|Died||February 14, 1980 (aged 76)|
|Education||Vienna Academy of Fine Arts|
Victor David Gruen, born Viktor David Grünbaum (July 18, 1903 – February 14, 1980), was an Austrian-American architect best known as a pioneer in the design of shopping malls in the United States. He is also noted for his urban revitalization proposals, described in his writings and applied in master plans such as for Fort Worth, Texas (1955), Kalamazoo, Michigan (1958) and Fresno, California (1965). An advocate of prioritizing pedestrians over cars in urban cores, he was also the designer of the first outdoor pedestrian mall in the United States, the Kalamazoo Mall.
Victor Gruen was born on July 18, 1903, in a middle-class Jewish family in Vienna, Austria. He studied architecture at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. A committed socialist, from 1926 until 1934 he ran the "political cabaret at the Naschmarkt"-theatre. At that time he came to know Felix Slavik, the future mayor of Vienna, and they became friends.
When Germany annexed Austria in 1938, he emigrated to the United States. Short and stout, he landed "with an architect's degree, eight dollars, and no English." Arriving in New York he changed his name to Gruen from Grünbaum and started to work as a draftsman. After the success of his design for the Lederer leather-goods boutique on Fifth Avenue, he received further commissions for the design of shops, including Ciro’s on Fifth Avenue, Steckler’s on Broadway, Paris Decorators on the Bronx Concourse, and eleven branches of the clothing chain Grayson’s.
| Buildings that Changed America |
#8 Southdale Center, WTTW,
In 1941 Gruen moved to Los Angeles. He was naturalized as a US citizen in 1943. In 1951, he founded the architectural firm "Victor Gruen Associates", which was soon to become one of the major planning offices of that time. After the war, he designed the first suburban open-air shopping facility called Northland Mall near Detroit in 1954. After the success of the first project, he designed his best-known work for the owners of Dayton Department stores, the 800,000-square-foot (74,000 m2) Southdale Mall in Edina, Minnesota, the first enclosed shopping mall in the country. Opening in 1956, Southdale was meant as the kernel of a full-fledged community. The mall was commercially successful, but the original design was never fully realized, as the intended apartment buildings, schools, medical facilities, park and lake were not built. Because he invented the modern mall, Malcolm Gladwell, writing in The New Yorker, suggested that "Victor Gruen may well have been the most influential architect of the twentieth century."
Until the mid-1970s, his office designed over fifty shopping malls in the United States. Gruen was the principal architect for a luxury housing development built on the 48-acre (190,000 m2) site of Boston, Massachusetts' former West End neighborhood. The first of several Gruen towers and plazas was completed in 1962. This development, known as Charles River Park is regarded by many as a dramatically ruthless re-imagining of a former immigrant tenement neighborhood (Gans, O'Conner, The Hub). In 1956, Gruen drafted a comprehensive revitalization plan for the central business district of downtown Fort Worth, Texas, but most components of the plan were never realized. Dr. ETH Ing. Walid Jabri, the architect and structural engineer, designed the 55,000 square-meter business complex Centre Gefinor, which was built in the late 1960s on Rue Clémenceau in Beirut, Lebanon for which Victor Gruen designed the complete commercial area on the ground floor and the mezzanine after the completion of the skeleton. Gruen also designed the Greengate Mall in Greensburg, Pennsylvania, which opened in 1965, as well as the Lakehurst Mall in 1971 for Waukegan, Illinois.
In 1968, he returned to Vienna, where he engaged in the gradual transformation of the inner city into a pedestrian zone, of which only some parts have been implemented, including Kärntner Straße and Graben.
In a speech in London in 1978, Gruen disavowed shopping mall developments as having "bastardized" his ideas: "I refuse to pay alimony for those bastard developments. They destroyed our cities." Gruen died on February 14, 1980.
Gruen v. Gruen
In 1963, on his 21st birthday, his son New York attorney Michael S. Gruen (then a Harvard undergraduate) was given a painting "Schloss Kammer am Attersee II" by Gustav Klimt. While ownership of the painting was given to his son in 1963, the elder Gruen continued to hang it in his living room and even paid for insurance and repairs. Upon Gruen's death in 1980, his widow, Kemija, refused to surrender the painting to Michael, resulting in a landmark case in the New York Supreme Court and Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeals ruled the basis of inter vivos gifts, including the plaintiff having the burden of proof to a clear and convincing standard that the chattel was a gift and the required elements of a gift. Kemija Gruen claimed that if the painting was to be given after death, even if such arrangement was made years earlier, then the will, not a letter, would be instructive as to disposition. Michael Gruen was eventually awarded $2.5 million.
