Firstly, there is the mass-produced earthenware decorated with coloured lead glazes, made in Britain, Europe and the US; typically hard-wearing, surfaces moulded in relief, vibrant translucent glazes, in Revivalist or naturalistic or High Victorian style often with an element of whimsy.
The second type is the rare tin-glazed earthenware made in Britain only, primarily by Mintons from 1848 to circa 1880, typically with flat surfaces, opaque white glaze with brush painted decoration somewhat in the styles of Italian Renaissance maiolica tin-glazed pottery.
- 1 Caution needed with meanings of 'majolica'
- 2 Styles
- 3 History
- 4 European and American potteries
- 5 See also
- 6 In contemporary fiction
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Leon Arnoux, the artistic director of Mintons, wrote in 1852 "We understand by majolica a pottery formed of a calcareous clay gently fired, and covered with an opaque enamel composed of sand, lead, and tin...." He was describing the Minton & Co. tin-glazed product made in imitation of Italian maiolica. His description is often referenced, in error, as a definition of Minton's other new product, the much copied and later mass-produced ceramic sensation of the Victorian era, Minton's 'Palissy ware' of coloured lead glazes. The 16th-century French pottery by Bernard Palissy and his imitators was well known and much admired. Minton adopted the name 'Palissy ware' for his new coloured-lead-glazes product, but this also soon became known as 'majolica'. Minton & Co. appear to have done little to promote the clear distinction between their tin-glazed and coloured-lead-glazes products.
Thomas Kirkby's design G144 in the Minton Archive is inscribed "This is the First Design for Majolica...". The design is Italian Renaissance in style, and, importantly, suited for fine brushwork on flat surfaces. Kirkby is referring to Minton's tin-glaze majolica, which was a commercial flop. Designs suited for "block painting" onto surfaces moulded in relief that made best use of the intaglio effect - Minton's Palissy Ware, the commercial block-buster, also known as Majolica - should, logically, be in the Class letter T archive under "Palissy and Limoges".
The coloured glazes of Minton and Co. arrived at about the same time as a significant shift in demand . A vigorous economy and expanding overseas trade was fuelling rapid growth of the middle-classes. The ‘new money’ was modern, adventurous, ready to follow any new fashion that spoke to them. The Greek, Roman, and Renaissance designs loved by yesterday's men, were of limited interest. A few patterns in Classical or Revivalist styles were produced in coloured-lead-glaze majolica, but Darwinism, natural history, and their English country gardens were much more exciting. Hence the boom in "naturalistic" pottery, perfectly suited to Minton’s inexpensive, durable, multi-purpose product. A strong interest in the world at large generates a market for Egyptian forms, Japanese styles, and chinoiseries. Conservatories become a fashion statement. Adorning them are spectacular majolica fountains, garden seats, flower pots, jardinières, stands, large birds and animals. The irrepressible urge to impress guests with rare food leads to the growing of pineapples and egg-plants (aubergines) until now only available overseas. These, too, appear in majolica.
Minton's tin-glaze product in imitation of Italian maiolica, praised at Exhibitions, made little commercial impact, probably due to outdated style and high cost.
Interest in Renaissance Revival style was waning. Fashion was moving on, with the usual protestations from older generations: "[...]the current of fashion, however contrary to right, wisdom, and good taste[...]"
Compared to the lead-glaze process whereby thick, temperature-compatible coloured lead glazes were applied direct to the biscuit, simultaneously, then fired, the tin-glaze process would have been more costly.
First, an extra stage was required for dipping/coating and drying the tin-glaze before decoration could begin.
Second, brushwork decoration was much more time-consuming, requiring highly skilled, higher paid artists. Brush-applied decoration becomes 'embedded' upon contact with the 'raw' unfired tin-glaze, somewhat in the manner of fresco, with no possibility of alteration or overpainting.
Victorian majolica was originated by Minton & Co., who exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 1851. The Exhibition Catalogue  does not use the name 'Palissy ware' that was used in the Minton factory, but does use the name 'Majolica':
- Palissy ware, [coloured lead glazes]. The debt to the 16th century potter Bernard Palissy is obvious from its naturalistic plant and animal motifs. Exhibition Catalogue entry "Earthenware... Flowerpots, etc." 60. A variety of... flowerpots and stands, and garden seats."
- Majolica, anglicizing the Italian maiolica, [tin-glazed coloured with enamels]. Exhibition Catalogue entry "Tiles, Terra Cotta, and Vases, etc, in imitation of Majolica Ware" 74. Variety of flowerpots and stands, coloured in the majolica style, etc."
