Vietnamese cash

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Vietnamese cash
Hán-Việt: (Văn)
Chữ Nôm: (Đồng)
French: Sapèque
Bao-Dai-Thong-Bao.png
Last Vietnamese cash:
Bảo Đại Thông Bảo (保大通寶)
Bảo Đại (1925–1945)
Denominations
Superunit
 10Phân (分)
 36–60Mạch (陌)
 360–600Quán (貫) / Nguyên (元)[1][2][3]
 20Đồng (銅)
In the Democratic Republic of Vietnam between 1947 and 1948, making them equal to 5 xu (樞).
Demographics
Date of introduction970
User(s)Long Tinh Kỳ (Dragon Star Flag) nhà Nguyễn, 1802-1885.png Vietnam,  French Indochina (until 1945),  North Vietnam (until 1948)
This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete.

Vietnamese cash (Chinese: văn; chữ Nôm: đồng; French: sapèque)[a][b] is a cast round coin with a square hole that was an official currency of Vietnam from the Đinh dynasty in 970 until the Nguyễn dynasty in 1945, and remained in circulation in North Vietnam until 1948. The same type of currency circulated in China, Japan, Korea, and Ryūkyū for centuries. Though the majority of Vietnamese cash coins throughout history were copper coins, lead, iron (from 1528) and zinc (from 1740) coins also circulated alongside them often at fluctuating rates (with 1 copper cash being worth 10 zinc cash in 1882).[7] The reason why coins made from metals of lower intrinsic value were introduced was because of various superstitions involving Vietnamese people burying cash coins, as the problem of people burying cash coins became too much for the government as almost all coins issued by government mints tended to be buried mere months after they had entered circulation, the Vietnamese government began issuing coins made from an alloy of zinc, lead, and tin. As these cash coins tended to be very fragile they would decompose faster if buried which caused the Vietnamese people to stop burying their coins.[8][9]

History[edit]

Various Lý dynasty cash coins on display at the National Museum of Vietnamese History, Hanoi.

The first Vietnamese coins were cast under the rule of the Đinh Dynasty (968–981) with the introduction of the Thái Bình Hưng Bảo () under Đinh Bộ Lĩnh. Though for the next 2 centuries coins would remain a rarity in the daily lives of the common people as barter would remain the dominant means of exchange under both the Đinh and Early Lê dynasties.[10]

Generally cast coins produced by the Vietnamese from the reign of Lý Thái Tông and onwards were of diminutive quality compared to the Chinese variants,[11] they were often produced with inferior metallic compositions and made to be thinner and lighter than the Chinese wén due to a severe lack of copper that existed during the Lý dynasty. This inspired Chinese traders to recast Chinese coins for export to Vietnam which caused an abundance of coinage to circulate in the country prompting the Lý government to suspend the mintage of coins for 5 decades.

The production of inferior coinage continued under the Trần dynasty. It was under the reign of Trần Dụ Tông that the most cash coins were cast of this period, this was because of several calamities such as failed crops that plagued the country during his reign that caused the Trần government to issue more coins to the populace as compensation. The internal political struggles of the Trần ensured the cessation of the production of coinage and as such no coins were produced during the entire reigns of the last 7 monarchs of the Trần dynasty.

A Thông Bảo Hội Sao (通寶會鈔) banknote.

During the Hồ dynasty the usage of coins was banned by Hồ Quý Ly in 1396 in favour of the Thông Bảo Hội Sao () banknote series and ordered people to exchange their coinage for these banknotes (with an exchange rate of 1 Quân of copper coins for 2 Thông Bảo Hội Sao banknotes),[12] those who denied to exchange or continued to pay with coins would be executed and have their possessions taken by the government. Despite these harsh laws very few people actually preferred paper money and coins remained widespread in circulation forcing the Hồ dynasty to retract their policies.[13][14][15] The Thông Bảo Hội Sao banknotes of the Hồ dynasty featured designs with seaweed, patterns of waves, clouds, and turtles on them.[16] Under the Hồ dynasty Thánh Nguyên Thông Bảo (聖元通寶), and Thiệu Nguyên Thông Bảo (紹元通寶) but they would only be manufactured in small numbers, though the Later Lê dynasty would produce coins with the same inscriptions less than half a century later in larger quantities.[17][18]

