|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2008)|
|Two Vickers Vanguards at London Heathrow Airport in 1965.|
|First flight||20 January 1959|
|Retired||17 October 1996|
|Primary users||British European Airways
Trans-Canada Air Lines
|Developed from||Vickers Viscount|
The Vickers Vanguard was a British short/medium-range turboprop airliner introduced in 1959 by Vickers-Armstrongs, a development of their successful Viscount design with considerably more internal room. The Vanguard was introduced just before the first of the large jet-powered airliners, and was largely ignored by the market. Only 44 were built, ordered by Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA) and British European Airways (BEA).
After only about 10 years service TCA experimentally converted one of theirs to a freighter configuration, calling it the Cargoliner. This was considered successful, and in the early 1970s most were converted to freighters, those from BEA becoming the Merchantman. These freighters remained in service for many years, with the last one (G-APEP) only retiring in 1996.
Design and development
The aircraft was designed to a BEA requirement for a 100-seat aircraft to replace their Viscounts. The original Type 870 design was then modified when TCA expressed their interest in the design as well, and Vickers returned the updated Type 950 that filled both requirements. The main difference between the Viscount and Vanguard was the construction of the fuselage. The Vanguard started with the original Viscount fuselage, but cut it off about halfway up from the bottom, replacing the top section with a larger-diameter fuselage to give it a double bubble cross-section (similar to the Boeing Stratocruiser). The result of the larger upper portion was a roomier interior, with increased cargo capacity below the floor.
With this larger, and heavier, fuselage came the need for a new engine to lift it. Rolls-Royce delivered their new Tyne design with a nominal 4,000 hp or 3,000 kW (compared to the Viscount's Dart of about 1,700 hp or 1,300 kW). This allowed for a much higher service ceiling and cruising speed. The Vanguard was one of the fastest turboprops ever and was faster than the present day Saab 2000 or de Havilland Canada Dash 8. A [probably hyped] pilot report describes maintaining 10,000 ft altitude with three engines feathered and the port outer at maximum cruise power; weight at start of that flight was about 112,000 lb. This is notably better performance than a Lockheed C-130, an aeroplane of similar weight and power that could not (in its introductory version of 1957) maintain a constant altitude on a single engine. Nevertheless, the Vanguard was certainly overpowered.
The first Type 950 prototype G-AOYW flew on 20 January 1959 The flight, a transfer to Wisley 3 miles away, had been planned for December but the engines were returned to Rolls-Royce for minor work. Proper flight testing was then carried out from Wisley.
The Vanguard entered service with BEA and TCA in late 1960. BEA operated their first Vanguard schedule on 17 December from Heathrow to Paris. Following delivery of their full fleet of six V951 and 14 V953 aircraft by 30 March 1962, the type took over many of BEA's busier European and UK trunk routes. The aircraft received names of famous Royal Navy warships; the first G-APEA was named "Vanguard", but these tended to be dropped later in service. Initial seating was 18 first-class at the rear and 108 tourist, but this was changed to 139 all-tourist, in which configuration, the Vanguard had very low operating costs per seat/mile. On flights up to 300 mi (480 km), such as from London to Paris, Brussels and Amsterdam, the type could match the block times of the pure jets which were being introduced in the early 1960s. The remaining BEA fleet passed to British Airways on 1 April 1974 and the last BA passenger flight with the type was on 16 June 1974.
TCA initiated Vanguard schedules on 1 February 1961 with two flights from Toronto and Montreal via intermediate stops to Vancouver. The fleet was also used on services from Toronto and Montreal to New York and Nassau, Bahamas.
In 1966, Air Canada removed all the seats in CF-TKK and refitted the aircraft for pure cargo work, in which role it could carry 42,000 lb (19,050 kg) of freight. Known by the airline as the "Cargoliner," it was the only such conversion, but survived to be the last Canadian Vanguard to be retired in December 1972.
BEA operated nine Vanguards modified to the V953C "Merchantman" all-cargo layout from 1969, with the first two conversions being designed and carried out by Aviation Traders Engineering Ltd (ATEL) at Southend Airport. BEA modified the remainder at Heathrow using kits from ATEL. A large forward cargo door measuring 139 by 80 inches (350 by 200 cm) was incorporated. The Merchantmen continued in service with BA until late 1979 when the remaining five were sold.
Air Bridge Carriers purchased several of the Merchantmen and operated them until 1992, when it changed to Hunting Cargo Airlines. Hunting Cargo operated their last V953C flight on 30 September 1996 and donated G-APEP to Brooklands Museum on 17 October 1996.
Accidents and incidents
- On 27 October 1965, British European Airways Vickers Vanguard G-APEE flying from Edinburgh Airport to London Heathrow Airport during a landing in poor visibility attempted an overshoot but crashed on runway 28R. All on board died - six crew and 30 passengers.
- On 2 October 1971, British European Airways Flight 706 operated by Vickers Vanguard G-APEC crashed near Aarsele in Belgium. The cause was the failure of the rear pressure bulkhead and subsequent destruction of the tailplane. All eight crew and 55 passengers died.
