Victoria County, Ontario

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County of Victoria
County of Canada

1863–2001
Location of Victoria County
A historic map of Victoria County, published in 1881.
Capital Lindsay, Ontario
Government Democracy
Warden
 •  1863 Patrick McHugh (first)
History
 •  Separation from the United Counties of Peterborough and Victoria 1863
 •  Withdrawal of seven townships to the District of Muskoka 1868 (detached), 1877 (withdrawn)
 •  Withdrawal of three townships to the Provisional County of Haliburton 1874
 •  Manvers Township ceded from Durham County 1973
 •  Amalgamated to form the City of Kawartha Lakes, as a result of the Common Sense Revolution 2001
Political subdivisions

The County of Victoria, or Victoria County, was a county in the Canadian province of Ontario. It was formed in 1854 as The United Counties of Peterborough and Victoria, and separated from Peterborough in 1863. In 2001, the county was dissolved and reformed as the City of Kawartha Lakes. Though first opened to settlement in 1821, the area that was encompassed by Victoria County has a history of Indian occupation, first by the Hurons.

History[edit]

The history of Victoria County began with the passing of the Constitutional Act in 1791, dividing Canada into two provinces: Upper Canada (present day Ontario) and Lower Canada (present day Québec); and appointing a governor for each.[1]

The first governor of Upper Canada was Colonel John Graves Simcoe, who surveyed the province and set out tracts of land for immigrants with genuine interests.[2] Before the land that became Victoria County could be surveyed, however, speculators had Simcoe removed from office in 1796, and the land was secured from settlement for over 20 years.[3]

Following the War of 1812, a large wave of immigration prompted the province to purchase more land from local Indian tribes. On 5 November 1818, six Mississauga chiefs, Buckquaquet of the Eagles, Pishikinse of the Reindeers, Paudash of the Cranes, Cahgahkishinse of the Pike, Cahgageewin of the Snakes, and Pininse of the White Oaks, met in Port Hope. There they surrendered the rights to over four thousand square kilometres of land,[4] known as the "Mississauga Tract". In exchange, the Indians (numbering about 400) were to receive $750 per year in goods. However, the government later changed this to $10 per year for each living person born before the deal was signed.

The Mississauga Tract included all of Victoria and Peterborough counties, as well as parts of 28 adjacent townships.[5] Following the purchase, the land became Newcastle District in 1802.[6] In 1845, it was renamed Colborne District consisting of the County of Peterborough.[7] In 1851, Peterborough County was divided into the counties of Peterborough and Victoria, which were united for municipal purposes as the United Counties of Peterborough and Victoria.[8]

Townships forming the United Counties of Peterborough and Victoria (1851)
County of Peterborough County of Victoria
  • Belmont
  • Methuen
  • Burleigh
  • Dummer
  • Harvey
  • Douro
  • Smith
  • Monaghan North
  • Asphodel
  • Ennismore
  • Otonabee
  • Mariposa
  • Ops
  • Emily
  • Eldon
  • Fenelon
  • Bexley
  • Verulam
  • Somerville
1862 Johnson Map of Ontario and Quebec. The full extent of Victoria County at that time is highlighted in green.
Extent of Victoria county in 1974, showing the annexation of Manvers Township.

A plebiscite was authorized in 1856 to facilitate the creation of a provisional county council for Victoria,[9] but, as the united counties council delayed conducting it, a further Act was passed in 1861 to compel its being held, following which the provisional council was formed.[10] and its formal separation took place in 1863.[11][12]

Further townships were surveyed in the following years that were attached to the County, extending its reach northwards. In 1868, the townships of Ryde, Draper, Macaulay, Stephenson, Brunel, McLean and Oakley were detached from the County and transferred to the new District of Muskoka,[13] and the townships of Stisted, Chaffey, Franklin and Ridout were detached in a similar manner in 1873.[14] They were not withdrawn for municipal purposes until their annexation to Simcoe County in 1877.[15] The townships of Anson, Hindon and Lutterworth were also withdrawn from the County in 1874 and transferred to the new Provisional County of Haliburton.[16]

In 1974, as a result of the creation of the Regional Municipality of Durham, Manvers Township was withdrawn from Durham County and transferred to Victoria County.[17]

On 1 January 2001, Victoria County was dissolved, and its townships and incorporated communities were amalgamated to form the City of Kawartha Lakes,[18] a name chosen because of the prominence of the lakes in the geography of the region.[19]

Organization before amalgamation in 2001[edit]

It encompassed 2,855.56 square kilometres (1,102.54 sq mi)[20]

Townships[edit]

Victoria County consisted of 13 separate townships and 6 incorporated villages with their own local governments.[21]

Population centres are listed in parentheses:

The township of Laxton, Digby and Longford is an amalgamation of the once individual townships of Digby and Laxton, and half of the original Longford Township. The separate township of Longford is uninhabited, though dotted with abandoned logging towns.

