Victory Tour (The Jacksons tour)

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Victory Tour
Tour by The Jacksons
Victory Tour Logo.jpg
LocationNorth America
Associated albumsVictory
Start dateJuly 6, 1984 (1984-07-06)
End dateDecember 9, 1984 (1984-12-09)
No. of shows47 in United States
8 in Canada
55 played
Attendance2 million
Box officeUS$75 million ($181 million in 2018 dollars)[1]
The Jacksons tour chronology
Triumph Tour
Victory Tour
Unity Tour
Michael Jackson tour chronology
Triumph Tour
Victory Tour
Bad World Tour

The Victory Tour was a concert tour of the United States and Canada by The Jacksons between July and December 1984. It was the only tour with all six Jackson brothers, even though Jackie was injured for some of it. The group performed 55 concerts to an audience of approximately 2 million. Most came to see Michael, whose album Thriller had been dominating the popular music world at the time. Many consider it to be his Thriller tour, with most of the songs on the set list coming from his Off the Wall and Thriller albums. The tour reportedly grossed approximately $75 million ($181 million in 2018 dollars[1]) and set a new record for the highest-grossing tour. It showcased Michael's single decorated glove, black sequined jacket and moonwalk.

Despite its focus on Michael, it was named after the Jacksons' album Victory. That album was released the day after the tour's first show in Birmingham, Alabama, and turned out to be a commercial success. However, none of the album's songs were performed on the tour. Jermaine had a successful new album out as well (Jermaine Jackson, also known as Dynamite, which had been released in April 1984) and some material from that album was performed. Also, all three of the Jacksons' sisters released new albums that year, but Rebbie, La Toya, and Janet were not part of the tour (aside from a cameo appearance for a few moments at the end of the final show with other family members).

According to Marlon, Michael refused to rehearse or perform any of the songs from Victory. Marlon also stated that Michael had only reluctantly joined his brothers, who needed the income while he himself did not.[2] On the tour, tensions between Michael and his brothers increased so much that at the December 9th concert he announced that it would be the last time they would perform together, ending plans for a European and Australian leg of the tour in the spring and summer of 1985.

The Jacksons and promoter Don King did make money from the tour. Michael donated his share to several charities as he had promised before it, but the rancor between him and his brothers had a deep and lasting effect on the Jacksons as a family, alienating him from them for most of his later life and it effectively ended the Jacksons as a performing group. They made one more album in 1989, but aside from the concert celebrating Michael's 30 years as a solo artist in 2001, they never toured again during Michael's lifetime.

The tour was also a financial disaster for promoter Chuck Sullivan, who along with his father Billy was eventually forced to sell the New England Patriots football team they owned, along with Foxboro Stadium, the team's home field, as a result of the losses he incurred.


A jacket from the Victory Tour

In November 1983, the Jacksons announced plans for a major tour in 1984 at a press conference, with boxing promoter Don King offering $3 million ($7.2 million in 2018 dollars[1]) in upfront advances. That spring, the Victory album was recorded, to be released shortly before the tour itself. On the eve of the tour in July, Michael announced, in response to complaints about the lottery system for allocating tickets, that his entire earnings for the tour would go to charities—The United Negro College Fund, the Michael Jackson Scholarship Fund, Camp Good Times for terminally ill children and the T.J. Martell Foundation for Leukemia and Cancer Research.[3]

At the time the tour was announced, the Jacksons had not lined up a promoter for the shows. In the spring of 1984, Chuck Sullivan, son of Billy Sullivan, owner of the New England Patriots of the National Football League (NFL), went to Los Angeles to see if he could get the Jacksons to choose the team's home, Sullivan Stadium, which the family also owned, for the group's Boston-area shows. After using his financial and legal expertise to help his father regain control of the team he had founded and built in the wake of a 1974 boardroom coup, the younger Sullivan, who had promoted concerts as an undergraduate at Boston College and during his Army service in Thailand, had begun staging concerts at the stadium to generate extra income for the team.[4]

Planning and organization[edit]