After Lê Thái Tổ came to power in 1428 by ousting out the Ming dynasty ending the Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam, Lê Thái Tổ enacted new policies to improve the quality of the manufacturing of coinage leading to the production of coins with both excellent craftsmanship and metal compositions that rivaled that of the best contemporary Chinese coinage.[19]

Between 1633 and 1637 the Dutch East India Company sold 105,835 strings of 960 cash coins (or 101,600,640 văn) to the Nguyễn lords in Vĩnh Lạc Thông Bảo (), and Khoan Vĩnh Thông Bảo () coins. This was because the Japanese had restricted trade forcing the Southern Vietnamese traders to purchase its copper coins from the Dutch Republic rather than from Japanese merchants as had happened earlier. This trade lead to a surplus of copper in the territory of the Nguyễn lords allowing them to use the metal (which at the time was scarce in the north) for more practical applications such as nails and door hinges.[20][21][22] After this Nagasaki trade coins which were specifically minted for the Vietnamese market, also started being traded and to circulate in the northern parts of Vietnam where the smaller coins would often be melted down for utensils and only circulated in Hanoi while larger Nagasaki trade coins circulated all over Vietnam.

From the Dương Hòa era (1635–1643) under Lê Thần Tông until 1675 no coins were cast due to the political turmoil, at the turn of the 18th century Lê Dụ Tông opened a lot of copper mines and renewed the production of high quality coinage. From 1719 the production of cast copper coins had ceased for 2 decades and taxes were more heavily lifted on the Chinese population as Mandarins could receive a promotion in rank for every 600 strings of cash (or 600,000 coins). Under Lê Hiển Tông a large variety of "Cảnh Hưng" () coins were cast with varying descriptions on the obverse,[23] in fact it is thought that more variations of the "Cảnh Hưng" coin exist than of any other Oriental cash coin in history.[24] And there were new large Cảnh Hưng coins with denominations of 50 and 100 văn introduced. And from 1740 various provincial mint marks were added on the reverses of coins. Currently there are around 80 known different kinds of "Cảnh Hưng" coins, the reason for this diversity is because the Lê government was in dire need for coins to pay for its expenditures, while it needed to collect more taxes in coins so it began to mint a lot of coins, later to fulfill this need the Lê legalised the previously detrimental workshops that were minting inferior coins in 1760 in order to meet the market's high demand for coinage, this backfired as the people found the huge variety in quality and quantity confusing.[25]

Under Nguyễn Nhạc the description of Thất Phân () was first added to the reverses of some coins indicating their weight, this continued under the Nguyễn dynasty. Under Gia Long three kinds of cash coins were produced in smaller denominations made of copper, lead, and zinc. From 1837 under the reign of Minh Mạng 1 Mạch (陌) brass cash coins were issued, these coins feature Minh Mạng Thông Bảo (明命通寶) on their obverses but have 8 characters on their reverses. 1 Mạch coins would be continued under subsequent rulers of the Nguyễn dynasty.

Copper, and zinc cash coins issued under the reign of Gia Long.
"Tự Đức Thông Bảo" () coins of varying denominations, on display at the Museum of Vietnamese History, Ho Chi Minh City.

Since the reign of Gia Long zinc coins had replaced the usage of copper and brass coins and formed the basis of the Vietnamese currency system. Under Gia Long the standard 1 văn denomination coins weighed 7 phần, under Minh Mạng 6 phần (approximately 2,28 Grams) which would remain the standard for future rulers. Zinc cash coins produced in Hanoi under Tự Đức had the mint mark "Hà Nội" () on them, with there being another mint in Sơn Tây (西).

However, in 1871 the production of zinc cash coins stopped as many mines were being blocked by Chinese pirates, and the continued production of these coins would be too expensive. Other reasons for the discontinuation of zinc cash coins despite them being indispensable to the general populace was because they were heavy compared to its nominal value and the metal is quite brittle. To the French zinc coinage also presented a huge in inconvenience since their colonisation of Cochinchina in 1859 as the exchange between French francs and zinc văn meant that a large amount of zinc coins were exchanged for the French franc. Zinc cash coins often broke during transportation as the strings that kept them together would often snap the coins would fall on the ground and a great number of them would break into pieces, and these coins were also less resistant to oxidation causing them to corrode faster than other coinages.

"Another serious disadvantage consisted in the total absence of token coinages other than the inconvenient sapèque one of zinc: one needed an artillery van to go exchange 1,000 francs in ligatures for the one sapèques, since it had the weight of a barrel and half.... and at the market, the chicken weighed some times less than its price in currency."
- J. Silvestre, Monnaies et de Médailles de l'Annam et de la Cochinchine Française (1883).

