This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Victoria's Secret Store, 722 Lexington Ave, New York, NY
|Founded||June 12, 1977
Stanford Shopping Center, San Francisco, California, U.S.
|Headquarters||Three Limited Parkway, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.|
Number of locations
|1,017 company-owned stores
18 independently owned stores
|United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Mexico, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Chile, China, Egypt , Israel, Austria, Ireland, Poland, Serbia, Taiwan and Thailand, Australia|
(CEO of Victoria's Secret Stores)
Sharen Jester Turney
(CEO and President of Victoria's Secret Megabrand and Intimate Apparel)
|Products||Underwear, women's clothing, lingerie, swimwear, footwear, fragrances and beauty products, and make up.|
Victoria's Secret is an American designer, manufacturer and marketer of women's premium lingerie, womenswear and beauty products. With 2012 sales of $6.12 billion, it is the largest American retailer of women's lingerie. Victoria's Secret is wholly owned by L Brands, a publicly traded company.
- 1 History
- 1.1 1977: Founding
- 1.2 1977–1980: The early years
- 1.3 1982: Sale to The Limited
- 1.4 1983: Strategy change
- 1.5 1983–1990: Expansion into malls
- 1.6 1990–1993: Persistent quality problems
- 1.7 1993–1999: Nichols resolves quality problems
- 1.8 Early 2000s: Decelerating growth leads to brand overhaul
- 1.9 2006–2008: Growth
- 2 Products and marketing
- 3 Reception
- 4 Competitors
- 5 Operating divisions
- 6 Corporate affairs
- 7 Controversies, 2009–2015
- 8 Scholarly criticism
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Eight years prior to founding Victoria's Secret, Raymond was embarrassed when purchasing lingerie for his wife at a department store. Newsweek reported him looking back on the incident from the vantage of 1981: "When I tried to buy lingerie for my wife," he recalls, "I was faced with racks of terry-cloth robes and ugly floral-print nylon nightgowns, and I always had the feeling the department store saleswomen thought I was an unwelcome intruder."
During the 1970s and 1980s, most women in America purchased "dowdy", "pragmatic", "foundation garments" by Fruit of the Loom, Hanes, and Jockey in packs of three from department stores and saved "fancier items" for "special occasions" like honeymoons. "Lacy thongs and padded push-up bras" were niche products during this period found "alongside feathered boas and provocative pirate costumes at Frederick's of Hollywood" outside of the mainstream product offerings available at department stores.
Raymond studied the lingerie market for eight years before borrowing $40,000 from his parents and $40,000 from a bank to establish Victoria's Secret: a store in which men could feel comfortable buying lingerie. The company's first store was located in Stanford Shopping Center in Palo Alto, California.
1977–1980: The early years
By 1980, Raymond had added two more San Francisco stores at 2246 Union Street and 115 Wisconsin Street.
By 1982, the fourth store (still in the San Francisco area) was added at 395 Sutter Street. Victoria's Secret stayed at that 395 Sutter Street location until 1990, when it moved to the larger Powell Street frontage of the Westin St. Francis.
The Victoria's Secret stores at this time were "a niche player" in the underwear market. The business was described as "more burlesque than Main Street."
1982: Sale to The Limited
Raymond's philosophy of focusing on selling lingerie to male customers became increasingly unprofitable and Victoria's Secret headed for bankruptcy.
In 1982, it had grown to six stores, a 40-page catalogue, and was grossing $5 million annually. Raymond sold Victoria's Secret Inc. to Leslie Wexner, creator of Limited Stores Inc of Columbus, Ohio, for $1 million (though the figure was not disclosed until later).
1983: Strategy change
In 1983, Leslie Wexner revamped Victoria's Secret. He discarded the money-losing model of selling lingerie to male customers and replaced it with one that focused on female customers. Victoria's Secret transformed from "more burlesque than Main Street" to a mainstay that sold broadly accepted underwear. The "new colors, patterns and styles that promised sexiness packaged in a tasteful, glamorous way and with the snob appeal of European luxury" were supposed to appeal to and appease female buyers. To further this image, the Victoria's Secret catalog continued the practice that Raymond began: listing the company's headquarters on catalogs at a fake London address, with the real headquarters in Columbus, Ohio. The stores were redesigned to evoke 19th century England.
1983–1990: Expansion into malls
Howard Gross took over as president from his position as vice-president in 1985.
In October of that year, the Los Angeles Times reported that Victoria's Secret was stealing market share from department stores; in 1986, Victoria's Secret was the only national chain of lingerie stores.
In 1987, Victoria's Secret was reportedly among the "best-selling catalogs". In 1990, analysts estimated that sales had quadrupled in four years, making it one of the fastest growing mail-order businesses.
The New York Times described it as a "highly visible leader", saying it used "unabashedly sexy high-fashion photography to sell middle-priced underwear."
Victoria's Secret also released their own line of fragrances in 1992.
1990–1993: Persistent quality problems
By the early 1990s, Victoria's Secret faced a gap in management that led to the "once hot lingerie chain" to be "plagued by persistent quality problems". Howard Gross, who had grown the company into a "lingerie empire" since Wexner's 1982 purchase, was moved to poorly performing L Brands subsidiary Limited Stores. Business Week reported that "both divisions have suffered".
1993–1999: Nichols resolves quality problems
Victoria's Secret introduced the Miracle Bra selling two million within the first year, but faced competition from Sara Lee's WonderBra a year later. The company responded to their rival with a TV campaign.
In 1999, the company aimed to increase its coverage with the Body by Victoria brand.
Early 2000s: Decelerating growth leads to brand overhaul
In May 2000, Wexner installed Sharen Jester Turney, previously of Neiman Marcus Direct, as the new chief executive of Victoria's Secret Direct to turn around catalog sales that were lagging behind other divisions. Forbes reported Turney articulating, as she flipped through a Victoria's Secret catalog, "We need to quit focusing on all that cleavage."
In 2000, Turney began to redefine Victoria's Secret catalog from "breasts—spilling over the tops of black, purple and reptile-print underthings" to one that would appeal to an "upscale customer who now feels more comfortable buying La Perla or Wolford lingerie."; "dimming the hooker looks" such as "tight jeans and stilettos"; and moving from "a substitute for Playboy in some dorm rooms," to something closer to a Vogue lifestyle layout, where lingerie, sleepwear, clothes and cosmetics appear throughout the catalog.
Beginning in 2000, Grace Nichols, CEO of Victoria's Secret Direct, led a similar change at Victoria's Secret's stores—moving away from an evocation of 1800s England (or a Victorian bordello).
By 2006, Victoria's Secret's 1,000 stores across the United States accounted for one third of all purchases in the intimate apparel industry.