At a meeting, Frank DiLeo, a vice president at Epic Records, the Jacksons' label, told Sullivan that the group's talks with its original promoter had broken down and they were seeking a replacement. Sensing an opportunity, Sullivan returned to Boston and began putting together the financing to allow Stadium Management Corp. (SMC), the Patriots' subsidiary that operated the stadium, to promote the entire Victory tour. Initially he partnered with Eddie DeBartolo, then owner of another NFL team, the San Francisco 49ers, in putting together a bid offering the Jacksons two-thirds of the tour's gross revenue against a guaranteed $40 million ($96 million in modern dollars[1]).[4]

DeBartolo withdrew when he began to see the deal as too risky, but Sullivan persevered by himself, and in late April DiLeo told him at another meeting in Los Angeles that SMC, which had never handled a tour, would be the promoter of the year's most eagerly anticipated concert tour, expected to gross $70–80 million. The deal was very generous to the Jacksons. Sullivan had agreed that they would receive 83.4% of gross potential ticket revenues, which meant in practical terms that the group would be paid as if the show had sold out regardless of whether it actually did. That percentage was at least 25 points above what was at that time the industry standard for artists on tour.[4]

An aerial view of a large sports stadium with a four-lane road next to it on the left and the beginnings of a similar structure at lower right
Sullivan Stadium, used as collateral to finance the tour, as seen shortly before its demolition in the early 2000s.

Sullivan also guaranteed the Jacksons an advance of $36.6 million ($88 million in modern dollars[1]). He put the stadium up as collateral for a $12.5 million loan to pay the first installment shortly before the tour started. The balance was due two weeks later.[4]

The month after winning the tour bid, Sullivan approached stadium managers at the NFL's meetings, many of whom were there to bid for future Super Bowls. He sought changes to their usual arrangements with touring performers in order to make the Victory Tour more profitable. Kansas City's Arrowhead Stadium, home of the Chiefs, agreed to accept only a $100,000 fee for the three opening concerts instead of its usual percentage of ticket sales and concessions. The Gator Bowl in Jacksonville, Florida, provided nearly half a million dollars' worth of free goods and services. Ultimately, 26 of the 55 dates were played in 17 stadiums that were home to NFL teams.[4]

But some others balked at Sullivan's demands. To use John F. Kennedy Stadium, he asked the city of Philadelphia for almost $400,000 in tax breaks and subsidies. Among them were free hotel rooms and suites for all tour workers, free use of the stadium and waiver of concession revenue. He said the Jacksons' presence would generate revenue that would make up the difference, but the city stood firm on some provisions.[4] Outside of negotiations, his behavior on tour further embarrassed the Jacksons on some occasions. At Washington's RFK Stadium, he forgot his pass and was denied entry.[5]

Sullivan was particularly humiliated when the board of selectmen in Foxboro, where his family's team and stadium were located, uncharacteristically denied a permit for the concert, citing "the unknown element." What that meant has never been clear. It has been suggested that they were racially motivated. There had been continuing security concerns about the stadium during Patriots' games and previous concerts, but the board had never denied permits on that basis before.[5]

To help defray the tour's costs, the Jacksons sought a corporate sponsor. They had all but concluded a lucrative deal with Quaker Oats when King came to them with a deal he had already signed with Pepsi. Although it would pay them less money, they had to take it and break off talks with Quaker. Part of the deal was that Michael, who did not drink Pepsi, would have to do two commercials. He made sure that his face appeared minimally in them to avoid overexposing his image. During filming of one of the two commercials, Michael suffered second and third degree burns on his scalp when a firework effect malfunctioned, catching his hair on fire. Many people, including friends and associates of his, believe this incident is what sparked his problems with prescription drug abuse.[6][7][8][9]

Ticket controversy and other business issues[edit]

King, Sullivan and the Jacksons' father Joe Jackson (who no longer managed any of his sons by that point) came up with a way to generate additional revenue from ticket sales. Those wishing to attend would have to send a postal money order for $120 ($290 in modern dollars[1]) along with a special form to a lottery to buy blocks of four tickets at $30 apiece (US$72 in 2018 dollars[1]), ostensibly to curtail scalpers. Upon receipt the money was to be deposited into a standard money market account earning 7% annual interest; it would take six to eight weeks for the lottery to be held and money to be refunded to the unsuccessful purchasers. Since only one in ten purchasers would win the lottery and receive tickets, there would be more money in the bank for that time period than there were tickets to sell, and they expected to earn $10–12 million in interest.[9]

