Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces

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Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China
Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 東三省總督
Simplified Chinese 东三省总督
Governor-General of the Three Northeast Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Generals of the Three Provinces, Director of Civil Affairs of Fengtian
Traditional Chinese 總督東三省等處地方兼管三省將軍、奉天巡撫事
Simplified Chinese 总督东三省等处地方兼管三省将军、奉天巡抚事
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳ
ᡳᠯᠠᠨ
ᡤᠣᠯᠣᡳ
ᡠᡥᡝᡵᡳ
ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᡵᠠ
ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ
Romanization dergi ilan goloi uheri kadalara amban

The Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Three Northeast Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Generals of the Three Provinces, Director of Civil Affairs of Fengtian (Manchu: dergi ilan goloi uheri kadalara amban), sometimes referred to as the Viceroy of Manchuria, was a regional viceroy in China during the Qing dynasty. It was the only regional viceroy whose jurisdiction was outside China proper. The Viceroy had control over Fengtian (present-day Liaoning), Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in Northeast China, which was also known as Manchuria.

History[edit]

The office of the Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces previously existed as the "General of Liaodong" (遼東將軍), which was created in 1662 during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor. The post was subsequently renamed to "General of Fengtian" (奉天將軍) and "General of Shengjing" (盛京將軍).

In 1876, during the reign of the Guangxu Emperor, the General of Shengjing was given additional concurrent appointments as Secretary of Defence and Secretary of Justice and Prefect of Fengtian Prefecture (奉天府尹). He also gained honorary titles as a Viceroy, Secretary of Defence, and Right Censor-in-Chief of the Detection Branch. In 1907, the offices of General of Jilin, General of Heilongjiang and General of Shengjing were merged under a single office, Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces. The Viceroy also received an additional honorary title as an Imperial Commissioner.

From 1910 to 1911, the Viceroy concurrently held the appointment of Provincial Governor of Fengtian.

List of Viceroys of the Three Northeast Provinces[edit]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
1 Xu Shichang
徐世昌
徐世昌.jpg 12 June 1907 8 February 1909
2 Xiliang
錫良
His Excellency Hsi Liang, Viceroy of Manchuria, Manchuria, 1882-ca. 1936 (imp-cswc-GB-237-CSWC47-LS8-046).jpg 8 February 1909 20 April 1911
3 Zhao Erxun
趙爾巽
趙爾巽.png 20 April 1911 12 February 1912

See also[edit]

References[edit]