- On 10 April 1973, Invicta International Airlines Flight 435, operated by Vickers Vanguard G-AXOP crashed near Basel-Mulhouse Airport Switzerland. Four crew and 104 passengers died.
- On 29 January 1988, Inter Cargo Service Flight 1004, operated by Vickers Vanguard F-GEJF crashed on takeoff from Toulouse-Blagnac Airport when takeoff was attempted with only three fully operable engines. There were no casualties of the three crew and one passenger aboard.
- On 6 February 1989, Inter Cargo Service Flight 3132, operated by Vickers Vanguard F-GEJE crashed on takeoff from Marseille-Marignane Airport, France. Three crew died; there were no passengers on board.
- Type 950
- Prototype, one built and two fuselages were used as static test airframes.
- Type 951
- BEA, 20 ordered, six delivered. All in 127-seat, mixed class configuration (18 first and 109 economy)
- Type 952
- TCA, more powerful engine and stronger fuselage and wing for higher weights, 23 delivered
- Type 953
- BEA, Same engines as 951, but the stronger airframe of the 952. Mostly operated as 135-seater, all economy, but some configured as 127 mixed class the same as 951. A total of 14 delivered replacing an order for 951s.
- Type 953C Merchantman
- Nine Cargo conversions from Type 953
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2015)|
These airlines operated the Vickers Vanguard:
♠ original operators
- Air Canada inherited 23 Srs 952s from Trans Canada Air Lines in June 1964
- Trans Canada Air Lines ♠ 23 Srs 952 became Air Canada in June 1964
- Air Fast one aircraft was operated by Air Tenggara on Air Fast services
- Angkasa Civil Air Transport leased one aircraft in 1970
- Merpati Nusantara Airlines
- Lebanese Air Transport leased one aircraft in 1970
- Air Trader three aircraft leased in 1972
- Air Bridge Carriers
- British Airways inherited three passenger aircraft and nine Merchantman freighters on formation in 1974
- British European Airways ♠ - 20 Srs 951/953s some later converted to Merchantman
- DHL Air
- Elan Air Cargo
- Hunting Cargo Airlines
- Invicta International Airlines
- Silver City Airways, one Air Holdings aircraft operated in 1973
Aircraft on display
- Type 953C Merchantman Superb (Registration G-APEP) at the Brooklands Museum, Surrey, England. The only intact airframe in existence.
Specifications (Type 952)
- Crew: 2-3
- Capacity: 139 passengers
- Length: 122 ft 10 in (37.50 m)
- Wingspan: 118 ft 7 in (36.10 m)
- Height: 34 ft 11 in (10.60 m)
- Wing area: 1,527 ft² (142 m²)
- Empty weight: 82,500 lb (37,421 kg)
- Loaded weight: 141,000 lb (63,977 kg)
- Powerplant: 4 × Rolls-Royce Tyne RTy.11 Mk 512 turboprop, 5,545 hp (4,700 shp, 4,135 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 425 mph (684 km/h)
- Range: 1,830 mi (2,945 km)
- Service ceiling: 30,000 ft  (9,145 m)
- Wing loading: 92 lb/ft² (450 kg/m²)
- Power/mass: 0.16 hp/lb (0.26 kW/kg)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Swanborough 1962, p. 99.
- Aviation Week 14 September 1959, p. 59.
- Wright Air International April 1997, p. 242.
- "Vanguard Maiden Flight." Flight, 30 January 1959, p. 150.
- Davis 1981, pp. 87–88.
- Davis 1981, p. 88.
- Wright Air International April 1994, pp. 240, 245.
- "Accident description: Vickers Vanguard G-APEE, 27 October 1965." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved: 20 October 2010.
- "Accident description: Vickers Vanguard G-APEC (2 October 1971)", Aviation Safety Network; retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "Accident description: Vickers Vanguard G-AXOP (10 April 1973)" Aviation Safety Network; retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "Accident description: Vickers Vanguard F-GEJF, 29 January 1988." Aviation Safety Network; retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "Accident description: Vickers Vanguard F-GEJE, 6 February 1989." Aviation Safety Network; retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "Database: Vickers Vanguard". Aeroplane, January 2012, pp. 169-183; ISSN 0143-7240.
- "Vickers Merchantman (Vanguard) 1969." Brooklands Museum. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
- Merchantman limited to 25,000 ft
- Davis, Peter W. Vickers Viscount and Vanguard. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1981. ISBN 0-85130-091-X.
- "Preliminary Details of Commercial and Design Characteristics." Flight, 1 June 1956.
- Swanborough, F. G. Turbine-engined Airliners of the World. London: Temple Press Books, 1962.
- "Vanguard: A presentation of Britain's new turboprop airliner." Flight, 9 January 1959, pp. 61–73.
- Wright, Alan J. "Right Aircraft, Wrong Time". Air International, Vol. 52, No 4, April 1997, pp. 240–245. ISSN 0306-5634.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vickers Vanguard.|
- Brooklands Motorsport and Aviation Museum
- "Evolution of the Vanguard" a 1955 Flight article by Bill Gunston
- "Vanguard" a 1959 Flight article on the Vanguard