Joe, Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, Marlon and Randy were in favor of the plan, but Michael was not and he warned them that it would be a public relations disaster. The $30 ticket price was already higher than most touring acts (such as Prince and Bruce Springsteen) charged at the time, and was compounded by the requirement to buy four. This put tickets out of reach of many of Michael's African-American fans who were not financially secure. That community was joined by many commentators in the media in vociferously criticizing the Jacksons over the plan.[9] Nevertheless, when newspapers published the form for tickets to the first show in Kansas City's Arrowhead Stadium in late June, fans lined up at stores before they opened to buy them. A local radio disk jockey said some newspapers were even stolen from lawns.[10]

On July 5, 1984, after receiving a letter from eleven-year-old fan Ladonna Jones, who accused the Jacksons and their promoters of being "selfish and just out for money," Michael held a press conference to announce changes in the tour's organization and also to announce that his share of the proceeds from the tour would be donated to charity.

Jones later received VIP treatment at the Dallas concert. The following is Michael's speech at a press conference on July 5, 1984, the day before the tour began:

A lot of people are having trouble getting tickets. The other day I got a letter from a fan in Texas named Ladonna Jones. She'd been saving her money from odd jobs to buy a ticket, but with the turned tour system, she'd have to buy four tickets and she couldn't afford that. So, we asked our promoter to work out a new way of distributing tickets, a way that no longer requires a money order. There has also been a lot of talk about the promoter holding money for tickets that didn't sell. I've asked our promoter to end the mail order ticket system as soon as possible so that no one will pay money unless they get a ticket. Finally, and most importantly, there's something else I am going to announce today. I want you to know that I decided to donate all my money I make from our performance to charity. There will be further press statements released in the next two weeks.

Afterwards, the procedures were modified, but all sales continued to be made by mail (except for the six final shows at Dodger Stadium, where tickets were also sold through Ticketmaster). Tickets were typically made available only a week to ten days in advance, and many tickets ended up in the hands of ticket brokers.

The ticket price remained unchanged and at a press conference, King justified the $30 price as appropriate and that he did not blame the promoters for charging that price, adding that "you must understand, you get what you pay for.".[11]

Financial difficulties[edit]

A bowl-shaped concrete structure. In the middle is an oval sign with "Arrowhead" written on it in red letters.
Arrowhead Stadium, where the tour opened, as it appeared at the time

The tour sold what was then a record number of tickets despite the high price.[12] The opening shows were widely covered in the national media and sold out. "Anybody who sees this show will be a better person for years to come", King told the media before the first date in Kansas City. "Michael Jackson has transcended all earthly bounds. Every race, color and creed is waiting for this tour."[9]

Sullivan had estimated in June that he would make up to $13 million, but by August he had reduced that estimate by more than three-quarters, to $3 million. Transporting the 365-ton (331 t) stage Michael had designed, which took up one-third of a football field (approximately 19,200 square feet (1,780 m2)), required over 30 tractor trailers. It was so large it required using some of the seating area, in some venues taking as much as a quarter of the potential available seats off the market.[5]

Before the tour began Sullivan had spent nearly a million dollars on legal fees and insurance. Among the 250 workers on the tour payroll was an "ambiance director" who provided "homey touches" to the traveling parlor the group relaxed in before and after shows. Overhead costs were soon averaging around a million dollars a week, far over expectations, and Sullivan was unable to pay the $24 million balance on the advance. He renegotiated the deal down to 75% of gross potential seat revenues soon after the tour began.[4]

Jackson family tensions[edit]

Tensions between Michael and his brothers increased during the tour. He stayed at his own hotels and flew between stops on a private jet while the rest of the family flew commercial. At one point he demanded that a publicist be fired and when he found out right before a show that she had not been, he refused to go on until she was. Michael had also been disappointed that his idol James Brown declined his invitation to join the group on stage at Madison Square Garden in New York City due to Brown's continued outrage about the ticket lottery.[9]