Incorporated communities[edit]

Unincorporated communities and hamlets[edit]

Abandoned towns, post offices and church villages[edit]

Demographics[edit]

+ Census Canada
Township Population
1991 1996 2001
Bexley 1,191[22] 1,306[22] 1,325[23]
Carden 781[24] 887[24] 888[25]
Dalton 423[26] 442[26] 474[27]
Eldon 2,669[28] 2,956[28] 3,087[29]
Emily 6,307[30] 6,724[30] 6,944[31]
Fenelon 5,710[32] 5,931[32] 6,240[33]
Laxton, Digby and Longford 1,086[34] 1,114[34] 1,052[35]
Manvers 5,166[36] 5,624[36] 5,830[37]
Mariposa 6,906[38] 7,456[38] 7,869[39]
Ops 4,027[40] 4,311[40] 4,955[41]
Somerville 2,045[42] 2,238[42] 2,241[43]
Verulam 3,982[44] 4,373[44] 4,313[45]
Incorporated areas
Bobcaygeon 2,562[46] 2,753[46] 2,854[47]
Fenelon Falls 1,888[48] 2,040[48] 1,874[49]
Lindsay, Ontario 16,696[50] 17,638[50] 16,930[51]
Lindsay census agglomeration (Ops including Lindsay) 20,723[52] 21,949[52] 21,885[41][51]
Omemee 1,103[53] 1,271[53] 1,319[54]
Sturgeon Point 110[55] 111[55] 107[56]
Woodville 680[57] 751[57] 871[58]
Total
Kawartha Lakes 63,332[59] 67,926[59] 69,179[60]
Ontario 10,084,885[61] 10,753,573[61] 11,410,046[62]

The population is mostly rural, with only 34% living in urban areas.[63]

Infrastructure[edit]

Colonization roads[edit]

Victoria County was first opened up to settlement in the 1821.[64] At this time, the primary routes for entering the county-to-be were narrow trails. Settlers were offered land on the condition that they help further the progress of concession roads into the region. This was often met with the bare minimum, and progress was slow.

The Land Act of 1853 provided funding for the development of roads throughout the wilderness of Upper Canada. Grants were administered by the Department of Agriculture to survey and build the new roads. The roads followed the tradition of old Roman roads, and cut through the wilderness in a straight line, veering only when the terrain was impassable, but cutting through swamps and hills otherwise. Four primary roads were built: the Cameron Road, the Bobcaygeon Road, the Monck Road, and the Portage Road.

http://www.ontariogenealogy.com/Victoria/settleme.html http://www.ontariogenealogy.com/Victoria/history/victoriacountypioneers2.html

The Cameron road, now mostly encompassed by Highway 35, provided access from Lake Ontario to the northern limits of Victoria;

The Bobcaygeon Road, begun in 1853, traversed north and south along the present-day eastern boundary of the region, and is mostly encompassed by former Highway 121;

The Monck Road, which connected Lake Couchiching to Bancroft, encompassed partially by former Highway 503, now City Road 45;

The Portage Road, connecting Lake Simcoe to Balsam Lake, encompassed entirely by former Highway 48, now City Road 48

Education[edit]