Prior to 1849 brass coins had become an extreme rarity and only circulated in the provinces surrounding the capital cities of Vietnam, but under Tự Đức new regulations and (uniform) standards for copper cash coins were created to help promote their usage. Between 1868 and 1872 brass coins were only around 50% copper, and 50% zinc. Due to the natural scarcity of copper in Vietnam the country always lacked the resources to produce sufficient copper coinage for circulation.[26]

Under Tự Đức large coins with the denomination of 60 văn were introduced, these coins were ordered to circulate at a value of 1 tiền, but their intrinsic value was significantly lower so they were badly received and the production of these coins was quickly discontinued in favour of 20, 30, 40, and 50 văn coins known as Đồng Sao. In 1870 Tự Đức Bảo Sao cash coins of 2, 3, 8, and 9 Mạch were issued. Large denomination coins were mostly used for tax collection as their relatively low intrinsic value lowered their spending power on the market.[27][28]

List of large denomination cash coins issued under Emperor Tự Đức:[29][30]

Denomination Hán tự
(reverse inscription)
Years of mintage Weight Toda image Image
10 văn 準十文 1861 5.66 g. None
10 văn 準文一十 1870 5.66 g. None
20 văn 準文二十 1861–1870 11.33 g. None
30 văn 準文三十 1861–1870 None
40 văn 準文四十 1870 12.20 g. None
50 văn 準文五十 1861 23.40 g. Toda No. 239 嗣德寶鈔.png
50 văn 準文五十 1870 12.75 g. Toda No. 239 嗣德寶鈔.png Tự Đức Bảo Sao (嗣德寶鈔) - Art-Hanoi 02.jpg
60 văn 準文六十 1870 12.20 g. Toda No. 236 嗣德寶鈔.png Annam TuDuc monnaiebillet 60van 1ar85 (8544615381).jpg
2 mạch
(120 văn)
準當二陌 1870 20.52 g. None
3 mạch
(180 văn)
準當三陌 1870 None
8 mạch
(480 văn)
準當八陌 1870 None
9 mạch
(540 văn)
準當九陌 1870 28.03 g. None
1 quán 準當一貫 1870 32.96 g. None

In 1882 at the time when Toda's Annam and its minor currency was published only 2 government mints remained in operation, one in Hanoi, and one in Huế. Though private mints were allowed to cast cash coins with the permission of the government, and a large number of cash coins were also imported from abroad as at that time the Portuguese colony of Macau had 6 mints with 12 furnaces producing 600,000 cash coins for Vietnam on a daily basis.[7]

Cash coins circulated in the 19th century along with silver and gold bars, as well as silver and gold coins known as tiền. Denominations up to 10 tiền were minted, with the 7 tiền coins in gold and silver being similar in size and weight to the Spanish 8 real and 8 escudo pieces. These coins continued to be minted into the 20th century, albeit increasingly supplanted by French colonial coinage.

After the introduction of modern coinage by the French in 1878, cash coins remained in circulation until 1945 and were valued at the rates of about 500–600 cash for one piastre.

The last king whose name was cast on cash coins, Emperor Bảo Đại, died in 1997.

After the Democratic Republic of Vietnam declared their independence in 1945 they began issuing their own money, but cash coins continued to circulate in the remote areas of Bắc Bộ and Trung Bộ where there was a lack of xu, hào, and đồng coins for the population. The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam Decree 51/SL of January 6, 1947 officially set the exchange rate at 20 Vietnamese cash coins for 1 North Vietnamese đồng making them equal to 5 xu each. Vietnamese cash coins continued to officially circulate in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam until April 13, 1948.[31]

During the Vietnam War a large number or Vietnamese numismatic charms with both authentic as well as fantasy coin inscriptions were produced in South Vietnam to be sold to foreigners interested in collecting Vietnamese antiques.[32] These fantasy inscriptions included legends like Quang Trung Trọng Bảo (光中重寶),[33] Hàm Nghi Trọng Bảo (咸宜重寶),[34] and Khải Định Trọng Bảo (啓定重寶),[35] the latter of which being based on the Khải Định Thông Bảo (啓定通寶).

List of Vietnamese cash coins[edit]

Most Vietnamese cash coins tend to be read top-botton-right-left, but variants exist where the characters are read clockwise.
The various cash coins of the Nguyễn dynasty (1802–1945).