The other Jacksons also had grievances with Michael. He turned down a multimillion-dollar offer from a movie producer and Paramount Pictures to film one of the shows that his brothers had accepted, only to have a crew he had hired show up to shoot its own film several nights later (they subsequently blocked its release). Despite a pretour agreement that only the Jacksons themselves could ride in the van chartered to take them to shows, Michael began taking child star Emmanuel Lewis along with them. Later, after a similar agreement over a helicopter that took the brothers to a show at Giants Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, Michael showed up with Julian Lennon (son of slain ex-Beatle John Lennon), and his brothers glared at him for the entire flight. Before the tour was halfway completed, the brothers were taking separate vehicles to concerts.[9]

The brothers all stayed on different floors of their hotels, and refused to talk to each other on the way to shows. Meetings broke down among factions, with two lawyers frequently representing Michael's interests, another Jermaine's, and one more for the other three.[clarification needed] "It was the worst experience Michael had ever had with his brothers", said a longtime family friend. "Some were jealous, there was denial, the whole gamut of human emotions."[9]

Other problems[edit]

Health problems affected the tour. Jackie Jackson missed the first half with a leg injury, supposedly sustained during rehearsals. At one point, Michael became so exhausted from the stress of quarreling with his brothers that he was placed under medical care.[9]

By the later shows on the tour, its novelty had worn off and the strains were having an effect. Although the Victory album was certified double platinum by the RIAA for sales of 2 million copies,[13] the shows were failing to sell out. Dates planned for Pittsburgh were cancelled; extra shows in Chicago made up the difference. By early October, the time of the shows in Toronto's Exhibition Stadium, a total of 50,000 tickets had gone unsold, so Sullivan renegotiated again, getting the Jacksons to agree to revenues based on actual sales.[4]

Things got worse as the tour reached its final leg on the West Coast. In late November, the shows at Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe, Arizona, just outside Phoenix, were canceled. Officially the reason was that Jermaine was too sick with the flu to perform, but there was some speculation that slow ticket sales played a role as well. Sullivan was so short of cash he stopped payment on a $1.9 million check to the group after the Vancouver dates. Immediately afterwards, he suffered a minor heart attack, and left the hospital early to renegotiate with the Jacksons again, claiming losses of $5–6 million. By this time the parties were no longer meeting in person. The Jacksons agreed to waive the stopped payment in return for a greater share of revenue from the six final shows in Los Angeles's Dodger Stadium. Sullivan's estimated profit was down to half a million dollars.[4]

The Jacksons and King had made money even though Sullivan had not, and near the end of the tour they began making plans for a European leg, as well as an Australian leg. When word reached Michael, he let them know through his representatives that he would not take part. At the rain-soaked tour finale in Los Angeles' Dodger Stadium, after six sold-out shows, Michael announced at the end of the show that this would be the last time they would all perform together, much to his brothers' surprise. As a result, the plans to go to Europe and Australia were ended.[9]


Michael's announcement generated some backlash from his brothers. King stated:

There's no way Michael should be as big as he is and treat his family the way he does. He feels his father done him wrong? His father may have done some wrong, but he also had to do a whole lot right ... What Michael's got to realize is that he's a nigger ... He's one of the megastars of the world, but he's still going to be a nigger megastar. He must accept that. Not only must he understand that, he's got to accept it and demonstrate that he wants to be a nigger. Why? To show that a nigger can do it.

