This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
|Part of a series on the|
|Mobile phone generations|
3G is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology. It is the upgrade over 2G, 2.5G, GPRS and 2.75G EDGE networks, offering faster data transfer, and better voice quality. This network was superseded by 4G,and later on 5G. This network is based on a set of standards used for mobile devices and mobile telecommunications use services and networks that comply with the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. 3G finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV.
3G telecommunication networks support services that provide an information transfer rate of at least 144 kbit/s. Later 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers. This ensures it can be applied to wireless voice calls, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV technologies.
A new generation of cellular standards has appeared approximately every tenth year since 1G systems were introduced in 1979 and the early to mid-1980s. Each generation is characterized by new frequency bands, higher data rates and non–backward-compatible transmission technology. The first commercial 3G networks were introduced in mid-2001.
Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G, indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G wireless network. Services advertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical standards, including standards for reliability and speed (data transfer rates). To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system must provide peak data rates of at least 144 kbit/s. However, many services advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers.
The following standards are typically branded 3G:
- The UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) system, first offered in 2001, standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM (Global Systems for Mobile) 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure:
- The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access).
- The TD-SCDMA radio interface was commercialized in 2009 and is only offered in China.
- The latest UMTS release, HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink.
- The CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2, used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev. B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstream.
The above systems and radio interfaces are based on spread spectrum radio transmission technology. While the GSM EDGE standard ("2.9G"), DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded as 3G and are based on completely different technologies.
The following common standards comply with the IMT2000/3G standard:
- EDGE, a revision by the 3GPP organization to the older 2G GSM based transmission methods, which utilizes the same switching nodes, base station sites, and frequencies as GPRS, but includes a new base station and cellphone RF circuits. It is based on the three times as efficient 8PSK modulation scheme as a supplement to the original GMSK modulation scheme. EDGE is still used extensively due to its ease of upgrade from existing 2G GSM infrastructure and cell phones.
- EDGE combined with the GPRS 2.5G technology is called EGPRS, and allows peak data rates in the order of 200 kbit/s, just like the original UMTS WCDMA versions and thus formally fulfill the IMT2000 requirements on 3G systems. However, in practice, EDGE is seldom marketed as a 3G system, but a 2.9G system. EDGE shows slightly better system spectral efficiency than the original UMTS and CDMA2000 systems, but it is difficult to reach much higher peak data rates due to the limited GSM spectral bandwidth of 200 kHz, and it is thus a dead end.
- EDGE was also a mode in the IS-136 TDMA system, today ceased.
- Evolved EDGE, the latest revision, has peaks of 1 Mbit/s downstream and 400 kbit/s upstream but is not commercially used.
- The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, created and revised by the 3GPP. The family is a full revision from GSM in terms of encoding methods and hardware, although some GSM sites can be retrofitted to broadcast in the UMTS/W-CDMA format.
- W-CDMA is the most common deployment, commonly operated on the 2,100 MHz band. A few others use the 850, 900, and 1,900 MHz bands.
- HSPA is an amalgamation of several upgrades to the original W-CDMA standard and offers speeds of 14.4 Mbit/s down and 5.76 Mbit/s up. HSPA is backward-compatible and uses the same frequencies as W-CDMA.
- HSPA+, a further revision and upgrade of HSPA, can provide theoretical peak data rates up to 168 Mbit/s in the downlink and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink, using a combination of air interface improvements as well as multi-carrier HSPA and MIMO. Technically though, MIMO and DC-HSPA can be used without the "+" enhancements of HSPA+.
- W-CDMA is the most common deployment, commonly operated on the 2,100 MHz band. A few others use the 850, 900, and 1,900 MHz bands.
- The CDMA2000 system, or IS-2000, including CDMA2000 1x and CDMA2000 High Rate Packet Data (or EVDO), standardized by 3GPP2 (differing from the 3GPP), evolving from the original IS-95 CDMA system, is used especially in North America, China, India, Pakistan, Japan, South Korea, Southeast Asia, Europe, and Africa.