During the almost 1000 years that Vietnamese copper cash coins were produced they often significantly changed quality, alloy, size, and workmanship, in general the coins bear the era name(s) of the monarch (Niên hiệu/年號) but may also be inscribed with mint marks, denominations, miscellaneous characters, and decorations.

Unlike Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Ryūkyūan cash coins that always have the inscription in only one typeface, Vietnamese cash coins tend to be more idiosyncratic bearing sometimes Regular script, Seal script, and even Running script on the same coins for different characters, and it's not uncommon for one coin to be cast almost entirely in one typeface but has an odd character in another. Though early Vietnamese coins often bore the calligraphic style of the Chinese Khai Nguyên Thông Bảo (開元通寶) coin, especially those from the Đinh until the Trần dynasties.[36]

The following coins were produced to circulate in Vietnam:

Orange text indicates that the cash coin has been mentioned by historical sources but that no modern authentic specimen has ever been recovered.

Green text indicates that this cash coin has been recovered in modern times but is not mentioned in any historical chronicles.

Blue text indicates that the cash coin has its own article on Wikipedia.[c]

(中) indicates that there exists a Chinese, Khitan, Tangut, Jurchen, Mongol, and/or Manchu cash coin (including rebel coinages) with the same legend as the Vietnamese cash coin.
Further reading: List of Chinese cash coins by inscription.
Inscription
(chữ Quốc ngữ)
Inscription
(Hán tự)
Years of mintage Dynasty Monarch(s) Toda image Image
Thái Bình Hưng Bảo[d] 太平興寶 970–979 Đinh (丁) Đinh Tiên Hoàng (丁先皇)
Đinh Phế Đế (丁廢帝)
Toda No. 1 太平興寶.gif An36 Dinh Bo Linh Thai Binh (12537160424).jpg
Thiên Phúc Trấn Bảo 天福鎮寶 986 Early Lê (前黎) Lê Hoàn (黎桓) Toda No. 3 天福鎮寶.gif An42 Tien Le Thien Phuc 1ar (13332606673).jpg
986 Early Lê (前黎) Lê Hoàn (黎桓) Toda No. 4 黎.gif None
Thuận Thiên Đại Bảo 順天大寶 1010–1028 (李) Lý Thái Tổ (李太祖) Toda No. 5 順天大寶.gif
Càn Phù Nguyên Bảo 乾符元寶 1039–1041 Lý (李) Lý Thái Tông (李太宗) Toda No. 6 乾符元寶.gif CÀN PHÙ NGUYÊN BẢO 乾符元寶, Coins of Lý dynasty(1009-1225) at room 4 Ly Dynasty (11th - 13th c.) of the Museum of Vietnamese History.jpg
Minh Đạo Nguyên Bảo (中) 明道元寶 1042–1043 Lý (李) Lý Thái Tông (李太宗) None 明道元寶, MINH ĐẠO NGUYÊN BẢO, Coins of Lý dynasty(1009-1225) at room 4 Ly Dynasty (11th - 13th c.) of the Museum of Vietnamese History.jpg
Thiên Phù Thông Bảo 天符通寶 1120–1127 Lý (李) Lý Nhân Tông (李仁宗) None 天符通寶, Thiên Phù thông bảo, Coins of Lý dynasty(1009-1225) at room 4 Ly Dynasty (11th - 13th c.) of the Museum of Vietnamese History.jpg
