657
6 Li Guoying
李國英
1657 1661
Viceroy of Sichuan
(1661–1667)
7 Li Guoying
李國英
1661 1666
8 Miao Cheng
苗澄
1666 1667
Viceroy of Chuan-Hu
(1668–1674)
9 Liu Zhaoqi
劉兆麒
1668 1669
10 Cai Yurong
蔡毓榮
1670 1682 Stopped administering Sichuan in 1674
Viceroy of Sichuan
(1674–1680)
11 Zhou Youde
周有德
Zhou Youde.jpg 1674 1674
12 Yang Maoxun
楊茂勛
1679 1680
Viceroy of Shan-Shaan
(1680–1718)
13 Hazhan
哈占
1680 1683
14 Xifo
禧佛
1683 1686
15 Tuna
圖納
1686 1688
16 Gesitai
葛思泰
1688 1692
17 Folun
佛倫
1692 1694
18 Wuhe
吳赫
1694 1699
Xierda
席爾達
1699 1701 Acting Viceroy
19 Gioro-Huaxian
覺羅華顯
1701 1704
20 Boji
博霽
1704 1708
21 Qi Shiwu
齊世武
1708 1709
22 Yin Tai
殷泰
1709 1713
23 Ehai
鄂海
1713 1718
Viceroy of Sichuan
(1718–1721)
24 Nian Gengyao
年羹堯
年羹尧.jpg 1718 1721
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
(1721–1731)
25 Nian Gengyao
年羹堯
年羹尧.jpg 1721 1725
26 Yue Zhongqi
岳鍾琪
1725 1729
27 Chalang'a
查郎阿
1729 1731
Viceroy of Sichuan
(1731–1735)
28 Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
1731 1735
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
(1736–1748)
29 Chalang'a
查郎阿
1736 1738
Liu Yuyi
劉於義
1736 1737 Acting Viceroy
30 Emida
鄂彌達
1738 1740
31 Yin Jishan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 1740 1742
32 Ma'ertai
馬爾泰
1742 1743 Acting Viceroy
33 Qingfu
慶復
1743 1747
34 Zhang Guangsi
張廣泗
1747 1748
Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
1747 Acting Viceroy
Furdan
傅爾丹
1748 Acting Viceroy
35 Fuheng
傅恆
Qing General Fu Heng.jpg 1748 Acting Viceroy
36 Celeng
策楞
1748
Yin Jishan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 1748 Acting Viceroy
Viceroy of Sichuan
(1748–1759)
37 Celeng
策楞
1748 1753
38 Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
1753 1755
39 Kaitai
開泰
1755 1759
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
(1759–1760)
40 Kaitai
開泰
1759 1760
Viceroy of Sichuan
(1760–1911)
41 Kaitai
開泰
1760 1763
42 Ebi
鄂弼
1763 1763
43 Artai
阿爾泰
1763 1770
Agui
阿桂
Agui.jpg 1764 1764 Acting Viceroy
44 Defu
德福
1770 1771
45 Artai
阿爾泰
1771 1771
46 Wenshou
文綬
1771 1771
47 Guilin
桂林
1771 1772
48 Artai
阿爾泰
1772 1772
49 Wenshou
文綬
1772 1772
50 Liu Bingtian
劉秉恬
1772 1773
Fulehun
富勒渾
1772 1772 Acting Viceroy
51 Fulehun
富勒渾
1773 1776
52 Wenshou
文綬
1776 1781
53 Fuk'anggan
福康安
Fuk'anggan.jpg 1781 1783
54 Li Shijie
李世傑
1783 1787
55 Baoning
保寧
1786 1787
56 Li Shijie
李世傑
1787 1789
57 Sun Shiyi
孫士毅
Sun Shiyi.jpg 1789 1790
58 Ehui
鄂輝
鄂輝.jpg 1790 1791
59 Xianling
憲齡
1791 1793
60 Fuk'anggan
福康安
Fuk'anggan.jpg 1793 1794
61 Heliyen
和琳
1794 1796
Sun Shiyi
孫士毅
Sun Shiyi.jpg 1796 1796 Acting Viceroy
62 Funing
福寧
1796 1797
63 Lebao
勒保
1798 1799
64 Kuilun
魁倫
1799 1800
65 Lebao
勒保
1800 1810
66 Changming
常明
1810 1817
Li Luanyi
李鑾宜
1817 1817 Acting Viceroy
Dening'a
德寧阿
1817 1817 Acting Viceroy
67 Jiang Youxian
蔣攸銛
1817 1822
68 Chen Ruolin
陳若霖
陳若霖.jpg 1822 1823
69 Dai Sanxi
戴三錫
1823 1829
70 Qishan
琦善
1829 1831
71 Eshan
鄂山
1831 1838
72 Gioro-Baoxing
覺羅寶興
1839 1846
73 Qishan
琦善
1846 1849
74 Xu Zechun
徐澤醇
1849 1852
75 Huicheng
慧成
1852 1853
76 Yurui
裕瑞
1853 1854
77 Huang Zonghan
黃宗漢
1854 1856
78 Wu Zhenyu
吳振棫
1856 1857
79 Wang Qingyun
王慶雲
1857 1859
80 Huang Zonghan
黃宗漢
1859 1859
81 Zeng Wangyan
曾望顏
1859 1860
82 Chongshi
崇實
1860 1861
83 Luo Bingzhang
駱秉章
Luo Bingzhang.png 1861 1867
84 Wu Tang
吳棠
1867 1875
Wenge
文格
1875 1875 Acting Viceroy
85 Li Hanzhang
李瀚章
1875 1876
86 Ding Baozhen
丁寶楨
Ding Baozhen.jpg 1876 1886
87 Liu Bingzhang
劉秉璋
Liu Bingzhang.jpg 1886 1894
88 Tan Zhonglin
譚鍾麟
1894 1895
89 Lu Chuanlin
鹿傳霖
Lu Chuanlin.jpg 1895 1897
Gongshou
恭壽
1897 1898 Acting Viceroy
90 Li Bingheng
李秉衡
1897 1897 Never assumed office
91 Yulu
裕祿
Yulu.jpg 1897 1898
92 Kuijun
奎俊
1898 1902
Cen Chunxuan
岑春煊
Cen Chunxuan (1).jpg 1902 1903 Acting Viceroy
93 Xiliang
錫良
His Excellency Hsi Liang, Viceroy of Manchuria, Manchuria, 1882-ca. 1936 (imp-cswc-GB-237-CSWC47-LS8-046).jpg 1903 1907
Zhao Erfeng
趙爾豐
P.16c Chao Erh-feng.jpg 1907 1907 Acting Viceroy
94 Zhao Erxun
趙爾巽
Zhao Erxun.jpg 1907 1907 Never assumed office
95 Chen Kuilong
陳夔龍
Chen Kuilong.jpg 1907 1908
96 Zhao Erxun
趙爾巽
Zhao Erxun.jpg 1908 1911
Zhao Erfeng
趙爾豐
P.16c Chao Erh-feng.jpg 1911 1911 Acting Viceroy
Cen Chunxuan
岑春煊
Cen Chunxuan (1).jpg 1911 1911 Acting Viceroy; never assumed office
97 Duanfang
端方
Duan Fang.jpg 1911 1911 Assassinated in office

References[edit]