Vickers Warwick

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Warwick
Vickers Warwick B ASR Mk1 - BV285.jpg
Warwick B/ASR Mk I BV285
Role Maritime reconnaissance, air-sea rescue, transport
Manufacturer Vickers-Armstrongs
First flight 13 August 1939
Primary users Royal Air Force (RAF)
South African Air Force
Polish Air Force in exile
BOAC
Number built 846[1]
Developed from Vickers B.9/32

The Vickers Warwick was a multi-purpose twin-engined British aircraft developed and operated during the Second World War. In line with the naming convention followed by other RAF heavy bombers of the era, it was named after a British city or town, in this case Warwick. The Warwick was the largest British twin-engined aircraft to see use during the Second World War.[2]

The Warwick was designed and manufactured by Vickers-Armstrongs during the late 1930s. It was intended to serve as a larger counterpart to the firm's successful Wellington bomber; as such, the two aircraft share similar construction and design principles. However, unlike the smaller Wellington bomber, development of the Warwick was protracted by a lack of suitable high-powered engines with which to power the type. While the maiden flight occurred on 13 August 1939, delays to its intended powerplant, the Napier Sabre engine, led to alternatives being explored in the form of the Bristol Centaurus and Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp radial engines. By the time capable engines were available, rapid advances in the field of aviation had undermined the potency of the design in the face of the fighters of the Luftwaffe.[3]

While the Warwick did enter quantity production during 1942 and squadron service with the Royal Air Force (RAF) shortly thereafter, it had been made effectively redundant in the bomber role by aircraft of rival firms, thus barely more than a dozen aircraft were configured as bombers.[4] Instead, the type was placed into operational use by the RAF in various other capacities, such as under RAF Transport Command for transport duties, in addition to its adoption by RAF Coastal Command as an air-sea rescue and maritime reconnaissance platform. The Warwick was also adopted by the Polish Air Forces in exile in Great Britain and the South African Air Force. A civil operator, the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), also operated a handful of Warwicks.

Design and development[edit]

Origins[edit]

In October 1932, British industrial conglomerate Vickers-Armstrong decided to tender their own design in response to the British Air Ministry's release of Specification B.9/32, which called for the development of a twin-engined medium bomber.[2] During late 1934, by which point the company was already in the midst of developing their Type 271 design to meet the needs of Specification B.9/32, Vickers received a draft requirement for a larger bomber.[2] The draft specification developed into Air Ministry Specification B.1/35, which sought a twin-engined heavy (by the standards of the day) strategic bomber.[2] The aircraft was intended to make use of more powerful engines, in the range of 1,000 hp, that were then being developed; these would enable the bomber to be both faster and carry a heavier bombload than the earlier B.3/34 specification. Amongst the requirements of Specification B.1/35 was a speed of no less than 195 MPH while flying at 15,000 feet, a range of 1,500 miles while carrying a payload of 2,000lb of bombs, along with a limitation on the wingspan to less than 100 feet, while the engines were also to be furnished with variable-pitch propellers.[2]

The Warwick was designed in parallel with the smaller Wellington, both aircraft having been derived from the Vickers Type 271 design developed to conform with the demands of Specification B.9/32.[5] By the end of July 1935, the Air Ministry was able to consider eight designs; the design proposed by Vickers, designated as the 284, powered by a pair of Bristol Hercules engines, had generously exceeded the specifications' requirements. Accordingly, on 7 October 1935, Vickers received an order for a single prototype to be produced;[6] the Air Ministry also ordered prototypes of the designs tendered by Armstrong Whitworth (known as the AW.39, a development of the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley) and Handley Page (known as HP.55). However, prior to these alternative designs being built, they were cancelled - both Handley Page and Armstrong Whitworth preferring to work upon the newer specifications released for medium (P.13/36) and heavy (B.12/36) bombers.

Changes and redesigns[edit]

As Specification B.1/35 was considered to be a heavier complement to Specification B.9/32, it was initially thought that there would be no need to produce a new mock-up of the type.[6] However, on 14 March 1936, in light of major design changes being submitted, the production of a complete mock-up was authorised. Around the same time, it was decided to allocate the Vickers 284 designation to the project, while the redesigned B.9/32 design (which would become the Wellington) was designated as the Vickers 285.[7] As a consequence of the relaxation of the restrictions imposed by the 1932 Geneva Disarmament Conference, the weight of both the Vickers 284 and 285 expanded gradually, until the 285 approached the original specified weight for Specification B.1/35.[7]

