Victor Prosper Considerant
|Born||12 October 1808
|Died||27 December 1893
|Era||19th century philosophy|
Victor Prosper Considerant (12 October 1808 – 27 December 1893) was a French utopian Socialist and disciple of Fourier. Contrary to a common error, his name is not written Considérant as he explained: ("… there is no acute accent on my e. I have fought in vain for more than sixty years ever since my name was printed to defend it [from the accent]! ")
Considerant was born in Salins-les-Bains, Jura and studied at the École Polytechnique (1826 diploma). Subsequently working as a musician, he collaborated with Fourier on newspapers. He edited the journals La Phalanstère and La Phalange.
Considerant wrote much in advocacy of his principles, of which the most important is La Destinée Sociale. He authored Democracy Manifesto, which preceded by five years the similar Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels. Considerant defined the notion of a "right to (have) work", which would be one of the main ideas of French socialists in the 1848 Revolutions. He is also known for having devised the proportional representation system. He also advocated such measures of 'direct democracy' (a term he coined) as referendum and recall.
The failure of an insurrection against Louis Napoléon obliged Considerant to go into exile in Belgium in June 1849. On an invitation by Albert Brisbane and helped by Jean-Baptiste Godin, between 1855-57 he founded the colony La Réunion in Texas on Fourier's principles.
He died in Paris in 1893.
- Louis Bertrand, Histoire de la démocratie et du socialisme en Belgique depuis 1830 », Bruxelles, éd. Dechenne, t. 1, p. 280, 1906
- Wood, James, ed. (1907). "Considérant, Victor Prosper". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.
- Jonathan Beecher, Victor Considérant and the Rise and Fall of French Romantic Socialism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000.
- Carl J. Guarneri, The Utopian Alternative: Fourierism in Nineteenth-Century America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.
- "Considérant, Victor Prosper". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.