Thiên Phù Nguyên Bảo 天符元寶 1120–1127 Lý (李) Lý Nhân Tông (李仁宗) Toda No. 7 天符元寶.gif
Đại Định Thông Bảo (中) 大定通寶 1140–1162 Lý (李) Lý Anh Tông (李英宗) Toda No. 8 大定通寶.gif An50 Dai Dinh thong bao (15553890021).jpg
Thiên Cảm Thông Bảo 天感通寶 1174–1175 Lý (李) Lý Anh Tông (李英宗) Toda No. 11 天感通寶.gif None
Thiên Cảm Nguyên Bảo 天感元寶 1174–1175 Lý (李) Lý Anh Tông (李英宗) None
Chính Long Nguyên Bảo 正元隆寶 1174–1175 Lý (李) Lý Anh Tông (李英宗) None Chính Long Nguyên Bảo 正元隆寶, Coins of Lý dynasty(1009-1225) at room 4 Ly Dynasty (11th - 13th c.) of the Museum of Vietnamese History1.jpg
Thiên Tư Thông Bảo 天資通寶 1202–1204 Lý (李) Lý Cao Tông (李高宗) Toda No. 12 天資通寶.gif None
Thiên Tư Nguyên Bảo 天資元寶 1202–1204 Lý (李) Lý Cao Tông (李高宗) None
Trị Bình Thông Bảo (中) 治平通寶 1205–1210 Lý (李) Lý Cao Tông (李高宗) Toda No. 13 治平通寶.gif None
Trị Bình Nguyên Bảo 治平元寶 1205–1210 Lý (李) Lý Cao Tông (李高宗) Toda No. 14 治平元寶.gif Trị Bình Nguyên Báo 治平元寶, (Coins of Lý dynasty(1009-1225) at room 4 Ly Dynasty (11th - 13th c.) of the Museum of Vietnamese History3.jpg
Hàm Bình Nguyên Bảo[37] (中) 咸平元寶 1205–1210 Lý (李) Lý Cao Tông (李高宗) None Hàm Bình Nguyên Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.jpg
Kiến Trung Thông Bảo (中) 建中通寶 1225–1237 Trần (陳) Trần Thái Tông (陳太宗) None
Trần Nguyên Thông Bảo 陳元通寶 1225–1237 Trần (陳) Trần Thái Tông (陳太宗) None
Chính Bình Thông Bảo 政平通寶 1238–1350 Trần (陳) Trần Thái Tông (陳太宗) None
Nguyên Phong Thông Bảo (中) 元豐通寶 1251–1258 Trần (陳) Trần Thái Tông (陳太宗) Toda No. 16 元豐通寶.png An1 YuanFeng 1ar85 (9159514780).jpg
Thiệu Long Thông Bảo 紹隆通寶 1258–1272 Trần (陳) Trần Thánh Tông (陳聖宗) None
Hoàng Trần Thông Bảo 皇陳通寶 1258–1278 Trần (陳) Trần Thánh Tông (陳聖宗) None
Hoàng Trần Nguyên Bảo 皇陳元寶 1258–1278 Trần (陳) Trần Thánh Tông (陳聖宗) None
Khai Thái Nguyên Bảo 開太元寶 1324–1329 Trần (陳) Trần Minh Tông (陳明宗) None
Thiệu Phong Bình Bảo 紹豐平寶 1341–1357 Trần (陳) Trần Dụ Tông (陳裕宗) Toda No. 18 紹豐平寶.png
Thiệu Phong Nguyên Bảo 紹豐元寶 1341–1357 Trần (陳) Trần Dụ Tông (陳裕宗) Toda No. 20 紹豐元寶.png
Đại Trị Thông Bảo 大治通寶 1358–1369 Trần (陳) Trần Dụ Tông (陳裕宗) Toda No. 21 大治通寶.png Đại Trị Thông Bảo - Scott Semans.jpg
Đại Trị Nguyên Bảo 大治元寶 1358–1369 Trần (陳) Trần Dụ Tông (陳裕宗) Toda No. 23 大治元寶.png
Cảm Thiệu Nguyên Bảo 感紹元寶 1368–1370 Trần (陳) Hôn Đức Công (昏德公) Toda No. 24 感紹元寶.gif
Cảm Thiệu Nguyên Bảo 感紹元宝 1368–1370 Trần (陳) Hôn Đức Công (昏德公) Toda No. 25 感紹元宝.gif
Đại Định Thông Bảo (中) 大定通寶 1368–1370 Trần (陳) Hôn Đức Công (昏德公) None
Thiệu Khánh Thông Bảo 紹慶通寶 1370–1372 Trần (陳) Trần Nghệ Tông (陳藝宗) None
Xương Phù Thông Bảo 昌符通寶 1377–1388 Trần (陳) Trần Phế Đế (陳廢帝) None
Hi Nguyên Thông Bảo 熙元通寶 1381–1382 None Nguyễn Hi Nguyên (阮熙元) Toda No. 26 熙元通寶.gif An48 rebelle Hi Nguyen (15030167319).jpg
Thiên Thánh Nguyên Bảo 天聖元寶 1391–1392 None Sử Thiên Thánh (使天聖) Toda No. 28 天聖元寶.gif An2 PhamSuOn 1ar85 (10331064866).jpg
