Victoria, Hong Kong

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Victoria
City of Victoria
Skyline of Victoria
Skyline of Victoria
Victoria's location in Hong Kong
Victoria's location in Hong Kong
Location of Victoria in Hong Kong
Coordinates: 22°16′44.4″N 114°9′28.8″E / 22.279000°N 114.158000°E / 22.279000; 114.158000
Country Hong Kong
Region Hong Kong Island
Settled and named 'Queenstown' 1841
Re-named 'Victoria' 1843
Present boundaries defined in law 1903
Named for Queen Victoria
Districts
Government
 • Legislative Council Members for the Hong Kong Island constituency Kenneth Chan (CP)
Christopher Chung (DABPHK)
Cyd Ho (LabP)
Regina Ip (NPP)
Chung Kai Sin (DP)
Kwok Hing Wong (HKFTU)
 • Legislative Council Members for the District Council (Second) constituency Yuen Han Chan (HKFTU)
Frederick Fung (ADPL)
Albert Ho (DP)
Starry Lee (DABPHK)
James To (DP)
 • District Council areas covering Victoria Central and Western District Council and
Wan Chai District Council
areas
Area
 • Total 9 km2 (3 sq mi)
Population (2011 (estimated))
 • Total 321,479
 • Density 35,719/km2 (92,510/sq mi)
Time zone Hong Kong Time (UTC+8)
Victoria
Victoria City and Kowloon 1915.jpg
A 1915 map showing Victoria at the bottom
Traditional Chinese 維多利亞[1]
City of Victoria
Traditional Chinese 維多利亞市[2]
Simplified Chinese 维多利亚市

Victoria, officially City of Victoria,[3] is a city in Hong Kong. It is the first urban settlement in Hong Kong. It was initially named 'Queenstown' but was soon renamed 'Victoria', in honour of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. It has been regarded, particularly from 1841 until the 1997 handover,[4][5] as the de facto capital of Hong Kong, since the Hong Kong government's headquarters is located in the city. Over the course of its history, Victoria has expanded from a small town covering the original Sheung Wan, Central, and Wan Chai areas[6] into a busy city with a large population.

In recent years, the city's name Victoria has been eclipsed by Central[7] and the names of its other districts in everyday vernacular, since people nowadays have got into the habit of considering the different districts of Victoria as stand-alone places. The name 'Victoria', however, still forms the names of various organisations in reference to Victoria, such as the Victoria City District of the Hong Kong Scout,[8] and the Victoria Junior Chamber.[9] The name Victoria District Court had been used until the 1980s,[10][11][12][13] when it was moved to the Wanchai Tower and combined with other District Courts in the territory.

Location[edit]

Boundary stone at Old Peak Road

The city is located at the north-western corner of the Hong Kong Island and is centred around Central. It occupies the areas that are known in everyday vernacular as Central (including 'Admiralty'), Sheung Wan, Wan Chai, Causeway Bay, Shek Tong Tsui, the Mid-levels, a part of Happy Valley, and Kennedy Town on the Hong Kong Island. In 1903, the Hong Kong Government erected seven boundary stones for the city, inscribed City Boundary 1903 at Hatton Road (克頓道), Pok Fu Lam Road, Bowen Road, Old Peak Road (舊山頂道), Wong Nai Chung Road, Victoria Road/Sai Ning Street (西寧街) and Magazine Gap Road. All remain, except for the one in Magazine Gap Road, which disappeared around mid-June 2007.[14][15][16]

Districts[edit]

Today, Victoria is divided into the following nine districts:[17]

  • Kennedy Town (Victoria's western boundary runs through Serene Court (and, hence, both Sai Ning Street and Victoria Road))
  • Shek Tong Tsui
  • Sai Ying Pun
  • Sheung Wan
  • Central
  • Wan Chai (including a substantial part of the racecourse and a number of houses and buildings on Stubbs Road)
  • Causeway Bay (Victoria Park (located at the eastern end of Victoria), the area around Causeway Bay Station, Leighton Hill, and a part of Caroline Hill)
  • Hill Above Belcher's (the area on the hill above Kennedy Town, Shek Tong Tsui, and Sai Ying Pun districts: The University of Hong Kong's main campus, Fulham Garden, and the university's halls of residence and other premises on Pok Fu Lam Road to the north of Emerald Garden (the city's southern boundary runs through the northern edge of the piece of land on which Emerald Garden stands))
  • Mid-levels (the southern end of this district, as well as the whole Victoria, is the 700-feet contour line)