The collection of Palissy and Majolica ware, however, is that which appears to have created the greatest sensation among Parisian connoisseurs. The reader will remember that the main difference in these wares is that whereas the Palissy ware is coloured by a transparent glaze, Majolica ware contains the colour (opaque) in the material. The care and taste with which these manufactures have been brought by the Messrs. Minton to their present state of perfection, have been amply rewarded. Within a few days of the opening of the Exhibition all the specimens exhibited had been sold.
Despite this reminder Minton's Palissy Ware became known as "majolica ware"; "Palissy ware" dropped out of use and "majolica" stuck. In the 1870s, the curators of the South Kensington Museum (now the V&A) tried to clear up the confusion by reviving the Italian spelling "maiolica" with an 'i' instead of a 'j' for Italian tin-glaze.
Wedgwood began to manufacture majolica about ten years after Mintons. Wedgwood's glazes and modelling were denser and more formal than Minton's, but there were many pieces that displayed the naturalism and humour of Minton shapes. Wedgwood's majolica included cachepots, jugs, candlesticks, cheese bells, umbrella stands, sardine boxes, plates in naturalistic patterns, bread trays, etc. In Wedgwood's "greenware" the green glaze emphasizes the low relief patterning, typically of basketwork and foliage. Numerous smaller factories in the Staffordshire Potteries specialised in such green majolica wares in which the translucent glaze brought out the low relief of the cast body: some, like Wedgwood, marked their majolica with impressed stamps.
Majolica was influenced by the design of the old "Cauliflower" and "Pineapple" teapots that had been made by Thomas Whieldon, Wedgwood and other 18th-century Staffordshire potters. Both English and American majolica potters reproduced the "Cauliflower" pattern and other raised fruit, vegetable, leaf, and berry patterns, with green, yellow, pink, brown, light blue and purple-blue glazes. There is also a teapot of yellow corn and green leaves, similar to the old Whieldon "Pineapple" teapots, and a teapot, jug and sugar bowl of pink coral and green seaweed with accents of brown and blue, marked "Etruscan Majolica". Many late 19th-century majolica designs had rustic motifs with backgrounds of basketry and wooden-bound buckets decorated with moulded flowers, birds, fish and animals. Handles were made to resemble tree branches, rose stems and twined flowers and leaves.
Plates, jugs, teapots and other articles were moulded with the shapes of wild roses, lily pads and herons, begonia leaves, shells, coral, seaweed, corn and bamboo stalks, cabbage leaves, strawberries, ferns and sprays of flowers, borders of basketry and oriental motifs.
The Trent Pottery, George Jones and Sons, made majolica cupids, shells, dolphins, birds, figurines and coral designs in numerous shapes. Their mark was a monogram of the initials "G.J." joined together. A beehive bread dish with a cover has a design of wild roses against a background of basketwork and has the Trent Pottery mark. Also flowerpots were made in bright colours and with raised designs of natural flowers.
Other British Factories
Many other potteries responded to the popularity of majolica.
- Royal Worcester made figurines, shell vases, wall pockets etc. marking most of their output with an impressed crown over rose backstamp, using a distinctive paler blue glaze.
- William Brownfield made wall pockets, jugs, game pie dishes, table ware etc. Some wares were impressed 'W B'(in a knot).
- T. Furnival and Sons made jugs and plates with raised oriental designs, which had borders of wickerwork in bold colour and glaze. Their mark, "Furnival," is impressed in the ware.
- Edward Steele of Hanley manufactured jugs, flower vases, teapots, dessert services also made majolica and centrepieces with fine colouring.
- Edward Banks and Thomas Thorley of Hanley manufactured bread trays, cheese stands, jugs, dessert services, trays, teapots, egg- holders and flowerpots. One of their dessert services has a chocolate coloured ground and a raised naturalistic design of ivy, ferns and anemones.
- Davenport and Banks (or Davenport Beck and Company) made many varieties of majolica. Their work was marked with a castle and the letters "D.B. & Co. Etruria" within an oval garter bearing the words "Trade Mark".
- Joseph Holdcroft of Longton.
- Brown-Westhead, Moore & Co
- Copeland & Garrett., successors to Josiah Spode
- Thomas Forester & Sons
- Samuel Lear
- Poole and Unwin
- "Fielding majolica", by S.Fielding and Co., The Railway Pottery, Stoke on Trent
- Daniel Sutherland and Sons
- James Woodward
- J.W. John Adams and Co., Hanley
- Edge, Malkin & Co, Burslem
European and American potteries
France: Perret-Gentil, Sarreguemines, Massier, Choisy le Roi, Boch Freres, Longchamp, Luneville, Orchies, Nimy, Onnaing, Salins, Vallauris. Lonitz (Austria), Krause (Poland, formerly Germany), Eichwald (Germany), Bloch (Germany), Villeroy & Boch (Luxemburg), W S Schiller (Germany), Gustavsberg (Sweden), Rörstrand (Sweden).