- CDMA2000 1x Rev. E has an increased voice capacity (by three times the original amount) compared to Rev. 0 EVDO Rev. B offers downstream peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s while Rev. C enhanced existing and new terminal user experience.
While DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements, they are not usually considered due to their rarity and unsuitability for usage with mobile phones.
Break-up of 3G systems
The 3G (UMTS and CDMA2000) research and development projects started in 1992. In 1999, ITU approved five radio interfaces for IMT-2000 as a part of the ITU-R M.1457 Recommendation; WiMAX was added in 2007.
There are evolutionary standards (EDGE and CDMA) that are backward-compatible extensions to pre-existing 2G networks as well as revolutionary standards that require all-new network hardware and frequency allocations. The cell phones use UMTS in combination with 2G GSM standards and bandwidths, but do not support EDGE. The latter group is the UMTS family, which consists of standards developed for IMT-2000, as well as the independently developed standards DECT and WiMAX, which were included because they fit the IMT-2000 definition.
3G technology was the result of research and development work carried out by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in the early 1980s. 3G specifications and standards were developed in fifteen years. The technical specifications were made available to the public under the name IMT-2000. The communication spectrum between 400 MHz to 3 GHz was allocated for 3G. Both the government and communication companies approved the 3G standard. The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1998, branded as FOMA. It was first available in May 2001 as a pre-release (test) of W-CDMA technology. The first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on 1 October 2001, although it was initially somewhat limited in scope; broader availability of the system was delayed by apparent concerns over its reliability.
The first European pre-commercial network was an UMTS network on the Isle of Man by Manx Telecom, the operator then owned by British Telecom, and the first commercial network (also UMTS based W-CDMA) in Europe was opened for business by Telenor in December 2001 with no commercial handsets and thus no paying customers.
The first network to go commercially live was by SK Telecom in South Korea on the CDMA-based 1xEV-DO technology in January 2002. By May 2002, the second South Korean 3G network was by KT on EV-DO and thus the South Koreans were the first to see competition among 3G operators.
The first commercial United States 3G network was by Monet Mobile Networks, on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology, but the network provider later shut down operations. The second 3G network operator in the USA was Verizon Wireless in July 2002, also on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO. AT&T Mobility was also a true 3G UMTS network, having completed its upgrade of the 3G network to HSUPA.
The first commercial United Kingdom 3G network was started by Hutchison Telecom which was originally behind Orange S.A.. In 2003, it announced first commercial third generation or 3G mobile phone network in the UK.
The first pre-commercial demonstration network in the southern hemisphere was built in Adelaide, South Australia, by m.Net Corporation in February 2002 using UMTS on 2100 MHz. This was a demonstration network for the 2002 IT World Congress. The first commercial 3G network was launched by Hutchison Telecommunications branded as Three or "3" in June 2003.
In India, on 11 December 2008, the first 3G mobile and internet services were launched by a state-owned company, Mahanagar Telecom Nigam Limited (MTNL), within the metropolitan cities of Delhi and Mumbai. After MTNL, another state-owned company, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), began deploying the 3G networks country-wide.
Japan was one of the first countries to adopt 3G, the reason being the process of 3G spectrum allocation, which in Japan was awarded without much upfront cost. Frequency spectrum was allocated in the US and Europe based on auctioning, thereby requiring a huge initial investment for any company wishing to provide 3G services. European companies collectively paid over 100 billion dollars in their spectrum auctions.
Nepal Telecom adopted 3G Service for the first time in southern Asia. However, its 3G was relatively slow to be adopted in Nepal. In some instances, 3G networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G, so mobile operators must build entirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies, especially to achieve high data transmission rates. Other countries' delays were due to the expenses of upgrading transmission hardware, especially for UMTS, whose deployment required the replacement of most broadcast towers. Due to these issues and difficulties with deployment, many carriers could not or delayed the acquisition of these updated capabilities.