During 1936, Specification B.1/34 was modified to require the aircraft to have a greater fuel and bombload capacity. During January 1937, the Rolls-Royce Vulture liquid-cooled "X" engine was named as the aircraft's alternative powerplant, and it was adopted in late 1938.[7] The Vulture, which had been prioritised for the rival Avro Manchester bomber, was subsequently determined to be unlikely to be available in sufficient numbers for the Warwick, as well as being unreliable. In recognition of the engine's disappointing performance, on 2 July 1937, an order for a second prototype was placed the Air Ministry as an 'insurance' measure against the Vulture's potential failure.[8]

The second prototype (L9704) was originally designed to use Napier Sabre engines;[9][7] however, development of the Sabre was slow, partially as a consequence of all available production capacity being urgently required to keep up with manufacture of the Hawker Typhoon fighter, thus L9704 was instead fitted with the Bristol Centaurus radial engines.[10][8] In addition to engine issues, other aspects of the design proved troublesome, such as the defensive gun turrets, as well as official doubts over the geodesic airframe structure proposed for the type, the latter having been a pioneering design element from British aircraft designer Barnes Wallis.[11]

In February 1939, it was decided not to proceed with development beyond the pair of prototypes as a consequence of the troublesome situation with the Vulture engine; however, this position was reversed the following January.[12] In late June 1939, following the completion of a high-level review and resubmission of programme data, work resumed.[13] While Vickers chose to continue with the project, negative perceptions, fuelled by progress having been slowed by work on the Wellington and the lack of suitable engines, led to a growing official expectation that the design would be surpassed by later aircraft.[14]

Into flight[edit]

On 13 August 1939, the first prototype (serial K8178), powered by the Vulture engines, made its maiden flight from Brooklands.[15][16] This initial flight, flown by test pilot Joseph Summers, only lasted for a few minutes due to a defect in the carburettor linkage. By this point, the smaller Wellington bomber had made its maiden flight three years earlier and quantity production of the type had started 18 months prior.[16] When fully equipped, the calculated all-up service weight of the first prototype was 42,182lb, almost double that of the weight originally given by Vickers in its initial tender for the design. Initial flight tests with the prototype revealed the type to possess unfavourable characteristics, being slow, underpowered, and unable to maintain altitude when flown on a single engine.[16]

Fitted with the Centaurus engine, the second prototype performed its first flight on 5 April 1940.[10][17][16] In addition to the change in powerplant, the second prototype had incorporated various improvements to its design, such as a re-profiled elevator, to improve its handling. In comparison with the first prototype, there was a definitive improvement in performance; according to aviation author Norman Barfield, the second prototype was claimed to be faster than the Hawker Hurricane, a contemporary British fighter aircraft, at certain altitudes.[16] While the Centaurus-powered prototype was viewed as being more promising, the development of the Centaurus engine was at an early stage and was again in relatively short supply.[12][18] Various alternative arrangements were explored to power the type. In October 1939, it was proposed that the design could be reconfigured as a four-engined aircraft, powered by either Rolls-Royce Merlin XX or Bristol Hercules HE7SM engines; after some study, the use of four engines was discarded after it was found to produce a serious negative impact in the aircraft's range and payload.[16]

Another proposal made was the use of the American Pratt & Whitney Double Wasp radial engine.[16] Performance projections showed similar performance to the Hercules III-powered Wellington bomber, but with a significantly greater payload; the engines were also available due to the cancellation of contracts previously placed by the French government. To explore this option, the second prototype was converted to use the R-2800-S14A4-G engines; it first flew in this form in July 1941.[10][19][20] The Double Wasp installation was considered to be inferior to the Centaurus engine, nonetheless, the aircraft was eventually ordered with the Pratt & Whitney engine.[19][21]

On 3 January 1941, an initial production order was placed for 250 Warwicks, consisting of 150 Double Wasp-powered Mk I aircraft and 100 Centaurus-powered Mk IIs; deliveries were scheduled to commence in November that year.[19][21] It was at this point that the proposed aircraft received its name; in accordance with the Air Ministry's practice of naming bombers after British towns and cities, and with Vickers' own practice of using 'W' as the initial letter (to indicate the designs of Barnes Wallis), Warwick was selected at the type's official name.[21]

Production[edit]

The large initial production contract gave the programme a relative sense of security, but there was still the need to resolve troubles with the Warwick's Centaurus engine.[21] The Double Wasp engine, furnished with a three-bladed 15-ft diameter Hamilton Standard-built propeller, therefore became the engine of choice for the type. Due to the time it took for the Double Wasp engines to reach Vickers' facilities in Britain from Pratt & Whitney's production lines in the U.S., some delays were unavoidable.[22]