In May 2006, Wexner promoted Sharen Jester Turney from the Victoria's Secret catalog and online units to lead the whole company. In 2008, she acknowledged "product quality that doesn't equal the brand's hype".
Products and marketing
In 1989, FCB/Leber Katz Partners and Victoria's Secret executed a national advertising campaign featuring for the first time in the company history a ten-page glossy insert that appeared in the November issues of Elle, Vogue, Vanity Fair, Victoria, House Beautiful, Bon Appetit, New Woman, and People magazines. Victoria's Secret used the insert to announce their expansion into the toiletries and fragrance business. Up through to the ten page insert, Victoria's Secret growth had been driven by their catalog, sporadic ads in fashion publications, and word of mouth. Catalogs were discontinued in early 2016.
In 2002, swimwear was introduced and available via the web site and catalog; in the last three years, the swimwear has become more readily available in stores. In 2016, in an effort to refocus the brand, Victoria's Secret eliminated its swimwear collection.
Recent product history
In 2010, Victoria's Secret launched the Incredible bra.
In 2012, Victoria's Secret launched the Victoria's Secret Designer Collection described by Vogue as the company's "first high end lingerie line."
Over the course of Victoria's Secret's evolution, the company "has gone from being value-driven to creating a luxury-shopping experience and an aura of fashion associated with its product" which has been driven marketing.
The Victoria's Secret Fashion Show is an annual "elaborate marketing tool for Limited Brands". The show is a mix of "beautiful models scantily clad in lingerie" and A-list entertainers "And every year, it becomes less about fashion and more about show".
The company gained notoriety in the early 1990s after it began to use supermodels in its advertising and fashion shows. Throughout the 2000s, Victoria's Secret has turned down celebrity models and endorsements.
In 1999, Victoria's Secret's 30 second Super Bowl advertisement led to one million visits to the company's website within an hour of airing.
In 2004, Victoria's Secret featured Bob Dylan in an advertisement to test new marketing possibilities while Victoria's Secret dropped their fashion show for 2004 as a result of the fallout from the Janet Jackson/Super Bowl incident that caused complaints from women's groups.
The brand turned to social networking in 2009, opening an official Facebook page and later on official Twitter and Pinterest accounts. It also expanded its website to feature behind-the-scenes content about its catalog and commercial shoots, as well as its fashion show
The company created a campaign to market its "Body" bra line called "The Perfect Body." The campaign has elicited substantial controversy, with many sources saying it will lower women's self-esteem because it does not embrace all body types.
Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
In 1995, Victoria's Secret began holding their annual Victoria's Secret Fashion Show, which is broadcast on primetime American television. Starting with the 1995 fashion show, they are "a combination of self-assured strutting for women and voyeuristic pleasures for men—and lingerie becomes mainstream entertainment."
Ken Weil, vice president at Victoria's Secret, and Tim Plzak, responsible for IT at Victoria's Secret's parent company Intimate Brands, led Victoria's Secret's first-ever online streaming of their fashion show in 1999. The 18 minutes webcast streamed February 2, 1999, was at the time the Internet's "biggest event" since inception. The 1999 webcast was reported as a failure by a number of newspapers on account of some user's inability to watch the show featuring Tyra Banks, Heidi Klum, and Stephanie Seymour as a result of Victoria's Secret's technology falling short being able to meet the online user demand resulting in network congestion and users who could see the webcast receiving jerky frames. In all, the company's website saw over 1.5 million visits while the Broadcast.com's computer's were designed to handle between 250,000 and 500,000 simultaneous viewers. In total, 1.5 million viewers either attempted or viewed the webcast.
The 1999 webcast served to create a database for Victoria's Secret of over 500,000 current and potential customers by requiring users to submit their contact details to view the webcast. The next spring Victoria's Secret avoided technical issues by partnering with Broadcast.com, America Online, and Microsoft. The 2000 webcast attracted more than two million viewers.
By 2011, the budget for the fashion show was $12 million up from the first show's budget of $120,000.
Victoria's Secret Angels
Victoria's Secret started working with renowned models in the early 1990s, with the hiring of Stephanie Seymour, Karen Mulder, Yasmeen Ghauri, and Jill Goodacre. These models helped the brand gain notice and soon enough were featured in televised commercials.
Angels is one of Victoria's Secret's lingerie lines, which was launched in 1997, with a commercial featuring Helena Christensen, Karen Mulder, Daniela Peštová, Stephanie Seymour, and Tyra Banks as well as pop star Tom Jones. The commercial was a major success and the Angels began to be featured in various commercials, alongside other contract models for the brand such as Yasmeen Ghauri, Inés Rivero, and Laetitia Casta. From then onwards, the term Angel started to become synonymous with being a contracted spokesmodel for the brand and in February 1998, the Angels made their runway debut at Victoria's Secret's 4th annual fashion show, with Chandra North filling in for Christensen.
Seymour, Mulder, Pestova, Banks, Casta, and Heidi Klum were all featured in both of Victoria's Secret webcast and took part in the promotion as the brand's contract models. Starting in 2001, the show has been televised and usually features the year's Angel line-up at the start of the show, starting with Pestova, Banks, Klum, and Gisele Bundchen[nb 1] In 2004, due to the Super Bowl controversy, instead of a televised show, Victoria's Secret sent its five contract models (Banks, Klum, Bundchen, Adriana Lima, and Alessandra Ambrosio) on a tour called Angels Across America, as by then, the word had become synonymous with Victoria's Secret spokesmodels. The last original Angel, Tyra Banks, departed the following year, as Karolina Kurkova, Selita Ebanks, and Izabel Goulart were hired.
Among other recognitions, the Victoria's Secret Angels were chosen to be part of People magazine's annual "100 Most Beautiful People in the World" issue in 2007 and became the first trademark awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on November 13, 2007, with Klum, Lima, Ambrosio, Kurkova, Goulart, Ebanks, Marisa Miller, and Miranda Kerr at hand. Alongside new Angel Doutzen Kroes, they also took part in the grand reopening of the Fontainebleau in Miami in 2008. In 2009, it was widely reported that Candice Swanepoel, Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, Chanel Iman, Emanuela de Paula and Lindsay Ellingson had been hired by the brand. However, De Paula was absent from the fashion show and Erin Heatherton was credited in her place, alongside the Angels (Klum, Ambrosio, Kerr, Miller, Kroes, and Behati Prinsloo, with Lima being on maternity leave). The brand also held a nationwide competition to hire a new "runway Angel" (as are dubbed all the models who walk in the show), Kylie Bisutti was crowned as the winner but soon parted ways with the brand. In the following year-and-a-half Swanepoel, Huntington-Whiteley, Iman, Heatherton, and Ellingson all were revealed as Angels.