Shopping malls designed by Gruen
- Northland Center, Southfield, Michigan, 1954
- Woodmar Plaza, Hammond, Indiana, 1954
- Westfield Valley Fair, San Jose, California, 1956
- Southdale Center, Edina, Minnesota, 1956
- Riverside Plaza, Riverside, California, 1957
- Bayfair Center, San Leandro, California, 1957
- Eastland Center, Harper Woods, Michigan, 1957
- Glendale Town Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1958
- Maryvale Shopping City, Phoenix, Arizona, 1959
- Kalamazoo Mall, Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1959
- South Bay Center, Redondo Beach, California, 1959
- South Shore Plaza, Braintree, Massachusetts, 1961
- Winrock Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1961
- Cherry Hill Mall, Cherry Hill, New Jersey, 1961
- Brookdale Center, Brooklyn Center, Minnesota, 1962
- Midtown Plaza, Rochester, New York, 1962
- Northway Mall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1962
- Randhurst Mall, Mount Prospect, Illinois, 1962
- South County Center, St Louis Missouri, 1963
- Westfield Topanga, Canoga Park, California, 1964
- Fulton Mall, Fresno, California, 1964
- Greengate Mall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1965
- South Hills Village, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1965
- Westland Center, Westland, Michigan, 1965
- Plymouth Meeting Mall, Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania, 1966
- South Coast Plaza, Costa Mesa, California, 1967
- Midland Mall, Warwick, Rhode Island, 1967
- Park Lane Centre, Reno, Nevada, 1967
- Monroeville Mall, Monroeville, Pennsylvania, 1969
Shopping centers designed by Gruen Associates
- Yorktown Center, Lombard, Illinois, 1968
- Rosedale Center, Roseville, Minnesota, 1969
- Southland Center, Taylor, Michigan, 1970
- Lakehurst Mall, Waukegan, Illinois, 1971
- Central City Mall, San Bernardino, California, 1972
- Commons Mall, Columbus, Indiana, 1973
- Ridgedale Center, Minnetonka, Minnesota, 1974
- Westfield Culver City, Culver City, California, 1975
- Twelve Oaks Mall, Novi, Michigan, 1977
- Port Plaza Mall, Green Bay, Wisconsin, 1977
- Millron's Westchester (later The Broadway Westchester), 1949, Westchester, Los Angeles, 1949
- Gateway Center (Newark), in Newark, New Jersey, 1970s
- Victor Gruen, Larry Smith (1960) Shopping Towns USA: The Planning of Shopping Centers New York: Reinhold
- Victor Gruen (1965) The Heart of our Cities: The Urban Crisis. Diagnosis and Cure London: Thames and Hudson
- Victor Gruen (1973) Centers for the Urban Environment: Survival of the Cities. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold
- Victor Gruen is the namesake of an Australian TV series named Gruen on the ABC which analyses advertising.
- Infoplease: Gruen, Victor retrieved 25 February 2012
- Mars, Roman. "99% Invisible-163- The Gruen Effect". Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "The Gruen Plan for "A Greater Fort Worth Tomorrow"". Fort Worth Library Digital Archives. Retrieved 2018-01-10.
- Wall 2006.
- Weiss-Sussex & Bianchini 2006, p. 92.
- Caves, R. W. (2004). Encyclopedia of the City. Routledge. p. 325.
- Malcolm Gladwell, The Terrazzo Jungle, The New Yorker, March 15, 2004, Accessed June 12, 2009.
- "#8 Southdale Center". 10 Buildings that Changed America. WTTW. 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2013. Webpage features include a photo slide show, video from the televised program (5:11), and "web exclusive video" (5:18).
- "Victor Gruen — Austrian Information". Archived from the original on 2018-09-28. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
- Victor Gruen’s Retail Therapy: Exiled Jewish Communities and the Invention of the American Shopping Mall as a Postwar Ideal
- Hofer, Sebastian (31 January 2010). "Einkaufsquelle: Der Wiener Victor Gruen veränderte mit der Shopping Wall die Welt". Profil (in German).
- "...the bulldozers of the city of Boston wiped out a living community on this site as brutally as if it had been bombed...", www.pulitzer.org
- Auzias and Labourdette. Le Petit Futé Beyrouth, page 158
- Frank, Jacqui (December 6, 2016). "There's a psychological phenomenon that explains why you lose track of time in shopping malls" (Video). Business Insider. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
- "'Those bastard developments' – why the inventor of the shopping mall denounced his creation". the Guardian. 2022-06-24. Retrieved 2023-01-26.
- Byrnes, Mark. "Victor Gruen Wanted to Make Our Suburbs More Urban. Instead, He Invented the Mall". The Atlantic Cities. The Atlantic Media Company. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- Johnson, Steven. "The strange, surprisingly radical roots of the shopping mall". IDEAS.TED.COM. TED Conferences. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
- http://www.bobfarley.org/03lawclasses/09propertylaw/cc03.pdf[bare URL PDF]
- Newgeography.com. "Why Duany is Wrong About the Importance of Public Participation". Newgeography.com. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- Weiss-Sussex, Godela; Bianchini, Franco, (Editor) (November 30, 2006). "Urban Mindscapes of Europe". Series:European Studies Series. Amsterdam, New York, NY: Brill Academic Publishers, Rodopi. p. 92. ISBN 9789042021044.
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- Wall, Alex (2006). Victor Gruen: From Urban Shop to New City. Barcelona: Actar. ISBN 978-84-95951-87-8.
- M. Jeffrey Hardwick, Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8122-3762-7
- Anette Baldauf, "Shopping Town USA: Victor Gruen, the Cold War, and the Shopping Mall". In: Mute 30.1. 2008
- Anette Baldauf and Katharina Weingartner: The Gruen Effect. Victor Gruen and the Shopping Mall. Documentary, Austria/US 2010, 54 min.
- Futterman, Robert A.; Kraft, Stephen (Illustrator); Gruen, Victor (Introduction) (July 23, 2009). The Future Of Our Cities (Hardcover). Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1104847340.