Historically, the city centre of Victoria was divided into the following districts (also called yeuks):

  • Shektongtsui (now spelled 'Shek Tong Tsui')
  • Sai Ying Poon (now Sai Ying Pun)
  • Taipingshan (between the northern part of today's Sheung Wan and Victoria Peak)
  • Sheung Wan (the northern part of today's Sheung Wan)
  • Choong Wan (known in modern times as Central in English)
  • Ha Wan (the eastern end of present-day Central; the area around Admiralty Station)
  • Wan Chai
  • Bowrington (the eastern end of today's Wan Chai and the western end of today's Causeway Bay; centred around today's Canal Road Flyover)
  • Sookun Poo (now Causeway Bay)

History[edit]

Victoria was first settled in 1841 after the founding of Hong Kong and was originally named 'Queenstown'. In 1843, the city was renamed 'Victoria' in honour of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

In 1857, the government expanded Victoria and divided it into four "wans" (環, jyutping: waan4, pinyin: huán, literally rings). The four wans are Sai Wan ("West Ring" in Chinese, present-day Sai Wan, including Kennedy Town, Shek Tong Tsui, and Sai Ying Pun), Sheung Wan ("Upper Ring" in Chinese, present-day Sheung Wan), Choong Wan or Chung Wan ("Central Ring" in Chinese, present-day Central) and Ha Wan ("Lower Ring" in Chinese, present-day Wan Chai). Except "Ha Wan"; "Sai Wan", "Sheung Wan" and "Choong Wan" retain the same name in Chinese today.

The four wans are further divided into nine "yeuks" (約, jyutping: joek3, pinyin: yuē, similar to "district" or "neighbourhood"). The coverage also included parts of East Point and Happy Valley (West of Wong Nai Chung Road on the east side of the Racecourse). In 1903, boundary stones were established to mark the City's boundary and six of them are still preserved today. The stones spread from Causeway Bay to Kennedy Town.[18]

In the 1890s the capital city extended four miles west to east along the coastal strip. Buildings were made of granite and brick. Buses and the new tramway would become the main form of transportation in the area.[19]

Notable places, streets and buildings[edit]

Skyscrapers[edit]

Pacific Place Building Complex, Admiralty

Streets and squares[edit]

General view of Statue Square in 2013. The large building overlooking the square is the HSBC Building (fourth design), completed in 1985.
Connaught Place between the General Post Office (left) and the Jardine House on the right.
The north of Cotton Tree Drive. Central Fire Station and Lippo Centre are visible.
Statue of the HSBC banker, Sir Thomas Jackson, 1st Baronet, in Statue Square, with Prince's Building in the background

Courts[edit]

The Court of Final Appeal is currently housed in 8 Jackson Road, former home of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong and the Supreme Court of Hong Kong, from 7 Sept 2015

Government buildings[edit]

View of Office Block of the Central Government Complex

Other historical buildings[edit]

Hotels[edit]

Four Seasons Hotel Hong Kong Lobby

Central, together with Tsim Sha Tsui and Tsim Sha Tsui East, is home to many hotels.

Entertainment areas[edit]

Bars, nightclubs and restaurants in Lan Kwai Fong.

Places of worship[edit]

Parks[edit]

Schools[edit]

Shopping[edit]

Cityscape[edit]

A panorama of Victoria City taken from East Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon
Nighttime panoramic view of Victoria City from the Avenue of Stars in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon
Dusk view of Central, Wanchai and Admiralty as seen from North Point

Economy[edit]

Bank of China (Hong Kong) has its head office in the Bank of China Tower.[24] The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, a subsidiary of HSBC, has its head office in the HSBC Main Building.[25] Bank of East Asia and Hang Seng Bank have their head offices in Central, Victoria.[26][27]

Before 1999, Cathay Pacific had its head office in the Swire House in Victoria City.[28] In 1999 the airline relocated its head office to Chek Lap Kok International Airport.[29]

Embassies and Consular Posts[edit]