During 1941, the second prototype was engaged in flight trials to support the manufacturing effort, such as the in-flight testing of an alternative tail configuration, which was determined to have improved the Warwick's handling.[23] The prototype was refitted with production standard engines and propellers; this revealed problems with engine ignition, which were resolved with a revised booster coil. During this time, the Warwick was subject to a high level of investigation with the aim of keeping the type relevant to the rapidly changing circumstances of the conflict; it was out of this process that a relatively orderly progression towards standardised production was soon made.[23]

Due to persistent engine shortages and changes in policy, only 16 of the planned 150 bomber-configured Warwicks were completed.[23] Even as the first bomber aircraft was being completed at Vickers' Weybridge facility, the type's capabilities were already below the Air Staff's requirements for bomber aircraft, which was mainly a result of rapid advances in the field rather than faults of the design itself. Bombers were being required to carry ever-greater bombloads over greater distances; by this point, a decision had been already made to re-equip RAF Bomber Command exclusively with a new generation of four-engine bombers.[23] Just as the earlier Wellington was displaced from bombing missions to other roles, the newly emerged Warwick was likewise re-directed to other activities, including air-sea rescue, troop and cargo transport, long range anti-submarine patrols, general reconnaissance, and operational crew training.[23]

By January 1943, a total of 57 Warwick Mk I aircraft had been completed; that same month, it was decided that the predominant platform for performing transport and air-sea rescue missions would be the Warwick.[24] During mid-1943, a single Warwick Mk I was converted to become the Warwick Mk II prototype; the principal difference was the fitting of Centaurus IV engines.[25] A total of 219 Warwick Mk I aircraft were constructed, the last 95 of these with 2,000 horsepower (1,500 kW) R-2800-47 engines.

During 1942, an order for 14 transport-orientated Warwicks, designated as the Warwick C.Mk.I and Vickers 456, was made for the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), a civil operator.[24] The prescribed operational requirements were the carriage of mail, freight, and passengers (in order of priority) between Bathurst in South Africa and Cairo in Egypt, complementing BOAC's flying boat operations between England and Bathurst. The order was quickly met by converting existing B.Mk.I Warwicks, removing all military equipment, fairing over gun turret positions, along with the installation of cabin windows, a freight floor, long-range fuel tanks, and exhaust stack flame dampers (for night flights).[24]

The Warwick used Barnes Wallis' geodesic airframe construction pioneered in the Wellesley and Wellington. In this system, a network of intersecting structural members made from duralumin were covered by wired-on fabric. The load was distributed amongst the structure, providing great redundancy in the event of damage, at the expense of complexity of construction.

Operational history[edit]

A section of the rear fuselage from a Warwick showing the geodesic construction in duralumin. On exhibit at the Armstrong & Aviation Museum at Bamburgh Castle.

The first production Warwick B Mk I was delivered to the RAF for testing at the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment, Boscombe Down on 3 July 1942.[17] On 28 January 1942, this first aircraft was lost, reportedly due to fabric panels on the wings which had come loose.[26] The second production Warwick promptly took its place in flying trials; on 18 February 1943, it too was destroyed, by a fire which began in the starboard engine.[25]

Only 16 aircraft were delivered as bombers, as by this time more capable four-engined heavy bombers such as the Short Stirling and Handley Page Halifax were in service. Those Warwicks that were delivered in the bomber configuration saw little use as such, instead being used to investigate various technical features and issues, including navigational equipment, engine performance, role suitability, and air-deployable lifeboats.[27] It soon became clear that the Warwick, with its spacious fuselage and long range, would be well suited to utility roles. In January 1943, the Air Staff decided that the Warwick would serve as the predominant platform for transport and air-sea rescue.[24]

Early testing showed the Warwick to be under-powered and with severe handling problems, especially when flown on a single engine. Accordingly, stability and control trials commenced with the third production Warwick, which yielded acceptable handling during single engine operations when outfitted with a new bulged rudder.[25] The version of Double Wasp fitted to early models proved extremely unreliable with many in-flight failures; later versions fitted with the Centaurus engine had better performance but the handling problems were never solved.[28]