Various tours have been held featuring the Angels, such as the Bombshell Tour in 2010 (featuring Laura Croggon, Sophia Timpano, Katie Bryan, and new recruit Polly Hoynes-Robson), a VSX tour in 2013 (featuring Swanepoel, Ambrosio, Ellingson, and Aldridge) and a Swim Tour in 2013 (featuring Swanepoel, Ellingson, and Heatherton). The Angels have been heavily featured on the brand's social media, including on a short-lived Facebook application in 2013-2014 highlighting the Angels (then including Lima, Swanepoel, Ellingson, Aldridge, and Karlie Kloss) as well as Lais Ribeiro, Toni Garrn, and Barbara Palvin.
Ellingson, Kroes, and Kloss all departed soon after the 2014 fashion show, leaving the brand with only 5 Angels. In 2015, the Angels as well as models Elsa Hosk, Joan Smalls, Lais Ribeiro, Martha Hunt, Jasmine Tookes, Stella Maxwell, and Monika 'Jac' Jagaciak were featured on the brand's first ever Swim Special. Soon after, in the brand's biggest group hiring ever, all but Smalls were revealed as Angels, along with longtime catalog regulars Lais Ribeiro and Sara Sampaio as well as Kate Grigorieva, Taylor Marie Hill, and Romee Strijd. The following year, Jagaciak and Griegorieva exited, while catalog regular Josephine Skriver was added to the roster.
Other notable spokesmodels for the brand have included: Claudia Schiffer, Eva Herzigová, Oluchi Onweagba, Jessica Stam, Ana Beatriz Barros, and Bregje Heinen as well as a handful of celebrities such as Taylor Momsen.
|United States||Stephanie Seymour||1997–2000||1992||1995–2000||[nb 3]|
|Czech Republic||Daniela Peštová||1997–2002||1996||1998–2001|
|United States||Tyra Banks||1997–2005||1996||1996–2005|
|United States||Chandra North||1998 Fashion Show||1998||1998||[nb 4]|
|Germany/ United States||Heidi Klum||1999–2010||1997||1997–2009 (host only in 2006)||[nb 5]|
|Brazil/ Serbia||Adriana Lima||1999–present||1999||1999–2008, 2010–present|
|Czech Republic||Karolína Kurková||2005–2009||2000||2000–2008, 2010|
|Cayman Islands||Selita Ebanks||2005–2009||2004||2005–2010|
|United States||Marisa Miller||2007–2010||2002||2007–2009|
|Australia||Miranda Kerr||2007–2013||2005||2006–2009, 2011–2012|
|Netherlands||Doutzen Kroes||2008–2014||2004||2005–2006, 2008–2009, 2011–2014|
|Namibia||Behati Prinsloo||2009–present||2007||2007–2015, 2017–present|
|United Kingdom||Rosie Huntington-Whiteley||2010–2011||2005||2006–2010|
|South Africa||Candice Swanepoel||2010–present||2007||2007–2015, 2017–present|
|United States||Chanel Iman||2010–2012||2008||2009–2011|
|United States||Erin Heatherton||2010–2013||2008||2008–2013|
|United States||Lily Aldridge||2010–present||2008||2009–present|
|United States||Lindsay Ellingson||2011–2014||2006||2007–2014||[nb 6]|
|United States||Karlie Kloss||2013–2015||2011||2011–2014|
|Russia||Kate Grigorieva||2015–2016||2014||2014–present||[nb 7]|
|United States||Taylor Marie Hill||2015–present||2014||2014–present|
|United States||Martha Hunt||2015–present||2012||2013–present|
|United Kingdom||Stella Maxwell||2015–present||2014||2014–present|
|Brazil||Lais Ribeiro||2015–present||2010||2010-2011; 2013–present|
|United States||Jasmine Tookes||2015–present||2012||2012–present|
|Denmark||Josephine Skriver||2016–present ||2013||2013–present|
- There have been various instances where the fashion show credits included models who weren't Angels but were prominently featured by the brand, such as Selita Ebanks and Izabel Goulart in 2005, Candice Swanepoel, Lindsay Ellingson, Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, Erin Heatherton, and Behati Prinsloo in 2009, Lais Ribeiro in 2011, PINK model Elsa Hosk in 2013 and Hosk, Ribeiro, Jasmine Tookes, Martha Hunt, and Stella Maxwell in 2014. All of them later went on to become Angels.
- Most Angels started working with the company years prior to signing an Angel contract. Listed above are the dates of first published or aired campaigns or, by default, first runway show or event.
- Stephanie Seymour was a fashion show host in 1995.
- Chandra North was featured as an Angel solely during the 1998 fashion show due to Christensen's absence.
- Heidi Klum was a fashion show host in 2002, 2006–2009.
- Lindsay Ellingson was first featured on VS All Access in 2010 but was only credited as an Angel for the fashion show from the following year onward.
- 10 Angels were added at the same time.
|United States||Rachel Hilbert||2015–present|
|United States||Zuri Tibby||2016–present|
|United States||Grace Elizabeth||2016–present|
Victoria's Secret is known for its catalogs and its annual fashion show, the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show, and has been credited with single-handedly transforming "America's conception of lingerie" by pioneering "sexy underwear as fashion" and "lingerie mainstream entertainment." The societal manifestation is "the increased cultural acceptance of shopping for undies" in the United States.
Victoria's Secret is credited with "transforming lingerie from a slightly embarrassing taboo into an accessible, even routine accessory." In 2006, The New York Times reported that traditional fashion was influenced by intimate apparel "in part because of the influence of Victoria's Secret – and ubiquitous, sexually charged come-hither marketing."
In 2008, Women's Wear Daily reported that while "Victoria's Secret dominates" in the lingerie market "the competition is intensifying".
Victoria Secret's operations are organized into three divisions: Victoria's Secret Stores (stores), Victoria's Secret Direct (online and catalog operations), and Victoria's Secret Beauty (their bath and cosmetics line). The company does business in the following retail formats: general merchandise stores, apparel stores.
Victoria's Secret stores
|Year||# of stores||Store sales in millions of U.S. dollars|
Throughout the 1980s, Victoria's Secret took over the market using "faux-British veneer, romantic styling and soft classical music." In 2000, the Los Angeles Times reported that Victoria's Secret continued the practice of putting "on a British air—or what the Ohio-based chain thinks Americans believe is British. Boudoirish. Tony. Upscale."
During the 1990s, Victoria's Secret saw a 30% increase in store sales after the use of analyzing in their data warehouse in which specific store the styles, sizes and color of which bras were selling.
