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Victoriapithecus macinnesi
Temporal range: Middle Miocene
Victoriapithecus macinnesi skull.JPG
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Cercopithecidae
Subfamily: Victoriapithecinae
von Koenigswald, 1969
Genus: Victoriapithecus
von Koenigswald, 1969
Species: V. macinnesi
Binomial name
Victoriapithecus macinnesi
von Koenigswald, 1969

Victoriapithecus macinnesi was a primate. It was described from a single fossil specimen, the oldest Old World monkey skull fossil. It was discovered near Lake Victoria in Kenya by Dr. Brenda Benefit. It dates from the middle Miocene and was closely related to the two or three extinct Prohylobates species.


Victoriapithecus macinnesi had a dental formula of 2:1:2:3 on both the upper and lower jaws. This species had lower molars that are bilophodont with low cusps. The canines of Victoriapithecus macinnesi show sexual dimorphism and the mandible of this species is relatively deep compared to other Old World monkeys. On the forelimbs, the distal end of the humerus shows a narrow articulation and a deep ulnar notch. Victoriapithecus macinnesi had an average body mass of around 7.0 kilograms.[1] The volume of the brain — 36 cm³.[2][3]

Range and locomotion[edit]

Victoriapithecus macinnesi lived in Africa. The postcranial remains indicate it was likely quadrupedal.[1]


  1. ^ a b Fleagle, John G. (25 September 1998). Primate Anatomy and Evolution (second ed.). Academic Press. pp. 491–495. ISBN 978-0-12-260341-9. 
  2. ^ Old World Monkey Had Tiny, Complex Brain
  3. ^ Cerebral complexity preceded enlarged brain size and reduced olfactory bulbs in Old World monkeys

External links[edit]