The Warwick was subsequently considered for transport and air-sea rescue roles, and BV243 was successfully converted into a transport to serve as a trial aircraft.[9] An additional 13 Mk Is were converted on the production line as C Mk I transports for use by BOAC.[24] BOAC's Warwicks were used briefly on its Middle East services before being transferred back to RAF Transport Command in 1944.[29][30] One hundred similar aircraft were built for the RAF as Warwick C Mk IIIs, and entered service with 525 Squadron in June 1944, with three more squadrons operating the Warwick III. They were mainly used in the Mediterranean theatre, as the vulnerability of the fabric skinning to high temperature and humidity stopped plans to operate the Warwick in the Far East, the model remaining in use until retired in 1946.[31][32][33]

The remainder of the first batch of 250 Warwicks were used by RAF Coastal Command for anti-submarine reconnaissance.[34][35] From 1943, Warwicks were loaded with the 1,700 lb (770 kg) Mk IA airborne lifeboat and used for air-sea rescue. The lifeboat, designed by yachtsman Uffa Fox, laden with supplies and powered by two 4 hp (3.0 kW) motors, was aimed with a bombsight near to ditched air crew and dropped by parachute into the sea from an altitude of about 700 ft (210 m).[36] Warwicks were credited with rescuing crews from Halifaxes, Lancasters, Wellingtons and B-17 Flying Fortress, and during Operation Market Garden, from Hamilcar gliders, all of which ditched in the English Channel or North Sea.[37]

A production order for 525 Warwick Mk V was placed although only 235 were ultimately completed, most of which went directly into storage in 1944.[34][38] In early 1945, this stored variant was issued to 179 Squadron, stationed at RAF St Eval. The Warwick Mk V was also operated by 17 and 27 Squadrons of the South African Air Force.[39]

Variants[edit]

A rigged airborne lifeboat in front of a Warwick with D-Day identification stripes
Air-sea rescue Warwick with an airborne lifeboat under the fuselage

Warwick Mark I[edit]

  • Warwick B Mk I –; original production bomber, of 150 ordered, only 16 aircraft were built. They were used for a variety of tests.[38]
  • Warwick C Mk I or Vickers Type 456 –; transport version for BOAC, for use on its Mediterranean and North African routes. 14 built.[38]
  • Warwick B/ASR Mk I –; 40 aircraft converted from the Warwick B Mk I bomber. The Warwick ASRs were used as air-sea rescue aircraft. They could carry two sets of Lindholme lifesaving equipment.[38]
  • Warwick ASR (Stage A) –; 10 aircraft converted from the Warwick B Mk I bomber. The Warwick ASR (Stage A) was used for air-sea rescue. They could carry one airborne lifeboat and two sets of Lindholme lifesaving equipment.[38]
  • Warwick ASR (Stage B) –; 20 aircraft converted from the Warwick B Mk I bomber. The Warwick ASR (Stage B) were air-sea rescue aircraft, carrying the same equipment as the Warwick ASRs and ASR (Stage As).[38]
  • Warwick ASR Mk I or Vickers Type 462 was an air-sea rescue version, it could carry an airborne lifeboat. The aircraft was powered by two 1,850 hp (1380 kW) Pratt & Whitney Double Wasp R-2800-S1A4G radial piston engines; 205 built.[38]

Warwick Mark II[edit]

  • Warwick B Mk II or Vickers Type 413 –; bomber prototype, only one example was ever built, converted from a Warwick B Mk I.[38]
  • Warwick GR Mk II or Vickers Type 469 –; anti-submarine, general reconnaissance version. It was equipped to carry torpedoes and bombs. It was powered two 2,500 hp (1,864 kW) Bristol Centaurus VI radial piston engines; 118 built.[38]
  • Warwick GR Mk II Met –; meteorological reconnaissance version of the Warwick GR Mk II; 14 built.[38]

Warwick Mark III[edit]

  • Warwick C Mk III or Vickers Type 460 –; transport version. It had a pannier-like extension below the central fuselage, the normal loaded weight being raised to 45,000 lb (20,400 kg). It could carry 24 equipped troops or eight to 10 passengers in the VIP version. No armament was carried; 100 built.[38]

Warwick Mark V[edit]

  • Warwick GR Mk V or Vickers Type 474 –; anti-submarine, general reconnaissance aircraft. It was powered by two Bristol Centaurus VII radial piston engines, armed with 7 machine guns and could carry 6,000 pounds (2,700 kg) of bombs, mines or depth charges. A Leigh light was fitted ventrally. The first operational sortie was carried out by 179 Squadron on 4 December 1944; 210 built.[38]

Warwick Mark VI[edit]

Operators[edit]

Military operators[edit]

 Poland
 South Africa
 United Kingdom

Civil operators[edit]