In December 2007, 190 3G networks were operating in 40 countries and 154 HSDPA networks were operating in 71 countries, according to the Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA). In Asia, Europe, Canada, and the US, telecommunication companies use W-CDMA technology with the support of around 100 terminal designs to operate 3G mobile networks.
The roll-out of 3G networks was delayed by the enormous costs of additional spectrum licensing fees in some countries. The license fees in some European countries were particularly high, bolstered by government auctions of a limited number of licenses and sealed bid auctions, and initial excitement over 3G's potential. This led to a telecoms crash that ran concurrently with similar crashes in the fibre-optic and dot.com fields.
The 3G standard is perhaps well known because of a massive expansion of the mobile communications market post-2G and advances of the consumer mobile phone. An especially notable development during this time is the smartphone (for example, the iPhone, and the Android family), combining the abilities of a PDA with a mobile phone, leading to widespread demand for mobile internet connectivity. 3G has also introduced the term "mobile broadband" because its speed and capability made it a viable alternative for internet browsing, and USB Modems connecting to 3G networks, and now 4G became increasingly common.
By June 2007, the 200 millionth 3G subscriber had been connected of which 10 million were in Nepal and 8.2 million in India. This 200 millionth is only 6.7% of the 3 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide. (When counting CDMA2000 1x RTT customers—max bitrate 72% of the 200kbit/s which defines 3G—the total size of the nearly-3G subscriber base was 475 million as of June 2007, which was 15.8% of all subscribers worldwide.) In the countries where 3G was launched first – Japan and South Korea – 3G penetration is over 70%. In Europe the leading country[when?] for 3G penetration is Italy with a third of its subscribers migrated to 3G. Other leading countries[when?] for 3G use include Nepal, UK, Austria, Australia and Singapore at the 32% migration level.
According to ITU estimates, as of Q4 2012 there were 2096 million active mobile-broadband[vague] subscribers worldwide out of a total of 6835 million subscribers—this is just over 30%. About half the mobile-broadband subscriptions are for subscribers in developed nations, 934 million out of 1600 million total, well over 50%. Note however that there is a distinction between a phone with mobile-broadband connectivity and a smart phone with a large display and so on—although according to the ITU and informatandm.com the USA has 321 million mobile subscriptions, including 256 million that are 3G or 4G, which is both 80% of the subscriber base and 80% of the USA population, according to ComScore just a year earlier in Q4 2011 only about 42% of people surveyed in the USA reported they owned a smart phone. In Japan, 3G penetration was similar at about 81%, but smart phone ownership was lower at about 17%. In China, there were 486.5 million 3G subscribers in June 2014, in a population of 1,385,566,537 (2013 UN estimate).
Decline and decommissions
Since the increasing adoption of 4G networks across the globe, 3G use has been in decline. Several operators around the world have already or are in the process of shutting down their 3G networks. In several places, 3G is being shut down while its older predecessor 2G is being kept in operation - Vodafone Europe is doing this, citing that 2G is a useful low-power fall-back. EE have also another that 3G will be phased out in 2023 with the spectrum being used to enhance 5G capacity. In the US, Verizon was planning to shut down its 3G services at the end of 2020 (later delayed to the end of 2022), while T-Mobile/Sprint is planning to do so on 31 March 2022, and AT&T is planning to do so in February 2022.
Currently the state of 3G across the world is grim. Any technology that depends on 3G for usage will soon become inoperable. The European Union plans to keep it's member country's with 2G operating as a fallback, so 3G devices that are backwards compatible with 2G frequencies can continue to be used. But in countries like the United States that aren't aiming to keep 2G around for much longer, devices supporting only 3G and backwards compatible with 2G will soon be out of service. 
It has been estimated that there are almost 8,000 patents declared essential (FRAND) related to the 483 technical specifications which form the 3GPP and 3GPP2 standards. Twelve companies accounted in 2004 for 90% of the patents (Qualcomm, Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola, Philips, NTT DoCoMo, Siemens, Mitsubishi, Fujitsu, Hitachi, InterDigital, and Matsushita).