Thánh Nguyên Thông Bảo 聖元通寶 1400 Hồ (胡) Hồ Quý Ly (胡季犛) Toda No. 30 聖元通寶.gif An49 dynastie Ho, Ho Quy Ly (15022224569).jpg
Thiệu Nguyên Thông Bảo 紹元通寶 1401–1402 Hồ (胡) Hồ Hán Thương (胡漢蒼) Toda No. 271 紹元通寶.png
Hán Nguyên Thông Bảo (中) 漢元通寶 1401–1407 Hồ (胡) Hồ Hán Thương (胡漢蒼) Toda No. 34 漢元通寶.gif An47 rebelle Ho Han Thuong (15216463182).jpg
Hán Nguyên Thánh Bảo 漢元聖寶 1401–1407 Hồ (胡) Hồ Hán Thương (胡漢蒼) Toda No. 36 漢元聖寶.gif
Thiên Bình Thông Bảo 天平通寶 1405–1406 None Thiên Bình (天平) Toda No. 37 天平通寶.gif
Vĩnh Ninh Thông Bảo 永寧通寶 1420 None Lộc Bình Vương (羅平王) Toda No. 38 永寧通寶.gif
Giao Chỉ Thông Bảo[e] 交趾通寶 1419 Minh (明) Vĩnh Lạc Emperor (永樂帝) Toda No. 39 交趾通寶.gif
Vĩnh Thiên Thông Bảo 永天通寶 1420 None Lê Ngạ (黎餓) Toda No. 38 永寧通寶.gif
Thiên Khánh Thông Bảo (中) 天慶通寶 1426–1428 Later Trần (後陳) Thiên Khánh Đế (天慶帝) None
An Pháp Nguyên Bảo 安法元寶 Rebellion[f] Later Lê (後黎) Lê Lợi (黎利) Toda No. 41 安法元寶.gif An5 AnPhap 1ar (10358117106).jpg
Chánh Pháp Nguyên Bảo 正法元寶 Rebellion Later Lê (後黎) Lê Lợi (黎利) Toda No. 44 正法元寶.gif
Trị Thánh Nguyên Bảo 治聖元寶 Rebellion Later Lê (後黎) Lê Lợi (黎利) Toda No. 45 治聖元寶.gif
Trị Thánh Bình Bảo 治聖平寶 Rebellion Later Lê (後黎) Lê Lợi (黎利) Toda No. 46 治聖平寶.gif Trị Thánh Bình Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Thái Pháp Bình Bảo 太法平寶 Rebellion Later Lê (後黎) Lê Lợi (黎利) Toda No. 49 太法平寶.gif
Thánh Quan Thông Bảo 聖宮通寶 Rebellion Later Lê (後黎) Lê Lợi (黎利) Toda No. 50 聖宮通寶.gif
Thuận Thiên Thông Bảo 順天通寶 1428–1433 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Thái Tổ (黎太祖) None
Thuận Thiên Nguyên Bảo (中) 順天元寶 1428–1433 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Thái Tổ (黎太祖) Toda No. 51 順天元寶.gif An45 LeLoi ThaiTo ThuanThien (15154198832).jpg
Thiệu Bình Thông Bảo 紹平通寶 1434–1440 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Thái Tông (黎太宗) Toda No. 52 紹平通寶.gif Thiệu Bình Thông Bảo (紹平通寶) - Scott Semans 02.jpg
Đại Bảo Thông Bảo 大寶通寶 1440–1442 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Thái Tông (黎太宗) Toda No. 53 大寶通寶.gif Đại Bảo Thông Bảo (大寶通寶) - Scott Semans 03.jpg
Thái Hòa Thông Bảo[g] 太和通寶 1443–1453 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Nhân Tông (黎仁宗) Toda No. 54 太和通寶.gif An10 Le Nhan Tong Dai Hoa 1ar (12031969476).jpg
Diên Ninh Thông Bảo 延寧通寶 1454–1459 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Nhân Tông (黎仁宗) Toda No. 56 延寧通寶.gif An9 Le Nhan Tong Dien Ninh 1ar (12030823993).jpg
Thiên Hưng Thông Bảo 天興通寶 1459–1460 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Nghi Dân (黎宜民) Toda No. 163 天興通寶.gif Thiên Hưng Thông Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.jpg