Michael was so upset when he learned of King's remarks that he called his lawyer John Branca and demanded to sue King. Branca calmed him down and persuaded him to drop the idea.[9]

The Jacksons netted approximately $36 million, which worked out to about $7 million for each brother. Michael, who alone did not need the money, donated his share of the proceeds from the tour, approximately $5 million ($12 million in 2018 dollars[1]), to three charities, as he had promised, including the T.J. Martell Foundation for Leukemia and Cancer Research, the United Negro College Fund, and Camp Ronald McDonald for Good Times.[14] He had also received an $18 million advance ($43 million in 2018 dollars[1]) from Sullivan for a Michael Jackson designer jeans brand, few of which were ever produced and sold before Sullivan had to stop production.[9]

Estimates of SMC's losses have ranged from $13 million to $22 million ($31 million to $53 million in modern dollars[1]). Sullivan and his father quietly put the word out around the NFL that the Patriots and their stadium were for sale. Their $100 million asking price for the combined package made more sense when the Patriots qualified for Super Bowl XX after the next season, the first time they had ever done so.[4]

An early deal for the team collapsed, and the Patriots limped on. Even after making the Super Bowl, the team's revenue was not nearly enough for the Sullivans to service the debt from the Victory Tour. At one point they were so close to bankruptcy that the NFL had to advance them $4 million to make their payroll. Sullivan's woes increased when his wife filed for divorce, and he had to set up a luxury box at the stadium as his personal living quarters. He allegedly wrote several letters to Michael, begging for money to bail the team out, but Michael never replied.[5]

The Sullivans finally gave up and sold the Patriots to Victor Kiam in 1988. However, Kiam was unable to keep himself or the team financially stable either, and eventually they were sold again in 1992 to James Orthwein, who nearly moved the team to St. Louis before selling it in 1994 to Robert Kraft, their current owner, under whose management the team has appeared in nine Super Bowls as of early 2019, winning six. Kraft had entered the picture some years earlier, when he bought Sullivan Stadium out of bankruptcy. He has a Victory Tour poster in his office as a reminder of how he was able to realize his lifelong dream of owning the Patriots.[5]


Aside from a few months in mid-1975 and Michael's 30th Anniversary Celebration concert in 2001, the Victory Tour era marked the only time that all six Jackson brothers worked together at the same time as a band. Jackie Jackson missed most of the tour because of a leg injury. That injury was described at the time as a knee injury incurred during strenuous rehearsals.[15] Margaret Maldonado (the mother of two of Jermaine Jackson's children) has alleged that Jackie in fact broke his leg in an automobile accident: his first wife Enid intentionally ran him over in a parking lot after catching him with another woman. Jackie would, however, eventually recover and was able to rejoin his brothers on stage for the last portion of the tour.[15][16]

Michael sang all the lead vocals, except for a medley of Jermaine's solo hits.

Eddie Van Halen made two special guest appearances doing the "Beat It" guitar solo.

Shortly after the tour ended, Michael returned to his solo career and Marlon left the group to start a solo career of his own.

Set list[edit]

The set list included songs from the Jacksons' albums Destiny and Triumph. Despite the name of the tour, the Victory album was not represented. There were also songs on the list from Jermaine's and Michael's solo careers. Songs from Michael's albums Off the Wall and Thriller were both represented. The set list did not include "Thriller" itself because Michael did not like the way the song sounded live, but it was later performed regularly during Michael's solo tours.


  • Jermaine sometimes performed the song "Dynamite" during his solo medley in place of the usual "You Like Me, Don't You?"

Tour dates[edit]