 United Kingdom

Specifications (Warwick ASR Mk I)[edit]

Data from Vickers Aircraft since 1908,[44] Vickers-Armstrong Warwick variants[38]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References[edit]

Citiations[edit]

  1. ^ Barfield 1972, pp. 167-168.
  2. ^ a b c d e Barfield 1972, p. 146.
  3. ^ Barfield 1972, p. 145.
  4. ^ Barfield 1972, pp. 145-146.
  5. ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 364.
  6. ^ a b Barfield 1972, pp. 146-147.
  7. ^ a b c d Barfield 1972, p. 147.
  8. ^ a b Barfield 1972, pp. 147-148.
  9. ^ a b "Vickers 284 Warwick" 1977, p. 33.
  10. ^ a b c Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 368.
  11. ^ Barfield 1972, p. 148.
  12. ^ a b Buttler 2004, p. 95.
  13. ^ Barfield 1972, pp. 148-149.
  14. ^ Buttler 2004, pp. 93–95.
  15. ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 367.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Barfield 1972, p. 149.
  17. ^ a b Air International March 1988, p. 138.
  18. ^ Air International March 1988, pp. 137–138.
  19. ^ a b c Mason 1994, p. 328.
  20. ^ Barfield 1972, pp. 149, 151.
  21. ^ a b c d Barfield 1972, p. 151.
  22. ^ Barfield 1972, pp. 151-152.
  23. ^ a b c d e Barfield 1972, p. 152.
  24. ^ a b c d e Barfield 1972, p. 155.
  25. ^ a b c Barfield 1972, p. 154.
  26. ^ Barfield 1972, pp. 152, 154.
  27. ^ Barfield 1972, pp. 154-155.
  28. ^ Chapter 3 "The Warwick Saga"
  29. ^ March 1998, p. 235.
  30. ^ Barfield 1972, pp. 155, 158.
  31. ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 381.
  32. ^ Air International March 1988, p. 140.
  33. ^ Barfield 1972, p. 158.
  34. ^ a b "Vickers 284 Warwick" 1977, p. 36.
  35. ^ Barfield 1972, pp. 158-159.
  36. ^ Barfield 1972, p. 159.
  37. ^ Barfield 1972, pp. 159, 161.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Barfield 1972, p. 168.
  39. ^ Barfield 1972, pp. 163-164.
  40. ^ Jones Aeroplane June 2010, p. 75.
  41. ^ a b c d Barfield 1972, pp. 166-167.
  42. ^ Air International April 1988, p. 208.
  43. ^ Halley 1980, p. 355.
  44. ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 394.

Bibliography[edit]

  • "Airborne Lifeboats:Fully Provisioned Power Lifeboat Dropped to Ditched Air Crews". Flight, 18 January 1945, pp. 62–64.
  • Andrews, C.F and E.B. Morgan. Vickers Aircraft since 1908. London: Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-815-1.
  • Barfield, Norman. "Vickers-Armstrongs Warwick variants". Aircraft in Profile, Volume 11. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1972.
  • Bartelski, Jan. Disasters In The Air. London: Airlife, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-204-4.
  • Buttler, Tony. British Secret Projects: Fighters & Bombers 1935-1950. Hinckley: Midland Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-85780-179-2
  • "Dropping an Airborne Lifeboat". Flight, 8 March 1945, p. 253.
  • Green, William and Gordon Scarborough. WW2 Fact Files: RAF Bombers, Part 2. London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd., 1981. ISBN 0-7106-0118-2.
  • Halley, James J. The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd, 1980. ISBN 0-85130-083-9.
  • Jones, Barry. "Database:Vickers Warwick". Aeroplane, Vol. 38, No. 6, Issue No 446, June 2010. London: IPC. ISSN 0143-7240. pp. 63–78.
  • March, Daniel J. (editor). British Warplanes of World War II. London: Aerospace, 1998. ISBN 1-874023-92-1.
  • Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber since 1914. London: Putnam, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  • Taylor, John W.R. "Vickers Warwick". Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the Present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
  • "Vickers 284 Warwick." Control Column, Official Organ of the British Aircraft Preservation Council, Volume 11, No. 2, February/March 1977.
  • "Vickers Warwick: The Good-Samaritan Bomber" Part One. Air International, Vol. 34 No. 3, March 1988. pp. 134–140. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • "Vickers Warwick: The Good-Samaritan Bomber" Part Two. Air International, Vol. 34 No. 4, April 1988. pp. 202–208. ISSN 0306-5634.

External links[edit]