As of 2010, there are 1,000 Victoria's Secret lingerie stores and 100 independent Victoria's Secret Beauty Stores in the United States, mostly in shopping centers. They sell a range of brassieres, panties, hosiery, cosmetics, sleepwear, and other products. Victoria's Secret mails more than 400 million of its catalogs per year.
|Year||# of stores||Store sales in millions of U.S. dollars|
Up until the early 2000s, management at Victoria's Secret actively decided to not expand outside the United States. The drive to continue growing coupled with facing a maturing of the American retail market led to a change in that decision and to expand Victoria's Secret outside the United States. Victoria's Secret announced the company's plan to expand into Canada in 2010. The company opened 23 stores stores in Canada with locations in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan.
In November 2005, the company opened its first boutique in the United Kingdom at Heathrow Airport, Terminal 5 with the help of World Duty Free. This was followed in 2009 with several Victoria's Secret Travel and Tourism stores residing within airports outside the United States. These include locations in Schiphol International Airport, The Netherlands.
Victoria's Secret opened their first store located at the Westfield Shopping Centre, Stratford, London on July 24, 2012. Their flagship 40,386-square-foot- (3,752.0 m2) store on New Bond Street, London opened on August 29, 2012, and there will be further nationwide expansion across the United Kingdom. Victoria's Secret executive vice president and chief administrative officer Martyn R Redgrave told Women's Wear Daily "That's what we're looking to do as we expand, in the UK in particular, and those will be company-owned and operated". Since 2013, stores opened across the United Kingdom in Leeds, Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham, Bristol and London including Westfield London, Bluewater and Brent Cross. As of 2016, there are 15 stores in the United Kingdom.
In 2010, Victoria's Secret expanded with franchises internationally.
The first franchise store in Latin America opened in Isla Margarita, Venezuela on June 25, 2010 followed by other stores in the country, and in Bogota, Colombia, in July 2012 selling beauty products and accessories. Angel's Group, the Colombian company operating the franchise, is planning to open 10 stores in Colombia. Victoria's Secret is also planning on opening a store in the exclusive Multiplaza Mall in San Salvador, El Salvador.
In 2010, M.H. Alshaya Co. opened the first Victoria's Secret store in the Middle East region in Kuwait. M.H. Alshaya Co. operates the Victoria's Secret franchise located in the Marina Mall selling products including "cosmetic and branded accessories, but it has left out the brand's infamous lingerie line".
The brand's first Caribbean store opened in November 2011 at Plaza Las Americas in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Two stores also opened in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic at the Agora, (mainly selling beauty products and accessories) and Sambil Santo Domingo malls in August 2012 and October 2012, respectively.
The first Polish store is opening its doors in July 2012 at Złote Tarasy in Warsaw and will be operated by M.H. Alshaya Co. New Victoria's Secrets shop open in July 24, 2012. This will be the first Victoria's Secret franchise store in Europe, just a day before the new store in the United Kingdom. However, as this is a franchise store it sells just beauty and accessories, whereas the London stores are the first company owned European stores and sell Victoria's Secret clothing.
Victoria's Secret Direct
|Year||Millions mailed||Sales in millions of U.S. dollars|
Prior to the emergence of e-commerce, the Victoria's Secret's catalogs provided both an informative and exciting experience in the comfort of the consumer's home.
The catalog under Raymond's leadership took the form of an upmarket version of Frederick's of Hollywood lingerie catalog being more sensuous than the catalog published under the future leadership of The Limited. In 1982 the Victoria's Secret catalog cost $3.
The New York Times reported that the Victoria's Secret's financial success catalogues' influenced other catalogues who changed to present lingerie as "romantic and sensual but tasteful" "in which models are photographed in ladylike poses against elegant backgrounds."
This led to Victoria's Secret dominating the catalog field for "lingerie and sexy nightwear." The catalogs allowed for consumers to review the entire spectrum of product offerings, along the axes of style, color and fabric. Victoria's Secret accepted catalog orders via telephone 24 hours a day.
Victoria's Secret's catalog offers a more diverse range of merchandise.
The Los Angeles Times described the catalog in 2000 as having achieved "an almost cult-like following."
In 1995 Victoria's Secret began building its e-commerce website which the company launched after three years of development at 6 p.m. December 4, 1998, using the domain VictoriasSecret.com. Twenty minutes later the first order was placed on the website from a Littleton, Colorado, customer at 6:20 p.m.
It was reported that the three year development was a result of the company's concern of rolling out a half-baked website that could "discourage return visits".
Viewers who logged onto the Victoria's Secret's website to view the company's first webcast of their fashion show on February 3, 1999, were unable to view the webcast due to the Internet infrastructure Victoria Secret's selected was unable to meet user demand causing some users to be unable to view the webcast.
Victoria's Secret Beauty
The Limited, Inc in 1998 created Intimate Beauty Corporation with a mandate to establish a group of beauty businesses with Victoria's Secret Beauty being the first company in the firm's portfolio.
In November 2012 Susie Coulter became president of Victoria's Secret Beauty; the company's beauty division located in New York City
Prior to the 1982 sale, the company's business name was Victoria's Secret, Inc. then afterwards the name was changed to Victoria's Secret Stores, Inc. In 2005, the company changed to Victoria's Secret Stores, LLC.
Victoria's Secret was originally owned by "The Limited". In 2002 Wexner reincorporated Victoria's Secret into the Limited; previously Victoria's Secret's parent company was Intimate Brands, a separately traded entity whose President was Ed Razek.
By 2006, 72% of Limited Brands' revenue—and almost all of their profits—came from their Victoria's Secret and Bath & Body Works units.
On July 10, 2007, the Victoria's Secret parent company, Limited Brands, sold a 75% interest in their apparel brands, Limited Stores and Express to Sun Capital Partners, to focus on expanding their Victoria's Secret and Bath & Body Works units. The immediate impact of the sale resulted in Limited Brands taking a $42 million after-tax loss.
Victoria's Secret stores
In 1985, Howard Gross was promoted to president from vice president. In 1991 Grace Nichols replaced Gross as president of Victoria's Secret Stores. Nichols previously had been "executive vice president and general merchandise manager of Limited's lingerie division."
Victoria's Secret Direct
Victoria's Secret Beauty
In May 2006, Christine Beauchamp was named president and CEO of Victoria's Secret Beauty. Beauchamp was succeeded by Shashi Batra in 2009, who became president of Victoria's Secret Beauty.
Robin Burns was CEO of Victoria's Secret Beauty.