British Consulate-General, Hong Kong and Macau
A
  •  Albania – Consulate *
  •  Angola – Consulate General[30]
  •  Argentina – Consulate General#[31]
  •  Australia – Consulate General #[32]
  •  Austria – Consulate General #[33]
B
  •  Bahamas – Consulate *
  •  Bahrain – Consulate *[34]
  •  Bangladesh – Consulate General #
  •  Barbados – Consulate *
  •  Belgium – Consulate General #[35]
  •  Benin – Consulate *
  •  Bhutan – Consulate * (Bhutan and the People's Republic of China have no diplomatic relations)
  •  Botswana – Consulate *
  •  Brazil – Consulate General #[36]
  •  Brunei – Consulate General
  •  Burundi – Consulate *
C
  •  Cambodia – Consulate General #
  •  Cameroon – Consulate *
  •  Canada – Consulate General #[37]
  •  Chile – Consulate General #[38]
  •  China —Chinese Liaison Office
  •  Colombia – Consulate General #[39]
  •  Congo – Consulate *
  •  Côte d'Ivoire – Consulate *
  •  Croatia – Consulate *
  •  Cuba – Consulate *
  •  Cyprus – Consulate *
  •  Czech Republic – Consulate General #[40]
D
  •  Djibouti – Consulate *
E
  •  Egypt – Consulate General #
  •  Equatorial Guinea – Consulate *
  •  Eritrea – Consulate *
  •  Estonia – Consulate *
  •  Ethiopia – Consulate *#
F
  •  Fiji – Consulate *
  •  Finland – Consulate General #[41]
  •  France – Consulate General #[42]
G
  •  Gabon – Consulate *
  •  Germany – Consulate General #[43]
  •  Ghana – Consulate *[44]
  •  Greece – Consulate General #[45]
  •  Grenada – Consulate * (the Honorary Consul is also Ambassador-at-Large for Grenada)[46]
  •  Guinea – Consulate *
H
  •  Hungary – Consulate General #
I
  •  Iceland – Consulate *
  •  India – Consulate General # (also responsible for Taiwan)[47]
  •  Indonesia – Consulate General #[48]
  •  Iran – Consulate General #[49]
  •  Ireland – Consulate General #[50]
  •  Israel – Consulate General #[51]
  •  Italy – Consulate General #[52]
J
  •  Jamaica – Consulate *
  •  Japan – Consulate General #[53]
  •  Jordan – Consulate *[54]
K
  •  Kazakhstan – Consulate General #[55]
  •  Kenya – Consulate *#
  •  Democratic People's Republic of Korea – Consulate General
  •  Republic of Korea – Consulate General #[56]
  •  Kuwait – Consulate General
L
  •  Laos – Consulate General #
  •  Latvia – Consulate *
  •  Lesotho – Consulate *
  •  Liechtenstein – Consulate *
  •  Lithuania – Consulate *
  •  Luxembourg – Consulate *
M
  •  Madagascar  – Consulate *
  •  Malaysia – Consulate General #
  •  Maldives – Consulate *[57]
  •  Mali – Consulate *
  •  Malta – Consulate *
  •  Mauritius  – Consulate *
  •  Mexico – Consulate General #[58]
  •  Micronesia  – Consulate *
  •  Monaco – Consulate *
  •  Mongolia – Consulate General[59]
  •  Morocco – Consulate *
  •  Mozambique – Consulate *
  •  Myanmar – Consulate General #[60]
N
  •  Namibia – Consulate *#
  •    Nepal – Consulate General #[61]
  •  Netherlands – Consulate General #[62]
  •  New Zealand – Consulate General #[63]
  •  Niger  – Consulate *
  •  Nigeria  – Consulate General #[64]
  •  Norway  – Consulate *[65] #
O
  •  Oman – Consulate *
P
  •  Pakistan – Consulate General #[66]
  •  Papua New Guinea – Consulate *
  •  Peru – Consulate General #
  •  Philippines – Consulate General[67]
  •  Poland – Consulate General #[68]
  •  Portugal – Consulate * (subordinate to the Consulate General in Macau)
Q
  •  Qatar – Consulate General
R
  •  Romania – Consulate General #[69]
  •  Russia – Consulate General #[70]
  •  Rwanda – Consulate *
S
  •  Samoa – Consulate *
  •  San Marino – Consulate *
  •  Saudi Arabia – Consulate General #[71][72]
  •  Seychelles – Consulate *
  •  Singapore – Consulate General #[73]
  •  Slovakia – Consulate *
  •  Slovenia – Consulate *
  •  South Africa – Consulate General #[74]
  •  Spain – Consulate General #[75]
  •  Sri Lanka – Consulate *#
  •  Sudan – Consulate *
  •  Suriname – Consulate *
  •  Sweden – Consulate General #[76]
  •   Switzerland – Consulate General #[77]
T
  •  Taiwan — Taiwan Economic and Cultural Office
  •  Tanzania – Consulate *#
  •  Thailand – Consulate General #[78]
  •  Tonga – Consulate *
  •  Trinidad and Tobago – Consulate *
  •  Tunisia – Consulate *
  •  Turkey – Consulate General #[79]
U
V
  •  Vanuatu – Consulate *
  •  Venezuela – Consulate General #[82]
  •  Vietnam – Consulate General #[83]