Date City Country Venue Attendance Revenue
North America[17]
July 1, 1984 Birmingham  United States Birmingham Jefferson Convention Complex Full dress rehearsal
July 6, 1984 Kansas City Arrowhead Stadium 136,638 $4,050,000
July 7, 1984
July 8, 1984
July 13, 1984 Irving Texas Stadium 118,803 $3,564,090
July 14, 1984
July 15, 1984
July 21, 1984 Jacksonville Gator Bowl Stadium 135,000 $4,050,000
July 22, 1984
July 23, 1984
July 29, 1984 East Rutherford Giants Stadium 132,846 $4,523,940
July 30, 1984
July 31, 1984
August 4, 1984 New York City Madison Square Garden 34,000 $960,000
August 5, 1984
August 10, 1984 Knoxville Neyland Stadium[18] 146,349 $4,452,210
August 11, 1984
August 12, 1984
August 17, 1984 Pontiac Pontiac Silverdome 143,700 $4,350,030
August 18, 1984
August 19, 1984
August 25, 1984 Buffalo Rich Stadium 94,000 $2,820,000
August 26, 1984
September 1, 1984 Philadelphia John F. Kennedy Stadium 120,000 $4,350,000
September 2, 1984
September 7, 1984 Denver Mile High Stadium 105,000
September 8, 1984
September 17, 1984 Montreal  Canada Montreal Olympic Stadium 70,000 $2,640,000
September 18, 1984
September 21, 1984 Washington, D.C.  United States RFK Stadium 90,000
September 22, 1984
September 28, 1984 Philadelphia John F. Kennedy Stadium 120,000 $4,350,000
September 30, 1984
October 5, 1984 Toronto  Canada Exhibition Stadium 180,000
October 6, 1984
October 7, 1984
October 12, 1984 Chicago  United States Comiskey Park 120,000
October 13, 1984
October 14, 1984
October 19, 1984 Cleveland Cleveland Municipal Stadium 94,000
October 20, 1984
October 26, 1984 Atlanta Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium 61,000 $1,960,000
October 27, 1984
November 2, 1984 Miami Miami Orange Bowl 134,000 $3,382,064
November 3, 1984
November 9, 1984 Houston Astrodome 80,000
November 10, 1984
November 16, 1984 Vancouver  Canada BC Place 107,000 $2,896,800
November 17, 1984
November 18, 1984
November 30, 1984 Los Angeles  United States Dodger Stadium 330,000
December 1, 1984
December 2, 1984
December 7, 1984
December 8, 1984
December 9, 1984
Cancellations and postponements
  • 09/03/84: Philadelphia, United States, JFK Stadium; CANCELLED (Extremely bad weather conditions.)[19] This show was rescheduled to September 28, 1984.[20]
  • 10/05/84: Philadelphia, United States, JFK Stadium; Cancelled and rescheduled to September 1, 1984 in mid-August. (Because the Labor Day weekend was more lucrative and did not fall during Yom Kippur, the most holy Jewish holiday.)[19]
  • 10/06/84: Philadelphia, United States, JFK Stadium; Cancelled and rescheduled to September 2, 1984 in mid-August. (Because the Labor Day weekend was more lucrative and did not fall during Yom Kippur, the most holy Jewish holiday.)[19]
  • 10/13/84: Pittsburgh, United States, Three Rivers Stadium; CANCELLED (The show were moved to Chicago.)[21]
  • 10/14/84: Pittsburgh, United States, Three Rivers Stadium; CANCELLED (The show were moved to Chicago.)[21]
  • 11/23/84: Phoenix, United States, Sun Devil Stadium; CANCELLED (Jermaine Jackson had flu.)[22][23]
  • 11/24/84: Phoenix, United States, Sun Devil Stadium; CANCELLED (Jermaine Jackson had flu.)[22][23]
  • At the final concert in Los Angeles, Michael said the Victory Tour was the Jacksons' last tour. This came allegedly as a shock to his brothers and father, who had planned for the tour to continue in Europe.[9] According to other sources (at least on November 20, 1984) it was already publicly known that the tour would disband after its Los Angeles stop.[23]



Lead Performers


  • Tour Coordinator and Co-Producer with the Jacksons: Larry Larson
  • Assistant Coordinator: Marla Winston
  • Production Manager: Peyton Wilson
  • Assistant Production Managers: Gary Bouchard & Debbie Lyons
  • Stage Manager: Mike Hirsh
  • Assistant Stage Manager: Pee Wee Jackson
  • Production Consultant: Ken Graham
  • Site Coordinators: John "Bugzee" Hougdahl, Jose Ward
  • Stage Construction and Engineering: Plainview, Inc. – John McGraw
  • Robotic Lighting: Design – Michael Jackson
  • Eidophor Video Projection: M.B. Productions, Inc.
  • Design Execution & Manufacturing: Applied Entertainment Systems
  • Lighting Company: TASCO
  • Sound Company: Clair Brothers Audio
  • House Mixers: ML Procise & Mike Stahl
  • Monitor engineer: Rick Coberly
  • Laser Effects: Showlasers, Inc., Dallas, Texas
  • Laser Special Effects Operator: Michael Moorhead
  • Laser Technician: Steve Glasow
  • Musicians Costumes Design: Enid Jackson
  • Magical Illusions: Franz Harary
  • Tour Photographer: Harrison Funk
  • Video Director: Sandy Fullerton
  • Jackson Crew Sportswear: Nike
  • Community Affairs: Harold Preston
  • Consultant to Community Affairs: Cynthia Wilson