After two years of pressure from environmentalist groups, Victoria's Secret's parent firm and a conservation group reached an agreement to make the lingerie retailer's catalog more environmentally friendly in 2006. The catalog would no longer be made of pulp supplied from any woodland caribou habitat range in Canada, unless it has been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council. The catalogs will also be made of 10 percent recycled paper.
In 2006 it was reported that Victoria's Secret paid workers $7 per day to make bras for them in Thai factories.
In 2009, Victoria's Secret was sued several times. The lawsuits alleged that defective underwear contained formaldehyde that caused severe rashes on women who wore them. Six cases were filed in Ohio and two in Florida. At least 17 other suits were filed in six other states after January 2008. The plaintiff refused to submit to a simple patch test to determine the precise cause of her reaction and her case was later withdrawn. The Formaldehyde Council issued a statement that formaldehyde quickly dissipates in air, water and sunlight.
Also in 2012, Victoria's Secret was sued by Zephyrs, "accused of breaching a 2001 agreement and selling cheap 'knockoffs' of the company's stockings."
The company drew criticism for a newly released lingerie collection titled "Go East" whose tagline pledged to women the capacity to "indulge in touches of eastern delight with lingerie inspired by the exquisite beauty of secret Japanese gardens." The collection included a mesh teddy "Sexy Little Geisha" featuring "flirty cutouts and Eastern-inspired florals".
The Wall Street Journal reported that the collection was "accessorized with a miniature fan and a kimono-esque obi sash."
In 2014, a petition against the newly released lingerie collection called "Body" was created when the poster ads displayed the words 'THE PERFECT "BODY"' over well-known VS Angels. The petition, while becoming popular across social media, demanded that Victoria's Secret "apologise and take responsibility for the unhealthy and damaging message that their ‘Perfect Body’ campaign sends out about women’s bodies and how they should be judged."
The petition also demanded a change in the wording on Victoria's Secret advertisements for their bra range Body, to something that does not promote unhealthy and unrealistic standards of beauty," asking the company to not use such harmful marketing in the future. Petitioners created the hashtag "#iamperfect", which trended on Twitter for body shaming women. The petition had over 30,000 signatures.
Although there was never a formal apology released, Victoria's Secret took note of the petition and changed the words on their ad campaign to 'A BODY FOR EVERY BODY.'
In the article "Victoria’s Dirty Secret: How Sociocultural Norms Influence Adolescent Girls and Women" written by Strahan, Lafrance, Wilson, and Ethier from Wilfred Laurier University along with Spencer and Zanna from the University of Waterloo have stated: "Women's body dissatisfaction is influenced by sociocultural norms for ideal appearance that are pervasive in society and particularly directed at women." These norms tell women that they are valued for their bodies, physical appearance, and scale of attractiveness. Girls as young as 10 years old start dieting because they are struggling with their weight and body perception. This will continue throughout their life span. Victoria's Secret sends a message to these adolescent girls and women that their models are the standard of beauty. The models are shown on TV commercials, ads, and magazines meaning it is seen on an everyday basis. Girls are comparing themselves with these high unrealistic standards that is captivated by the media. Women in these ads are highly objectified, idealized, and sexualized. If women feel they have to live up to this sociocultural norm standard, it is only telling men that it is okay to objectify and sexualize women. The article concludes by stating: "Exposure to societal messages that reflect the sociocultural norm for ideal appearance has a negative effect on women."
- List of swimwear brands
- List of Victoria's Secret models
- Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
- Victoria's Secret Swim Special
- Melise R. Blakeslee (January 15, 2010). Internet crimes, torts and scams: investigation and remedies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537351-6. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "About Limited Brands". October 10, 2012. Limited Brands. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Yang, Jeff (17 September 2012). "Why the Rise of Asia In Fashion Isn't As Beautiful As It Seems" (SpeakEasy). United States: Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company Inc. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret". Fashion Model Directory. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Secret success". Forbes. May 9, 1983.
- Menken, Dacid (March 24, 2003). "Victoria's Secret decision is good for small businesses". Viewpoint.
- Bishop, Katherine (December 27, 1986). "An Elegant Kids' Store Fails". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- "Roy Raymond, 47; Began Victoria's Secret". The New York Times. September 2, 1993. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Newhall, Emily (November 16, 1981). "A Catalog-Business Boom". Newsweek.
- Adler, Carlye (June 9, 2010). "Victoria's Secret's Secret – The man behind the company that made lingerie mainstream and mall-friendly". Newsweek. Archived from the original on September 13, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Peter J. Rea; Harold Kerzner (September 19, 1997). Strategic Planning: A Practical Guide. Wiley. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-471-29197-8. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Richard Alan Nelson; Abbass Alkhafaji (April 3, 2003). Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation, and Control in a Dynamic Environment. Psychology Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-7890-1810-6. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Peter J. Rea; Harold Kerzner (September 19, 1997). Strategic Planning: A Practical Guide. Wiley. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-471-29197-8. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Pimentel, Benjamin (September 1, 1993). "Lingerie Firm Founder Dies – Body in Bay Former Victoria's Secret owner left car at bridge". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Barr, Naomi (October 30, 2013). ""Happy Ending, Right?"". Slate. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- Tom Pendergast; Sara Pendergast (2000). St. James encyclopedia of popular culture. St. James Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1-55862-403-0. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Schiro, Anne-Marie (May 15, 1982). "Luxury Lingerie: A Mail-Order Success". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Watson, Lloyd (June 3, 1990). "Union Square Area Draws Five Big-Name Retailers". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Palmeri, Christopher (December 4, 2006). "Victoria's Secret Is Sexy Again". BloombergBusinessweek. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- "Briefs". The New York Times. July 15, 1982.
- "Victoria's Secret". The Globe and Mail. August 5, 1982.
- Tomasino, Anna (2007). Discovering popular culture. Pearson Longman. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-321-35596-6. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Faludi, Susan (August 15, 2006). Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-307-34542-4. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Greenberg, Cara (February 14, 1993). "Where Strong Men Fear to Tread". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Belkin, Lisa (December 20, 1985). "Now, Sexy Briefs for Men". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Belkin, Lisa (August 24, 1986). "Lingerie's Great Leap Forward". The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Lerner Stores' New President". The New York Times. May 21, 1985. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Groves, Martha (November 5, 1985). "Frederick's Tries to Update Its Image as Rivals Get Tougher". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Hochswender, Woody (June 7, 1988). "Patterns". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Asinof, Lynn (16 April 1987). "Mail-Order Catalog". United States: Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company Inc.
- Hirsch, James (29 May 1990). "Victoria's Secret? Keep Earnings Up with Garter Belts" (Eastern edition). New York, N.Y., United States: Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company Inc. p. A1.