ITU has not provided a clear[vague] definition of the data rate that users can expect from 3G equipment or providers. Thus users sold 3G service may not be able to point to a standard and say that the rates it specifies are not being met. While stating in commentary that "it is expected that IMT-2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a minimum data rate of 2 Mbit/s for stationary or walking users, and 348 kbit/s in a moving vehicle," the ITU does not actually clearly specify minimum required rates, nor required average rates, nor what modes[clarification needed] of the interfaces qualify as 3G, so various[vague] data rates are sold as '3G' in the market.
In a market implementation, 3G downlink data speeds defined by telecom service providers vary depending on the underlying technology deployed; up to 384kbit/s for WCDMA, up to 7.2Mbit/sec for HSPA, and a theoretical maximum of 21.6 Mbit/s for HSPA+ (technically 3.5G, but usually clubbed under the tradename of 3G).
3G networks offer greater security than their 2G predecessors. By allowing the UE (User Equipment) to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. 3G networks use the KASUMI block cipher instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher. However, a number of serious weaknesses in the KASUMI cipher have been identified.
In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security, end-to-end security is offered when application frameworks such as IMS are accessed, although this is not strictly a 3G property.
Applications of 3G
The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. It became possible to conveniently surf the internet on a 3G network on the go with minimum hassle, and do many other tasks previously a slow and difficult hassle on 2G. Medical devices, fire alarms, ankle monitors use this network for accomplishing their designated tasks alongside mobile phone users. This network marked a first for a cellular communications network to be used in such a wide variety of tasks, kick starting the beginning of widespread usage of cellular networks.
Both 3GPP and 3GPP2 are working on the extensions to 3G standards that are based on an all-IP network infrastructure and using advanced wireless technologies such as MIMO. These specifications already display features characteristic for IMT-Advanced (4G), the successor of 3G. However, falling short of the bandwidth requirements for 4G (which is 1 Gbit/s for stationary and 100 Mbit/s for mobile operation), these standards are classified as 3.9G or Pre-4G.
On 14 December 2009, Telia Sonera announced in an official press release that "We are very proud to be the first operator in the world to offer our customers 4G services." With the launch of their LTE network, initially they are offering pre-4G (or beyond 3G) services in Stockholm, Sweden and Oslo, Norway.
Past 3G networks
Regional 3G shut down commenced on 1 July 2021.
Regional 3G shut down to commence in June 2022.
3G shut down to commence in September 2021.
Regional 3G shut down commenced on 6 December 2021.
|South Korea||KT||2012-03-19||CDMA2000 1xEV-DO|||
CDMA2000 1xEV-DO was also referred to as "2G"
in South Korea, besides cdmaOne (IS-95).
KT also operates an UMTS "3G" network.
|LG U+||2021-06-30||CDMA2000 1xEV-DO|||
|SK Telecom||2020-07-27||CDMA2000 1xEV-DO|||
CDMA2000 1xEV-DO was also referred to as "2G"
in South Korea, besides cdmaOne (IS-95).
SKT also operates an UMTS "3G" network.
|Taiwan||Asia Pacific Telecom||2017-12-31||CDMA2000 1xEV-DO|
|T-Mobile (Sprint)||2022-03-31||CDMA2000 1xEV-DO|||
- List of mobile phone generations
- Mobile radio telephone (also known as "0G")
- Mobile broadband
- Wireless device radiation and health
- LTE (telecommunication)
- "All about the Technology". itu.int. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "3G CELLULAR STANDARDS WITH PATENTS". projectsatbangalore.com. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "Kalyan Matka Tips". businesstoday.in. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "3G vs. 4G: What's the Difference?". PCMAG. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- Charny, Ben (1 October 2001). "World's first 3G phone network goes live". ZDNet. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
- McCarthy, Kieren (1 October 2001). "World's first 3G network live today". theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
- "THE EVOLUTION TO 3G MOBILE – STATUS REPORT". itu.int. 29 July 2003. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
- "First 3G mobiles launched in Japan". 1 October 2001. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
- "Download Speeds: Comparing 2G, 3G, 4G & 5G Mobile Networks". Ken's Tech Tips. 23 November 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "HSPA". 3gpp.org. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "HTC - Touch Phone, PDA Phone, Smartphone, Mobile Computer". 22 November 2008. Archived from the original on 22 November 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- ITU. "ITU Radiocommunication Assembly approves new developments for its 3G standards". press release. Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
- "EDGE, 3G, H+, Etc: What Are All These Mobile Networks?". MakeUseOf. 15 February 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "A Brand New Mobile Millennium Ericsson/CATT/DoCoMo jointly demonstrate pioneering W-CDMA technology at PT/Wireless | Press Center | NTT DOCOMO Global". Nttdocomo.com. 9 November 1999. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- "Economists' Pick | HKTDC Research". economists-pick-research.hktdc.com. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- "broadbandmag.co.uk/3G grinds to a start". Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- "DoCoMo Delays 3G Launch". Wired. 24 April 2001.