At one time the Victoria County Board of Education provided educational services. In 1999 it was amalgamated into the Trillium Lakelands District School Board.[65]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Constitutional Act of 1791". Retrieved 16 September 2009.
  2. ^ "Ontario Heritage Trust – John Graves Simcoe". . Government of Ontario. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2009.
  3. ^ Kirkconnell, Watson (1967). "County of Victoria, Centennial History". Victoria County Council: 1.
  4. ^ Government of Canada (1891). "Indian Treaties and Surrenders". 1. King's Printer: 49.
  5. ^ Canadian Genealogy. "Stone age annals of Victoria County – The surrender of the soil". Retrieved 17 September 2009.
  6. ^ as authorized by An act for the better division of this province, S.U.C. 1798, c. 5, s. 25
  7. ^ An Act for better defining the limits of the Counties and Districts in Upper Canada, for erecting certain new Townships, for detaching Townships from some Counties and attaching them to others, and for other purposes relative to the division of Upper Canada into Townships, Counties and Districts, S.C. 1841, c. 7, s. 8 and Schedule B
  8. ^ An Act to make certain alterations in the Territorial Divisions of Upper Canada, S.C. 1851, c. 5, Sch. A-B
  9. ^ {{{short title}}}, S.Prov.C. 1856, c. 95
  10. ^ An Act to amend the Act to provide for the separation of the County of Victoria from the County of Peterborough, and to fix the County Town at Lindsay, S.Prov.C. 1861, c. 50
  11. ^ An Act to confirm the separation of the late United Counties of Peterborough and Victoria, and the several proceedings taken relative thereto, S.Prov.C. 1863, c. 10
  12. ^ Kirkconnell, Watson (1967). "County of Victoria, Centennial History". Victoria County Council: 2.
  13. ^ An Act to provide for the organization of the Territorial District of Muskoka, S.O. 1868, c. 35
  14. ^ An Act to organize the Municipality of the District of Muskoka for certain purposes, S.O. 1873, c. 49, s. 11-12
  15. ^ An Act respecting the Territorial and Temporary Judicial Districts of the Province, and the Provisional County of Haliburton, S.O. 1877, c. 24, s. 2
  16. ^ An Act to incorporate the Municipality of Haliburton, and to provide for its becoming a Provisional County, S.O. 1874, c. 65
  17. ^ The Regional Municipality of Durham Act, 1973, S.O. 1973, c. 78, s. 134(3)
  18. ^ "Order of the Commission made under the Municipal Act: County of Victoria" (PDF). Ontario Gazette. 133 (19): 892–898. May 6, 2000. ISSN 0030-2937.; "Order of the Commission made under the Municipal Act: County of Victoria" (PDF). Ontario Gazette. 133 (27): 1227–1229. July 1, 2000. ISSN 0030-2937.
  19. ^ "Municipal Government for Victoria County – A New Beginning (Final Report)" (PDF). 19 April 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  20. ^ "Canadian Genealogy – Victoria County Geography, Topography, and Geology". Retrieved 25 September 2009.
  21. ^ "Algonquin Park and Kawarthas map". MapArt Corporation. 1998.
  22. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Bexley Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  23. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Bexley Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  24. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Carden Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  25. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Carden Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  26. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Dalton Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  27. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Dalton Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  28. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Eldon Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  29. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Eldon Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  30. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Emily Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  31. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Emily Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  32. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Fenelon Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  33. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Fenelon Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  34. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Laxton, Digby and Longford Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  35. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Laxton, Digby and Longford Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  36. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Manvers Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  37. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Manvers Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  38. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Mariposa Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  39. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Mariposa Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  40. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Ops Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  41. ^ a b "2001 Canadian Census: Ops Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  42. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Somerville Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  43. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Somerville Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  44. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Verulam Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  45. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Verulam Township, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  46. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Village of Bobcaygeon, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  47. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Village of Bobcaygeon, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  48. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Village of Fenelon Falls, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  49. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Village of Fenelon Falls, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  50. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Town of Lindsay, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  51. ^ a b "2001 Canadian Census: Town of Lindsay, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  52. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Town of Lindsay, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  53. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Village of Omemee, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  54. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Village of Omemee, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  55. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Village of Sturgeon Point, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  56. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Village of Sturgeon Point, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  57. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Village of Woodville, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  58. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Village of Woodville, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  59. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Victoria County, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  60. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: City of Kawartha Lakes, Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  61. ^ a b "1996 Canadian Census: Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  62. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  63. ^ "2001 Canadian Census: Population counts for Kawartha Lakes, Ontario". Retrieved 25 September 2009
  64. ^ Kirkconnell, Watson (1921). "Victoria County, The Making of a County". Retrieved 25 September 2009
  65. ^ "New superintendent for school board," Lindsay Daily Post, 29 August 2003, A10.