- Gross, Michael (April 26, 1987). "Lingerie Catalogues: Changing Images". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Agins, Teri (23 January 1992). "Specialty Shops Chase Sweet Scent Of Success". New York, N.Y., United States: Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company Inc.
- "Did Leslie Wexner Take His Eye Off The Ball?". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. May 23, 1993. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Storm, Stephanie (July 7, 1992). "Gap Is Reportedly Adding Women's Underwear Brand". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Strom, Stephanie (November 21, 1993). "Profile: Grace Nichols; When Victoria's Secret Faltered, She Was Quick to Fix It". The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Grace Nichols Profile". Forbes. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Underwood, Elaine (September 19, 1994). "Bust-Boosting Bra Battle Begins; Victoria's Secret Launches Rare TV Campaign to Fight Wonderbra Barrage". AdWeek.
- Goldman, Abigail (April 10, 1999). "Amid Wear and Tear, Firm Seeks to Rework Image". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Ono, Yumiko (14 September 1998). "Victoria's Secret to Launch Makeup With Sexy Names". United States: Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company Inc. p. B6. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Ellison, Sarah (20 May 2002). "Is Less Risque Risky For Victoria's Secret?" (Eastern edition). New York, N.Y., United States: Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company Inc. p. B1. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Wells, Melanie (November 13, 2000). "Cosmetic Improvement". Forbes.
- Lieberman, Allyson (June 6, 2000). "Change at the Top: Victoria's Secret Turns Page at Catalog". New York Post. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Barbaro, Michael (July 15, 2006). "What Women Want; Underwear That Fits So Well It Can Be Outerwear". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- Seckler, Valerie (March 19, 2008). "Advice on Staying Ahead of the Trends". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). p. 8. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- Tang, Syl (September 2, 2006). "Catalogue shopping for the discerning crowd". Financial Times. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Dougherty, Philip H. (June 9, 1988). "Advertising; Victoria's Secret Goes To FCB/Leber Katz". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Groves, Martha (September 18, 1989). "Victoria's Secret Won't Keep Secret Anymore". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Branch, Shelly (October 25, 2002). "A New Secret From Victoria: The Bikini Show". The Wall Street Journal.
- Rao, Priya (August 11, 2010). "In SoHo, 'Incredible' Launch". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- Alexander, Ella (January 25, 2012). "Lingerie Secret". Vogue. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Marvin Traub; Lisa Marsh (September 15, 2008). Marvin Traub: Like No Other Career. Assouline Publishing Corporation. pp. 145–173. ISBN 978-2-7594-0272-4. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Holmes, Elizabeth (November 29, 2011). "Heard & Scene: Show Time on Victoria's Runway". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- Leonard M. Lodish; Howard L. Morgan; Shellye Archambeau (March 21, 2007). Marketing That Works: How Entrepreneurial Marketing Can Add Sustainable Value to Any Sized Company. Pearson Education. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-13-271632-1. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Goldman, Abigail (February 3, 1999). "Victoria's Secret Ad a Hit for Web Site". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Stevenson, Seth (April 12, 2004). "Tangled Up in Boobs – What's Bob Dylan doing in a Victoria's Secret ad?". Slate. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Winters, Rebecca (April 12, 2004). "Hey, Mr. Lingerie Man". Time. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Smith, Lynn (April 13, 2004). "Lingerie is back in the drawer". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Peterson, Hayley. "Victoria's Secret Sparks Outrage With 'Perfect Body' Campaign". Business Insider. Business Insider. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Bernd Schmitt; David L. Rogers; Karen Vrotsos (2004). There's No Business That's Not Show Business: Marketing in an Experience Culture. FT Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-13-047119-2. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Givhan, Robin (April 2, 2012). "Ob-la-di, Ob-la-da, Bras Go On". Newsweek. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Sanders, Tim (July 22, 2003). Love Is the Killer App: How to Win Business and Influence Friends. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 34–37. ISBN 978-1-4000-4683-6. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- "It's No Secret: A Bust-See Web Site". Newsweek. February 15, 1999. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "Flood of Viewers Jams Lingerie Webcast". Los Angeles Times. February 5, 1999. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Quick, Rebecca (February 5, 1999). "Victoria's Secret Has Lesson for the Web: Lingerie Exerts Pull—'Cybercast' of Underwear Was Such a Smash That Many Were Left Out in Cold". The Wall Street Journal.
- Monget, Karyn (November 8, 2011). "A Look Behind The Curtain". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "Yasmeen Ghauri". nymag.com. New York Media. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- "New York Magazine".
- "Victoria's Secret "Old School" Models (March 2006 - July 2013) - the Fashion Spot".
- "Herb Ritts Commercials Chronology". HerbRitts.com. 1996. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Victoria's Secret Video – Where do Angels Come From?". CBS. October 10, 2009. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Yasmeen Ghauri - Victoria's Secret (Spring 1998)". FamousFix.com.
- Model Documentary - Ines Rivero. June 24, 2014 – via YouTube.
- Daniela Pestova 5. August 17, 2008 – via YouTube.
- "Victoria's Secret Special". E!TV. 1998.
- Calaway, Libby (May 18, 2000). "Model Behavior - Secret Gals Smile For Pre-Show Audience". New York Post.
- "Victoria's Secret Supermodels Hit the Road in a Cross-Country Tour". September 22, 2004.
- "The Victoria's Secret Fashion Show".
- "The Models of Victoria's Secret". People. 1998. Retrieved May 11, 2007.
- Amy Odell. "Five Models Just Got a Lot More Famous". The Cut.
- VSFS 2009 Credits. June 4, 2010 – via YouTube.
- "Kylie Bisutti Responds to Victoria's Secret Slam: "Truth Is in the Book"". Us Weekly.
- Victoria's SecretAll About AngelsTijdlijnInfo. "Victoria's Secret - All About Angels". Facebook. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- "Victorias Secret Show London 2014 Pictures and Report (Vogue.co.uk)". Vogue UK.
- Bailey, Alyssa (February 23, 2015). "KARLIE KLOSS AND DOUTZEN KROES ARE LEAVING VICTORIA'S SECRET". elle. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Toomey, Alyssa (April 28, 2015). "Heavenly News! 2015 Victoria's Secret Angels Announced: Martha Hunt, Stella Maxwell and More!". eonline.com. E!. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- Scarlett Kilcooley-O'Halloran (April 28, 2015). "Victoria's Secret Announces 10 New Angels". vogue.co.uk. Vogue UK. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- Steff Yotka. "Victoria's Secret Names Josephine Skriver an Angel". Vogue.
- Palmeri, Christopher (August 24, 1998). "Forbes Thought Of The Day". Forbes.