Several American firms also made majolica, with the English born Edwin Bennett producing it in Baltimore as early as the 1850s. The best known are Griffin, Smith and Hill of Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, whose Etruscan majolica made from 1880 to 1890 includes compotes with dolphin supports and flower, shell, or jewel cups, a design of coral weed and seashells, and tableware with leaves and ferns. Their mark was an impressed monogram, "G.S.H.", sometimes circled and with the words "Etruscan Majolica".
Majolica was also made by Odell and Booth at Tarrytown, New York, and by the Faience Manufacturing Company at Greenpoint, Long Island, whose mark is an incised "F.M. Co." Their pottery was dipped in coloured glazes, creating a streaked or marbled effect. Majolica was made at Evansville, Indiana. Work from the Chesapeake Pottery in Baltimore was called Clifton Ware and was marked "Clifton Decor 'R' " with the monogram "D.F.H.".
Production had increased since 1875 but with fewer original examples and with less artistic enterprise. By the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, majolica production was at an end, superseded by Art Nouveau and Art pottery.
Much Victorian majolica appears in antique shops and auctions. It is popular with collectors and some old patterns have been reproduced.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Victorian majolica.|
- Palissy, as a brand of A.E. Jones and Sons
In contemporary fiction
- The Majolica Murders by Deborah Morgan
- Leon Arnoux, 1867, British Manufacturing Industry - Report on Pottery, p.42 "Majolica [tin-glaze earthenware, opaque white surface brush-painted in enamel colours] was produced for the first time by Messrs. Minton, in 1850, and they have been for many years the only producers of this article. The name of majolica is now applied indiscriminately to all fancy articles of coloured pottery. When, however, it is decorated by means of coloured glazes [applied directly to the 'biscuit'] , if these are transparent [translucent], it ought to be called Palissy ware […] Messrs. Wedgwood, George Jones, and a few other makers of less importance, are reproducing it more or less successfully. To Messrs. Minton, however, we owe the revival of the ware [the coloured lead glazes ware that they named 'Palissy ware'], which, in connection with [in addition to] their majolica [the tin-glaze product], created such a sensation in the French International Exhibition of 1855."
- Arnoux, Leon, 1853, Lecture 23 Lectures on the Results of the Great Exhibition of 1851, David Bogue, 86 Fleet Street, London. p.396
- Christie, Manson & Woods Catalogue, June 16 1884, Sale of Fontaine Collection of Majolica [tin-glazed Italian], Henri II, Palissy Ware [16th century]...
- Paul Atterbury and Maureen Batkin, 1997, 'Dictionary of Minton', Antique Collectors' Club. "Minton did not use the word maiolica themselves, relying instead on the Victorian version, majolica, which they used to mean wares of Renaissance inspiration, featuring hand painting on an opaque white glaze. These were therefore quite distinct from the coloured glaze decorated wares which we now call majolica, but which Minton referred to as Palissy wares."
- Light and dark created by glaze pooling in the lower areas of a relief moulding.
- May 26th, 1858, M. Digby Wyatt, Journal of the Society of Arts, 'On the Influence excercised on ceramic manufactures by the late Mr. Herbert Minton', p.448 "After the death of Payne Knight, Towneley, Sir William Hamilton, Hope, Soane, Gandy Dering, Flaxman, Tassie, and others, the Dilettanti Society's energy flagged; and "public taste was diverted from the pure and classical foundations ". No one knew better than Mr. Minton the sacrifices any manufacturer must be prepared to make, who would enter upon the Herculean task of attempting to stem the current of fashion, however contrary to right, wisdom, and good taste, it might be running [...] The wise manufacturer will prudently direct his efforts to the production of novelties [...]"
- Digby Wyatt, M., Journal of the Society of Arts, May 26 1858, p.448
- Catalogue, (1851), Official Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue in Three Volumes, Volume II. London. W. Clowes & Sons
- Digby Wyatt, M., Journal of the Society of Arts May 26 (1858) p.442
- The Illustrated London News, Nov. 10, 1855, p.561
- M is for Maiolica/majolica, Victoria and Albert Museum
- Schneider 1999, p. 19
- Arnoux, Leon, British Manufacturing Industries, Gutenberg, 1877. 
- Karmason, Marylin J., and Stacke, Joan B., Majolica: A Complete History and Illustrated Survey, 1989, Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
- Atterbury, Paul, and Batkin, Margaret, Dictionary of Minton, Antique Collectors' Club, 1990.
- Katz Marks, Mariann, "The Collector's Encyclopedia of Majolica", Collector Books
- Schneider, M. Majolica. Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd. 1999.