- "3G in UK". 3g.co.uk.
- "About Hutchison". Hutchison Telecommunications (Australia) Limited. 11 June 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "Emtel | Africa Outlook Magazine". Africa Outlook Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- "Radiocommunications Agency : The Auction of Radio Spectrum for the Third Generation of Mobile Telephones - National Audit Office (NAO) Report". National Audit Office. 19 October 2001. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "Plus 8 Star presentation, "Is 3G a Dog or a Demon – Hints from 7 years of 3G Hype in Asia"". Plus8star.com. 11 June 2008. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
- "Global mobile statistics 2013 Part A: Mobile subscribers; handset market share; mobile operators". mobiThinking. May 2013. Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "The 100 million club: the top 10 mobile markets by number of mobile subscriptions". mobiThinking. 13 December 2012. Archived from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- Steven Millward (29 July 2014). "China now has 486.5 million 3G subscribers, but only 14 million on new 4G network". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- Hall, Kat. "Sod 3G, that can go, but don't rush to turn off 2G, UK still needs it – report". www.theregister.com.
- Jackson, Mark (14 July 2021). "EE and BT Aim to Offer 5G Mobile Anywhere in the UK by 2028". ISPreview UK. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
- Mike Haberman (30 March 2021). "3G CDMA Network Shut off date set for December 31, 2022".
- "Goodbye 3G: Here's when T-Mobile, AT&T and Verizon will shut it off". Light Reading.
- Zakrzewski, Cat (13 November 2021). "3G shutdowns could leave most vulnerable without a connection". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
AT&T, which plans to shutter its network in February, says it has reached out to affected customers and provided them with discounted or in some instances free phone upgrades. Other networks, including T-Mobile, have delayed their shutdowns until slightly later to accommodate people who still haven’t upgraded: T-Mobile will shut down Sprint’s 3G network on March 31, 2022; Verizon has said it will shut down its network on Dec. 31, 2022.
- "3G CELLULAR STANDARDS AND PATENTS". engpaper.com. 13 June 2005. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- David J. Goodman (13 June 2005). "3G CELLULAR STANDARDS AND PATENTS" (PDF). IEEE Wireless com. Polytechnic Institute of New York University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- "Study on the Interplay between Standards and Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)" (PDF). European Commission. 18 July 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
Pools that cover only a fraction of the actual IPR for a standard are not very useful. It is essential that the large licensees sign up. Examples of pools that have little impact are the 3G Licensing pool (which excludes the four largest IPR owners for 3G) and the 802.11 pool by ViaLicensing.
- "Possible 'showstoppers' shadow 3G patent pool". eetimes.com. 21 May 1999. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
Even so, Qualcomm (San Diego) is still a wild card in the patent-pooling effort. Qualcomm was a member of the UMTS group when it was formed in February 1998, but deactivated its membership last September.
- "3G Licensing Workshop (19-21 September 2001)". www.itu.int. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
- "Cellular Standards for the Third Generation". ITU. 1 December 2005. Archived from the original on 24 May 2008.
