Viceroy of Southern Rivers

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Viceroy of Southern Rivers
Traditional Chinese江南河道總督
Simplified Chinese江南河道总督
Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways in Jiangnan Overseeing Military Affairs
(full title)
Traditional Chinese總督江南河道提督軍務
Simplified Chinese总督江南河道提督军务
Viceroy of Southern Rivers and Waterways
(simplified title)
Traditional Chinese南河河道總督
Simplified Chinese南河河道总督
Viceroy of Southern Rivers
(simplified title)
Traditional Chinese南河總督
Simplified Chinese南河总督

The Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways in Jiangnan Overseeing Military Affairs, better known simply as the Viceroy of Southern Rivers or Viceroy of Southern Rivers and Waterways, was a government office in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The office was based in Qingjiangpu (清江浦), which is now a district of Huai'an City, Jiangsu Province. The Viceroy usually held the rank of a deputy first-grade official or a regular second-grade official. The Viceroy was in charge of dredging and embankment projects in the waterways of Jiangsu Province.

History[edit]

The office of Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways was created in the early Qing dynasty. In 1677, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, Jin Fu (靳輔) served as the Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways and his headquarters were in Jining, Shandong Province. As Huai'an, Jiangsu Province was near the intersection of the Yellow River, Huai River and Grand Canal, the waterworks in that area became of prime importance. Since the Viceroy's office was too far away from Huai'an, the Qing government created a separate branch for the Viceroy's office at the northwest of Qingjiangpu (清江浦; a district of present-day Huai'an, Jiangsu Province) to facilitate the Viceroy's job of overseeing the waterworks.

In 1729, the Yongzheng Emperor split the Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways into the Viceroy of Southern Rivers based in Qingjiangpu, and the Viceroy of Eastern Rivers based in Jining. In the following year, he created the Viceroy of Northern Rivers, which was then concurrently held by the Viceroy of Zhili. The Viceroy of Southern Rivers oversaw a total of four circuits, 24 subprefectures and 24 battalions of military forces.

In the early Qing dynasty, the central government provided an annual amount of 4.5 million silver taels to the Viceroy of Southern Rivers for construction and maintenance projects. When the rivers overflowed, the central government provided additional funds to the Viceroy. At the same time, numerous instances of corruption occurred when the Viceroy and his subordinates embezzled the funds and produced work of substandard quality. The area around Qingjiangpu developed rapidly and became a thriving centre of commerce, business and recreation, with dozens of streets filled with rows of shops, restaurants, teahouses, bathhouses and brothels.

In 1855, the Xianfeng Emperor ordered the Yellow River to be redirected northward from Lanyi County, Henan Province towards Changyuan County, Dongming County and Zhangqiu Town in Shandong Province, and then from the Ji River in Shandong Province towards the Bohai Sea.

In 1860, the Nian rebels attacked and captured Qingjiangpu from government forces and then burnt down the Viceroy's office and the surrounding areas. The Qing government abolished the Viceroy of Southern Rivers in the following year.

As of today, the garden of the Viceroy's office has been restored and is now known as Qing Yan Garden.