- Marsh, Lisa (February 11, 2004). "Show Buzz". New York Post.
- "No hiding it". New York Post. December 12, 2010.
- Jones, Toni (January 12, 2011). "Meet the girl who everyone wants in their pants". The Sun. London. Retrieved June 30, 2013.
- "PHOTOS: Who Is Bregje Heinen?". Huffington Post. July 31, 2012.
- "Taylor Momsen Joins Victoria's Secret to Launch Love Rocks". PEOPLE.com.
- "Which Countries Are All 295 Victoria's Secret Models From?". Huffington Post. March 14, 2014.
- "Helena Christensen's Career Highlights". New York magazine. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Karen Mulder's Career Highlights". New York magazine. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Daniela Pestova's Career Highlights". New York magazine. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "CBS Specials: Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2005". CBS. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- 90's Supermodels for Victoria's Secret. March 23, 2009 – via YouTube.
- "Diablo VS Victoria Secret Special – the STORY". Lambocars.com. April 18, 2007. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Heidi Klum Becomes a Citizen For Her Children". People. March 9, 2009.
- "Heidi Hangs Up Her Secret Wings". New York Post. September 30, 2010. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- "Gisele Bundchen Bids Adieu". Dailyfrontrow.com. May 1, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Fleming, Kirsten (December 6, 2014). "What it really takes to become a Victoria's Secret Angel". nypost.com. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- "Adriana Lima's Career Highlights". New York magazine. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Moraski, Lauren (October 3, 2012). "Rihanna, Justin Bieber to play Victoria's Secret Fashion Show". CBS News. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Parket, Eloise (August 12, 2007). "It's a Beautiful Day in the Secret City". Daily News (New York). Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Streib, Lauren (May 27, 2009). "The World's Top-Earning Models". Forbes. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Newman, Eric (January 14, 2008). "Victoria's Secret Super Bowl Ad Kicks Off Valentine's Marketing". Brandweek.
- "Marisa Miller out at Victoria's Secret". New York Post. January 20, 2010.
- "Marisa Miller Hangs Up Wings, Focuses on the Troops". Fox News. November 11, 2011.
- Moss, Hilary (November 11, 2011). "Marisa Miller Splits". The Huffington Post.
- Critchell, Samantha (November 20, 2009). "Heidi Klum wows crowd at Victoria's Secret show". Associated Press. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Miranda Kerr Stripped Of Her Angel Wings! Victoria's Secret Will NOT Renew Her Contract!. perezhilton.com. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- Cardace, Sara (November 26, 2008). "Supermodel Miranda Kerr". New York Post.
- Bertoni, Steven; Blankfeld, Keren (May 13, 2010). "World's Top-Earning Models". Forbes.
- "Doutzen Kroes has left Victoria's Secret". vogue. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "Instagram post". Archived from the original on March 23, 2015. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Daniel Barna. "Behati Prinsloo". askmen.com. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Rosie Huntington's Career Highlights. nymag.com. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
- "Chanel Iman's Career Highlights". New York magazine. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Lily Aldridge. tatler.com. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
- "Victoria's Secret Fashion Show: Three Newest "Angels" Stretch Their Wings on the Runway". CBS News. November 30, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Karlie Kloss is a Victoria's Secret Angel". ElleUK. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
- "Karlie Kloss Is Leaving Victoria's Secret! (PEOPLE Exclusive)". people. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "Victoria's Secret Targets College Women". MSNBC. July 29, 2004. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Miranda Kerr Launches Victoria's Secret New Pink Bdy Organic and Natural Body Care Collection". Zimbio.com. March 10, 2009.
- Barnett, Leisa (May 27, 2008). "Victoria's Pick". Vogue. UK. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Kaunitz, Kate (March 15, 2010). "Behati Prinsloo Opens PINK". Fashionista. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Lewis, Casey (November 3, 2012). "Supermodel Elsa Hosk on Her Favorite Sports, Style Essentials, and Advice For Breaking Into The Business". teenvogue.com.
- "Rachel Hilbert Is the New Face of Victoria's Secret Pink—See the Pics!". E! Online. June 10, 2015.
- La Ferla, Ruth (October 25, 2007). "Now It's Nobody's Secret". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Webley, Kayla (April 2, 2012). "All-TIME 100 Fashion Icons: Roy Raymond". Time. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Bradsher, Keith (February 4, 1990). "A Job for Real Men: Buying Lingerie". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Coleman, Calmetta Y. (October 1, 1998). "The Gap Plots Panty Raid on Victoria's Secret". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- Zimmerman, Ann (June 20, 2007). "Retailers' Panty Raid On Victoria's Secret; New Lines, Shop Openings Target Hot Fashion Lingerie; 'Inner-wear as Outerwear'". The Wall Street Journal.
- Moin, David (December 3, 2008). "Pussycat Dolls Lingerie Comes to Bebe". Women's Wear Daily.
- Hochswender, Woody (January 17, 1989). "FASHION: Patterns; Risks and Hard Work". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Goldman, Beth (April 8, 1991). "Now, Her Dreams Are of Innerwear; An intimate industry has a firm foundation". Newsday (New York).
- Goldman, Beth (April 8, 1990). "Now, Her Dreams Are of Innerwear; An intimate industry has a firm foundation". Newsday (New York).
- The Limited 1994 Annual Filing
- "The Limited, Inc 1995 Annual Report". TheLimited1995AnnualFiling.
- Machan, Dyan (June 5, 1995). "Knowing your limits".
- Machan, Dylan (June 5, 1995). "Sharing Victoria's Secrets". Forbes.
- The Limited 1996 Annual Filing
- The Limited 1998 Annual Filing
- Cohen, Scott Lyle (February 6, 1997). "Pssst. Two Words. Victoria's Secret". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Wedlan, Candace A. (August 11, 2000). "The Pillar of Panties". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Eaton, Dan (May 7, 2007). "Retailers debuting at Tuttle Crossing as Limited, others shuffle space". Columbus Business First (Ohio). Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "2011 Annual Report and 2012 Proxy Statement" (PDF). LimitedBrands. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- "Retailers on Parade at ICR". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). January 13, 2012.