- "Security for the Third Generation (3G) Mobile System" (PDF). Network Systems & Security Technologies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 September 2003.
- Qualcomm halts UMB project, Reuters, 13 November 2008
- "first in the world with 4G services". TeliaSonera. 14 December 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
- "3G Service Closure". Telstra. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
- "What's the 3G Sunset and How Will It Affect Existing IoT Deployments?". hologram.io. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- "Important Notice Regarding Upcoming 2G/3G Changes on the Rogers Network". Bulwark. 15 July 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Junwei, Wang (13 March 2019). "China Mobile to shut down 3G network". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
- "中国移动3G开始全面退网！2020年完成". baijiahao.baidu.com. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
- "T-Mobile, O2 switch off Czech 3G networks". TeleGeography. 3 December 2021. Retrieved 6 December 2021.
- "Začala bombasticky s vrtulníkem, skončí v tichosti za dva týdny. 3G síť Vodafonu" [It started bombastically with a helicopter, ending in silence in two weeks. Vodafone's 3G network] (in Czech). mobilmania.zive.cz. 17 March 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "Telekom switches off 3G network". TeleGeography. 6 July 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
- "Telefonica Deutschland accelerates 3G shutdown". TeleGeography. 19 November 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "Telefonica Deutschland to begin 3G switch-off on 1 July". TeleGeography. 8 June 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
- "Telefonica accelerates 3G switch-off in Germany". TeleGeography. 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
- "Vodafone Germany to switch off 3G on 30 June 2021". TeleGeography. 11 May 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "Wind Hellas to shut down 3G by end-2022". TeleGeography. 6 July 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
- "5G is here, 3G is leaving". Cosmote. 21 April 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
- "Bharti Airtel shuts down 3G networks across 11 circles". livemint.com. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "India's Vodafone Idea to shut down 3G network". LightReading. 16 February 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "TIM set to switch off 3G network in 2022". Telecompaper. 22 March 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "Vodafone begins 3G switch-off in Italy". TeleGeography. 25 January 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "KDDI to Discontinue 3G Services in March 2022". nippon.com. 16 November 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "「FOMA」および「iモード」のサービス終了について" [End of service for "FOMA" and "i-mode"] (in Japanese). NTT DOCOMO Inc. 29 October 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "Discontinuation of 3G Services". SoftBank Corp. 6 December 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "Celcom to shutter 3G network in stages; ready for 5G launch by end-2021". TeleGeography. 8 September 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- "Digi confirms 3G shutdown timeline". TeleGeography. 26 November 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
- "KPN shutting 3G by January 2022". TeleGeography. 27 July 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "VodafoneZiggo closing 3G network on 4 February 2020". TeleGeography. 11 December 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "Telia Norge confirms closure of 3G network". TeleGeography. 11 November 2021. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
- "Terminating 2G Service in Korea: Policy Issues and Suggestions". International Telecommunications Policy Review. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
- "S. Korea to end 2G network services by June". The Korea Herald. 17 January 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
- "SK Telecoms shutters 2G service". TeleGeography. 28 July 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
- "Taiwan to switch off 3G networks at year end". Telecom Asia. 10 January 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "Taiwan to shut down 3G networks by year end". ZDNet. 18 December 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "AT&T reconfiguring 3G spectrum ahead of February 2022 shutdown". TeleGeography. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "3G Network Shutdown". AT&T Business. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
- "Liberty Puerto Rico plans 3G spectrum refarming for 2022". BNamericas. 1 July 2021. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
- "T-Mobile's 2G, 3G shutdown dates leaked". TeleGeography. 8 February 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "T-Mobile US eyes October 2021 W-CDMA shutdown". TeleGeography. 10 August 2021. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
- "T-Mobile US to shut down 3G network on 1 July 2022". TeleGeography. 17 September 2021. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
- "T-Mobile delays CDMA shutdown by three months". TeleGeography. 25 October 2021. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
- "Verizon to shut down 3G CDMA networks on 31 December 2022". TeleGeography. 31 March 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 3G.|