Y
  •  Yemen – Consulate *[84]
Z
  •  Zimbabwe – Consulate General #

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sch. 9(1), Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance
  2. ^ The translation adopted by the official Chinese translation of sch. 1 of the Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance
  3. ^ Sch. 1, Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance
  4. ^ The Hong Kong Institute of Architects Architecture Walk Central (2006), p.17
  5. ^ "Hong-Kong", Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed., vol. 13, slice 6, 1910–1911 (at Project Gutenberg).
  6. ^ Wordie, Jason (2002). Streets: Exploring Hong Kong Island. Hong Kong University Press. p. 12. ISBN 962-209-563-1.
  7. ^ Tsang, Steve (2004). A Modern History of Hong Kong. I.B. Tauris. p. 17. ISBN 1-84511-419-1.
  8. ^ Victoria City District
  9. ^ Victoria Junior Chamber
  10. ^ Volume 22 Inland Revenue Board of Review decisions
  11. ^ CACC497/1986 The Queen v. Chan Ngai Hung
  12. ^ CACC186A/1987 The Queen v Currency Brokers (H.K.) Ltd and Robert Lee Flickinger
  13. ^ CACC133A/1986 The Queen v. Wai Hin Keung
  14. ^ Antiquities and Monuments Office website: "Boundary Stone, City of Victoria"
  15. ^ List of boundary stones, with pictures (Chinese)
  16. ^ Apple Daily article about the boundary stones, 19 August 2007 (Chinese)
  17. ^ The nine districts of Victoria, Hong Kong
  18. ^ Wordie, Jason. [2002] (2002) Streets: Exploring Hong Kong Island. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 962-209-563-1
  19. ^ Sanderson, Edgar (1897–1898). The British Empire in the nineteenth century: its progress and expansion at home and abroad IV. London: Blackie and Son. p. 339. LCCN 02002538. OCLC 11625716. 
  20. ^ Yanne, Andrew; Heller, Gillis (2009). Signs of a Colonial Era. Hong Kong University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-962-209-944-9. 
  21. ^ Lim, Patricia. [2002] (2002). Discovering Hong Hong's Cultural Heritage. Central, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. ISBN Volume One 0-19-592723-0
  22. ^ The Hong Kong Government Gazette, March 19, 1909
  23. ^ Yanne, Andrew; Heller, Gillis (2009). Signs of a Colonial Era. Hong Kong University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-962-209-944-9. 
  24. ^ "Contact Us." Bank of China. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. "Registered Office BOC Hong Kong (Holdings) Limited 52/F Bank of China Tower 1 Garden Road Hong Kong"
  25. ^ "Contact Us." HSBC. Retrieved on 12 September 2011. "The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation LtdThe Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation – Hong Kong Address:GPO Box 64, Hong Kong, 1 Queen's Road Central, Hong Kong SAR, China"
  26. ^ "Investor Enquiries." Bank of East Asia. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. "Registered Office : 10 Des Voeux Road Central, Central, Hong Kong"
  27. ^ "Business Banking Centres." Hang Seng Bank. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. "Level 1 & 6, Hang Seng Headquarters, 83 Des Voeux Road, Central" (Map)