List of Viceroys of Southern Rivers[edit]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
Yengišan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg March 1729 April 1729 Acting Viceroy
1 Kong Yuxun
孔毓珣
April 1729 May 1730 Died in office
Kang Hongxun
康弘勳
1730 1730 Acting Viceroy
Ji Zengyun
嵇曾筠
嵇曾筠.jpg May 1730 January 1734 Acting Viceroy; left office for filial mourning
Ji Zengyun
嵇曾筠
嵇曾筠.jpg 1734 1734
2 Gao Bin
高斌
1734 1734 Concurrently held the appointment of Salt Commissioner of the Two Huais
Zhao Hong'en
趙宏恩
1735 1735 Acting Viceroy
3 Gao Bin
高斌
January 1736 September 1741
Bai Zhongshan
白鍾山
January 1735 December 1736 As Deputy Viceroy
Liu Yongcheng
劉永澄
January 1735 December 1736 As Deputy Viceroy; later as acting Viceroy for a year
De'ermin
德爾敏
December 1736 January 1738 As Deputy Viceroy; later as acting Viceroy for two years
Sun Jun
孫鈞
1740 1741 As Financial Officer of Southern Rivers
4 Wanyan Wei
完顏偉
September 1741 January 1743
5 Bai Zhongshan
白鍾山
January 1743 April 1746
6 Zhou Xuejian
周學健
October 1746 August 1748
Gu Cong
顧琮
April 1746 October 1746 As Viceroy of Caoyun
Gao Bin
高斌
August 1748 September 1753 Acting Viceroy
Zhang Shizai
張師載
1750 September 1753 Acting Viceroy
Celeng
策楞
September 1753 October 1753 Acting Viceroy
Bai Zhongshan
白鍾山
1753 1754 Acting Viceroy
7 Yengišan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg October 1753 January 1755
Bai Zhongshan
白鍾山
1755 1755 As Viceroy of Eastern Rivers
8 Fulehe
富勒赫
January 1755 November 1756
9 Liu Tongxun
劉統勳
November 1756 Aibilong was acting Viceroy before Liu Tongxun arrived to assume office
Zhuang Yougong
莊有恭
莊有恭.jpg 1756 1757 As Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
10 Aibilong
愛必達
November 1756 February 1757
11 Bai Zhongshan
白鍾山
February 1757 April 1761
Ji Huang
嵇璜
嵇璜.jpg February 1757 April 1761 As Deputy Viceroy
12 Gao Jin
高晉
April 1761 April 1765
13 Li Hong
李宏
April 1765 September 1771 Died in office
14 Wu Sijue
吳嗣爵
September 1771 April 1776 Died in office
15 Sazai
薩載
April 1776 February 1779
Debao
德保
1777 1777 Acting Viceroy
Li Fenghan
李奉翰
February 1779 March 1780 Acting Viceroy
16 Chen Huizu
陳輝祖
March 1780 January 1781
Li Fenghan
李奉翰
January 1781 February 1781 Acting Viceroy
17 Li Fenghan
李奉翰
February 1781 March 1789
Kang Jitian
康基田
康基田.jpg March 1789 April 1789 Acting Viceroy
18 Lan Dixi
蘭第錫
April 1789 January 1798 Died in office
Li Fenghan
李奉翰
January 1798 January 1798 Acting Viceroy
19 Kang Jitian
康基田
康基田.jpg January 1798 March 1800
20 Wu Jing
吳璥
March 1800 January 1805
21 Xu Rui
徐端
January 1805 July 1806 Became Deputy Viceroy from July 1806
22 Dai Junyuan
戴均元
July 1806 April 1808
Xu Rui
徐端
July 1806 April 1808 As Deputy Viceroy
Nayancheng
那彥成
January 1809 February 1809 As Deputy Viceroy
Xu Rui
徐端
April 1808 January 1809 Acting Viceroy
23 Wu Jing
吳璥
January 1809 August 1810 Left office due to illness
Xu Rui
徐端
February 1809 August 1810 As Deputy Viceroy
24 Xu Rui
徐端
August 1810 December 1810
Xu Rui
徐端
December 1810 August 1811 As Deputy Viceroy
25 Jiang Youxian
蔣攸銛
December 1810 January 1811
Songyun
松筠
January 1811 January 1811 Acting Viceroy
26 Chen Fengxiang
陳鳳翔
January 1811 September 1812
Chu Pengling
初彭齡
Chu Pengling.jpg September 1812 September 1812 Acting Viceroy
27 Li Shixu
黎世序
September 1812 March 1824 Died in office
Sun Yuting
孫玉庭
1821 1821 Acting Viceroy
Sun Yuting
孫玉庭
1824 1824 Acting Viceroy
28 Zhang Wenhao
張文浩
March 1824 December 1824
29 Yan Lang
嚴烺
December 1824 April 1826
30 Zhang Jing
張井
April 1826 April 1833 Left office due to illness
Pan Xi'en
潘錫恩
May 1826 May 1829 As Deputy Viceroy
31 Linqing
麟慶
April 1833 September 1842 Temporarily left office for filial mourning from May to September 1833
Zhang Jing
張井
May 1833 September 1833 Acting Viceroy in Linqing's absence
Chen Luan
陳鑾
1839 1839 Acting Viceroy
32 Pan Xi'en
潘錫恩
September 1842 October 1848 Left office due to illness
Liao Hongquan
廖鴻荃
1842 1842 As Secretary of Works
Zhou Tianjue
周天爵
1842 1842 Acting Viceroy
Li Xingyuan
李星沅
李星沅.jpg October 1848 October 1848 Acting Viceroy
33 Yang Yizeng
楊以增
October 1848 February 1856 Died in office
Shao Can
邵燦
邵燦.jpg February 1856 February 1856 As Viceroy of Caoyun
34 Gengchang
庚長
February 1856 June 1860
Wang Mengling
王夢齡
June 1860 July 1860 Acting Viceroy

References[edit]

  • Zhao, Erxun (1928). Draft History of Qing (Qing Shi Gao) (in Chinese).