- Rubin, Sylvia (October 27, 2007). "Bras — a century of suspension". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- Roger D. Blackwell (November 12, 1997). From Mind to Market: Reinventing the Retail Supply Chain. HarperCollins. pp. 188–189. ISBN 978-0-88730-833-8. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Marianne M. Jennings (December 13, 2010). Business: Its Legal, Ethical, and Global Environment. Cengage Learning. pp. 510–. ISBN 978-0-538-47054-4. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Rozhon, Tracie (October 25, 2002). "A Lingerie Maker Returns To Its Racier Past". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Holmes, Elizabeth (March 29, 2010). "U.S. Apparel Retailers Map an Expansion to the North". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Kelsey, Sarah (May 3, 2012). "Victoria's Secret To Open First Quebec Store". The Huffington Post Canada. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret, the intimate apparel retailer and catalogue company". Fashionunited.co.uk. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Victoria's Secret Opens Its First Store In Schiphol Aitport Lounge 3". Design Curial. June 14, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Mezzasalma, Nicole (November 13, 2012). "Victoria's Secret opens second Schiphol store". DFNI Online. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Lidbury, Olivia (May 21, 2012). "Victoria's Secret set date for UK debut". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved July 14, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret Angel Barbara Palvin looks Parisian chic as Britain's first ever Victoria's Secret store opens at Westfield just in time for Olympics". Daily Mail. London. July 17, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Karmali, Sarah. "Secret No More". August 28, 2012. Vogue. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Alexander, Ella. "Angels Are Go". August 2, 2012. Vogue. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret UK store list". Victoria's Secret. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- Kraul, Chris (August 7, 2012). "Optimism in Colombia Textiles". Women's Wear Daily (WWD).
- Trujillo, Daniel (May 29, 2012). "Roble inicia cambios en Multiplaza y Metrocentro". El Mundo. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- Jannarone, John (October 20, 2011). "Victoria's Overseas Secret Remains Behind Closed Doors". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Sieczkowski, Cavan (November 17, 2011). "Victoria's Secret Puerto Rico Grand Opening Touched by Angels". International Business Times. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- "Agora Mall abre el 23 de Agosto 2012". ElMundoFemenino. August 9, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
- "Sambil | Inicia comercializacion de Sambil Santo Domingo". Tusambil.com. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Victoria's Secret Beauty & Accessories | Złote Tarasy". Zlotetarasy.pl. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- "Аеродром Никола Тесла".
- Quick, Rebecca (December 29, 1998). "Online: Gawkers or Shoppers? Selling Bras on the Web". The Wall Street Journal.
- Sugarman, Joseph (June 19, 2012). The Adweek Copywriting Handbook: The Ultimate Guide to Writing Powerful Advertising and Marketing Copy from One of America's Top Copywriters. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5–6, 227–231. ISBN 978-1-118-42879-5. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Durbin, Theodore (2002). "Victoria's Secret" (PDF). Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth—Glassmeyer/McNamee Center for Digital Strategies (6–0014). Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Deirdre Breakenridge; Thomas J. DeLoughry (February 1, 2003). The New Pr Toolkit: Strategies for Successful Media Relations. FT Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-13-009025-6. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- Silva, Belisa (October 10, 2012). "Susie Coulter to Take Helm at Victoria's Secret Beauty". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Workman, Nancy. "From Victorian to Victoria's Secret: The Foundations of Modern Erotic Wear". Journal of Popular Culture; Fall96, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p61-73, 13p. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- "All or nothing' for Victoria's Secret brand". Toronto Star. July 10, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Limited Sells Majority Stake in Namesake Brand". The New York Times. July 10, 2007. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- Merrick, Amy (July 10, 2007). "Advancing Its Sharper Focus, Limited Sells Namesake Chain at Loss". The Wall Street Journal.
- "People". Los Angeles Times. January 9, 1991. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- "Executive Changes". The New York Times. January 10, 1991. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Naughton, Julie (April 3, 2009). "Victoria's Secret Beauty Takes Cue From 'Project'". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). Retrieved December 4, 2012.
- Chipello, Christopher J (October 14, 2004). "As the Catalogs Pile Up, Environmental Activists Take on Attractive Target". The Wall Street Journal.
- Merrick, Amy (December 7, 2006). "Victoria's Secret Goes Green on Paper for Catalogs". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Victoria's Secret Catalog No Longer in Pulp Friction". CBC News. December 6, 2006. Archived from the original on March 31, 2009. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- Andrew J. DuBrin (January 1, 2012). Leadership: Research Findings, Practice, and Skills. Cengage Learning. pp. 107–. ISBN 978-1-133-43522-8. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial, and Technical Series. Blackwell. 2007. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Packard, Ashley (June 25, 2012). Digital Media Law. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 210–. ISBN 978-1-118-33686-1. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Savage, David (March 5, 2003). "Court says Victor's Secret safe – Lingerie giant fails to sway justices". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Bullock, Max (October 4, 2006). "Fans of offshoring drift away from economic reality". Financial Times. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "A new direction". The Indian Express. July 4, 2012.
- Nita Bhalla (May 22, 2012). "Victoria's Secret bras a boost for rural Indian women". Reuters.
- "Victoria's Secret, Slave Labor And So-Called "Free Trade"". May 25, 2011.
Workers are allowed just 3.3 minutes to sew each $14 Victoria’s Secret women’s bikini, for which they are paid four cents. The workers’ wages amount to less than 3/10ths of one percent of the $14 retail price of the Victoria’s Secret bikini
- Heller, Matthew (June 21, 2009). "Toxic Bras Update: Suits Won't Be Combined in Ohio". onpoint.com. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- "Victoria's Secret Bras May Contain Formaldehyde, Cause Blisters". New York. November 11, 2008.
- Canning, Andrea. "Victoria's Secret: Formaldehyde in Bras?". Jen Pereira, Mariecar Frias and Imaeyen Ibanga. Good Morning America.
- "Victoria's real secrets: A brand that needs a walk-in closet for its skeletons Date=3 April 2010". Retrieved January 15, 2011.
- "Victoria's Secret: Formaldehyde in Bras?". ABC News. November 11, 2008.
- Simpson, Cam (December 15, 2011). "Victoria's Secret Revealed in Child Picking Burkina Faso Cotton". Bloomberg Markets Magazine. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Simpson, Cam (January 13, 2012). "Child Labor for Victoria's Secret Cotton Examined by U.S". Bloomberg. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Green, Matthew (September 17, 2007). "Tapping into social conscience". Financial Times. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Alexander, Ella. "Victoria's Secret Sued". August 28, 2012. Vogue. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret 'Sexy Little Geisha' Outfit Sparks Backlash". The Huffington Post. September 24, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Sauers, Jenna (September 26, 2012). "And Here We Have a 'Sexy Little Geisha' Outfit From Victoria's Secret". Jezebel. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Alexander, Ella. "Victoria's Secret Geisha Outfit Faces Criticism". September 25, 2012. Vogue. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Strahan, E. , Lafrance, A. , Wilson, A. , Ethier, N. , Spencer, S. , et al. (2008). Victoria's dirty secret: How sociocultural norms influence adolescent girls and women.Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(2), 288.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|