Quang Thuận Thông Bảo 光順通寶 1460–1469 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Thánh Tông (黎聖宗) Toda No. 57 光順通寶.gif An11 Le Thanh Tong Quang Thuan 1ar (12053280435).jpg
Hồng Đức Thông Bảo 洪德通寶 1470–1497 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Thánh Tông (黎聖宗) Toda No. 58 洪德通寶.gif An12 Le Thanh Tong Hong Duc 1ar (12105001446).jpg
Cảnh Thống Thông Bảo 景統通寶 1497–1504 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Hiến Tông (黎憲宗) Toda No. 59 景統通寶.gif An13 Le Hien Tong Canh Thong 1ar (12120561545).jpg
Đoan Khánh Thông Bảo 端慶通寶 1505–1509 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Uy Mục (黎威穆) Toda No. 60 端慶通寶.gif Đoan Khánh Thông Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.jpg
Giao Trị Thông Bảo 交治通寶 1509 None Cẩm Giang Vương (錦江王) Toda No. 164 交治通寶.gif
Thái Bình Thông Bảo 太平通寶 1509 None Cẩm Giang Vương (錦江王) Toda No. 165 太平通寶.gif
Thái Bình Thánh Bảo 太平聖寶 1509 None Cẩm Giang Vương (錦江王) Toda No. 166 太平聖寶.gif
Hồng Thuận Thông Bảo 洪順通寶 1510–1516 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Tương Dực (黎襄翼) Toda No. 61 洪順通寶.gif An15 Le Tuong Duc De 1ar (12136352264).jpg
Trần Tuân Công Bảo 陳新公寶 1511–1512 None Trần Tuân (陳珣) Toda No. 167 陳新公寶.gif
Quang Thiệu Thông Bảo 光紹通寶 1516–1522 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Chiêu Tông (黎昭宗) Toda No. 62 光紹通寶.gif An53 Chieu Tong Quang Thieu (15979672256).jpg
Trần Công Tân Bảo 陳公新寶 1516–1521 None Trần Cao (陳暠) None
Thiên Ứng Thông Bảo 天應通寶 1516–1521 None Trần Cao (陳暠) Toda No. 168 天應通寶.gif An44 TranCao ThienKhanh 1ar (14111075570).jpg
Phật Pháp Tăng Bảo 佛法僧寶 1516–1521 None Trần Cao (陳暠) None
Tuyên Hựu Hòa Bảo 宣祐和寶 1516–1521 None Trần Cao (陳暠) None
Thống Nguyên Thông Bảo 統元通寶 1522–1527 Later Lê (後黎) Lê Cung Hoàng (黎恭皇) Toda No. 63 統元通寶.gif
Minh Đức Thông Bảo 明德通寶 1527–1530 Mạc (莫) Mạc Thái Tổ (莫太祖) Toda No. 171 明德通寶.gif
Minh Đức Nguyên Bảo 明德元寶 1527–1530 Mạc (莫) Mạc Thái Tổ (莫太祖) Toda No. 170 明德元寶.gif
Đại Chính Thông Bảo 大正通寶 1530–1540 Mạc (莫) Mạc Thái Tông (莫太宗) Toda No. 172 大正通寶.gif Đại Chính Thông Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.jpg
Quang Thiệu Thông Bảo 光紹通寶 1531–1532 None Quang Thiệu Emperor (光紹帝) Toda No. 169 光紹通寶.gif
Nguyên Hòa Thông Bảo 元和通寶 1533–1548 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Trang Tông (黎莊宗) Toda No. 64 元和通寶.gif Nguyên Hòa Thông Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.jpg
Quảng Hòa Thông Bảo 廣和通寶 1541–1546 Mạc (莫) Mạc Hiến Tông (莫憲宗) Toda No. 173 廣和通寶.gif Quảng Hòa Thông Bảo (廣和通寶) - Scott Semans.jpg
Vĩnh Định Thông Bảo 永定通寶 1547 Mạc (莫) Mạc Tuyên Tông (莫宣宗) Toda No. 175 永定通寶.gif
Vĩnh Định Chí Bảo 永定之寶 1547 Mạc (莫) Mạc Tuyên Tông (莫宣宗) Toda No. 176 永定之寶.gif
Quang Bảo Thông Bảo 光寶通寶 1554–1561 Mạc (莫) Mạc Tuyên Tông (莫宣宗) None