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  2. ^ Meyers, Kate (July 12, 1996). "Jackson 5's final tour was 12 years ago". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 5, 2019. But as of a month before the Victory tour’s opening on July 6, 1984, the spirit of victory, not to mention the Victory LP itself, was nowhere to be found. Greed and disorganization ruled: Ticket prices, at $30 a pop, seemed out of reach of the group’s inner-city fans, and a gaggle of promoters (including the infamous Don King) vied to run the show. Even the brothers themselves were at odds. ”It was the parents’ idea to bring them together because the other brothers needed money,” says Michael Jackson biographer J. Randy Taraborrelli. ”Michael didn’t want to do it, but his mother appealed to him and he can’t turn his mother down.”
  3. ^ Crampton, Luke (2009). Michael Jackson (Music Icons (Taschen)). Taschen. ISBN 978-3-8365-2081-2.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Harris, David (1986). The League: The Rise and Decline of the NFL. New York City: Bantam Books. pp. 629–32. ISBN 0-553-05167-9.
  5. ^ a b c d e Farinella, Mark (June 27, 2009). "Jackson's part in Pats' history was real 'thriller'". The Sun Chronicle. Attleboro, Massachusetts. Retrieved September 25, 2012.
  6. ^ Knoll, Corina; Gottlieb, Jeff (29 April 2013). "Jackson's drug use started after Pepsi commercial, attorney says" – via Los Angeles Times.
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Never-Before-Seen Medical Records Reveal How Pepsi Fire Started Michael Jackson On The Road To Addiction". 21 October 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Taraborelli, J. Randy (2009). Michael Jackson: The Magic, The Madness, The Whole Story, 1958–2009. Hachette Digital. ISBN 978-0-446-56474-8. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  10. ^ Miller, Jim (July 16, 1984). "Newsweek Review of the Opening Night of The Victory Tour July 16, 1984". Newsweek. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
  11. ^ CanalNostalgicodeTwo (2010-04-26), Remembering the time: Victory Tour Special (part 1), retrieved 2019-07-09
  12. ^ Cole, Suzanne P.; Engle, Tim; Winkler, Eric (April 23, 2012). "50 things every Kansas Citian should know". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
  13. ^ "Recording Industry Association of America". RIAA. Archived from the original on 2012-06-29. Retrieved 2012-01-12.
  14. ^ "Camp Ronald McDonald for Good Times".
  15. ^ a b "Jackie Will Travel With Victory Tour, But Knee Won't Let Him Perform". Jet Magazine. July 9, 1984. p. 56. Retrieved December 3, 2018. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  16. ^ Margaret Maldonado Jackson, Jackson Family Values ISBN 0-7871-0522-8
  17. ^ "Michael Jackson Fan Site Billie Jean".
  18. ^ "Go Knoxville Entertainment and Features - Knoxville News Sentinel". Knoxville News Sentinel.
  19. ^ a b c "Promoter of Jacksons' 'Victory' may know today about Philly gig". Reading Eagle. Reading, Pennsylvania. September 5, 1984. p. 35. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  20. ^ "Rained-out fans get chance to see concert by Jacksons". The Vindicator. Youngstown, Ohio. September 7, 1984. p. 6. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  21. ^ a b Williams, Janet (September 21, 1984). "Detour: Chicago bidding for city dates on Jackson tour". The Pittsburgh Press. p. B1. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  22. ^ a b "Jacksons cancel show". The Mohave Daily Miner. Kingman, Arizona. November 20, 1984. p. 2. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  23. ^ a b c "Jacksons' concert canceled". The Courier. Prescott, Arizona. November 20, 1984. p. 5. Retrieved December 3, 2018.