  28. ^ "World Airline Directory" (PDF). Flight International. 30 March 1985. p. 68. Retrieved 17 June 2009.  "Head Office: Swire House, 9 Connaught Road, C, Hong Kong"
  29. ^ "Cathay Pacific wins award for providing a smoke-free workplace at its Hong Kong Headquarters" (Press release). Cathay Pacific. 6 January 2005. Retrieved 2 July 2009. 
  30. ^ http://consuladogeral-angola.hk/
  31. ^ http://chong.mrecic.gov.ar/
  32. ^ http://www.hongkong.china.embassy.gov.au/
  33. ^ http://www.bmeia.gv.at/hongkong
  34. ^ http://www.bahrainconsulate.org.hk
  35. ^ http://www.diplomatie.be/hongkong/
  36. ^ http://www.brazilianconsulate.org.hk
  37. ^ http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/hong_kong/
  38. ^ http://chileabroad.gov.cl/hong-kong
  39. ^ http://www.consuladocolombiahk.com/
  40. ^ http://www.mzv.cz/hongkong
  41. ^ http://www.finland.org.hk/en/
  42. ^ http://www.consulfrance-hongkong.org
  43. ^ http://www.hongkong.diplo.de/
  44. ^ http://www.ghana.org.hk
  45. ^ http://www.greekconsulatehk.com
  46. ^ http://www.grenada-hk.org
  47. ^ http://www.cgihk.gov.in/
  48. ^ http://www.kemlu.go.id/hongkong/Pages/default.aspx?l=en
  49. ^ http://www.iranconsulate.org.hk
  50. ^ http://www.consulateofireland.hk/
  51. ^ http://hongkong.mfa.gov.il
  52. ^ http://www.conshongkong.esteri.it/
  53. ^ http://www.hk.emb-japan.go.jp
  54. ^ http://www.jordanconsulate.org.hk
  55. ^ http://www.consul-kazakhstan.org.hk
  56. ^ http://hkg.mofat.go.kr/index.jsp
  57. ^ http://www.maldivesconsulhk.com/
  58. ^ http://consulmex.sre.gob.mx/hongkong/
  59. ^ http://www.hongkong.mfa.gov.mn/
  60. ^ http://myanmar.e-consulate.org/eng_index.htm
  61. ^ http://www.nepalconsulatehk.org
  62. ^ http://hongkong.nlconsulate.org/
  63. ^ http://www.nzembassy.com/hongkong
  64. ^ http://www.nigeria-consulate.org.hk/
  65. ^ http://www.norway.cn/Embassy/Hong-Kong/Welcome/
  66. ^ http://www.pakconhk.com/
  67. ^ http://www.philcongen-hk.com
  68. ^ http://www.hongkongkg.polemb.net/
  69. ^ http://hongkong.mae.ro/
  70. ^ http://www.russia.com.hk/
  71. ^ http://www.mofa.gov.sa/SaudiMissionsAbroad/SaudiEmbassiesAbroad/Asia/Pages/EmbassyID40942.aspx
  72. ^ http://www.mofa.gov.sa/sites/mofaen/SaudiMissionsAbroad/SaudiEmbassiesAbroad/Asia/Pages/EmbassyID40942.aspx
  73. ^ http://www.mfa.gov.sg/hongkong
  74. ^ http://www.dfa.gov.za/foreign/sa_abroad/sah.htm#honk
  75. ^ http://www.maec.es/subwebs/Consulados/HongKong/es/home/Paginas/home_hongkong.aspx
  76. ^ http://www.swedenabroad.com/Start____18843.aspx
  77. ^ http://www.eda.admin.ch/hongkong
  78. ^ http://www.thai-consulate.org.hk
  79. ^ http://www.hongkong.cg.mfa.gov.tr
  80. ^ http://www.britishconsulate.org.hk/
  81. ^ http://hongkong.usconsulate.gov/
  82. ^ http://www.consulvehk.org
  83. ^ http://www.vietnamconsulate-hongkong.org/en
  84. ^ http://www.embassyofyemen.net/articles_cn.asp?ClassID=18&WorksID=258

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 22°16′42″N 114°10′28″E / 22.27833°N 114.17444°E / 22.27833; 114.17444