Thái Bình Thông Bảo (中) 太平通寶 1558–1613 Nguyễn lords (阮主) Nguyễn Hoàng (阮潢) None Thái Bình Thông Bảo (太平通寶) - Nguyễn lords issue - Scott Semans 03.jpg
Thái Bình Phong Bảo 太平豐寶 1558–1613 Nguyễn lords (阮主) Nguyễn Hoàng (阮潢) None
Bình An Thông Bảo 平安通寶 1572–1623 Trịnh lords (鄭主) Trịnh Tùng (鄭松) None
Gia Thái Thông Bảo (中)[38] 嘉泰通寶 1573–1599 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Thế Tông (黎世宗) None
Càn Thống Nguyên Bảo 乾統元寶 1593–1625 Mạc (莫)[h] Mạc Kính Cung (莫敬恭) None
An Pháp Nguyên Bảo 安法元寶 1593–1625 Mạc (莫) Mạc Kính Cung (莫敬恭) None An Pháp Nguyên Bảo - Scott Semans (cropped brass version).png
Thái Bình Thông Bảo (中) 太平通寶 1593–1625 Mạc (莫) Mạc Kính Cung (莫敬恭) None An19 Thai Binh thong bao 1ar (12152893076).jpg
Thái Bình Thánh Bảo 太平聖寶 1593–1625 Mạc (莫) Mạc Kính Cung (莫敬恭) None An18 Thai Binh thanh bao 1ar (12152211033).jpg
Thái Bình Pháp Bảo 太平法寶 1593–1625 Mạc (莫) Mạc Kính Cung (莫敬恭)[39][40] None
Khai Kiến Thông Bảo 開建通寶 1593–1625 Mạc (莫) Mạc Kính Cung (莫敬恭) Toda No. 259 開建通寶.png
Sùng Minh Thông Bảo 崇明通寶 1593–1625 Mạc (莫) Mạc Kính Cung (莫敬恭) Toda No. 260 崇明通寶.png
Chính Nguyên Thông Bảo 正元通寶 1593–1625 Mạc (莫) Mạc Kính Cung (莫敬恭) None Chính Nguyên Thông Bảo - Scott Semans.jpg
Vĩnh Thọ Thông Bảo 永壽通寶 1658–1661 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Thần Tông (黎神宗) Toda No. 66 永壽通寶.gif An20 Le Than Tong Vinh Tho 1ar (12174677043).jpg
Tường Phù Nguyên Bảo[i] (中) 祥符元寶 1659–1685 Đức Xuyên (徳川) Đức Xuyên Gia Cương (徳川 家綱) None Nagasaki-shohugenpo-reisho.jpg
Trị Bình Thông Bảo (中) 治平通寶 1659–1685 Đức Xuyên (徳川) Đức Xuyên Gia Cương (徳川 家綱) None None
Trị Bình Nguyên Bảo (中)[43] 治平元寶 1659–1685 Đức Xuyên (徳川) Đức Xuyên Gia Cương (徳川 家綱) None
Nguyên Phong Thông Bảo (中) 元豊通寳 1659–1685 Đức Xuyên (徳川) Đức Xuyên Gia Cương (徳川 家綱) None Nagasaki-genpotsuho-reisho.jpg
Hi Ninh Nguyên Bảo (中) 熈寧元寳 1659–1685 Đức Xuyên (徳川) Đức Xuyên Gia Cương (徳川 家綱) None Nagasaki-kineigenpo-tensho.jpg
Thiệu Thánh Nguyên Bảo (中) 紹聖元寳 1659–1685 Đức Xuyên (徳川) Đức Xuyên Gia Cương (徳川 家綱) None Nagasaki-shoseigenpo-tensho.jpg
Gia Hựu Thông Bảo (中) 嘉祐通寳 1659–1685 Đức Xuyên (徳川) Đức Xuyên Gia Cương (徳川 家綱) None Nagasaki-kayutsuho-reisho.jpg
Vĩnh Trị Thông Bảo 永治通寶 1678–1680 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hi Tông (黎熙宗) Toda No. 69 永治通寶.gif
Vĩnh Trị Nguyên Bảo 永治元寶 1678–1680 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hi Tông (黎熙宗) None
Vĩnh Trị Chí Bảo 永治至寶 1678–1680 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hi Tông (黎熙宗) None
Chính Hòa Thông Bảo 正和通寶 1680–1705 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hi Tông (黎熙宗) Toda No. 70 正和通寶.gif Chính Hòa Thông Bảo - Scott Semans 02.png
Chính Hòa Nguyên Bảo 正和元寶 1680–1705 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hi Tông (黎熙宗) None
Vĩnh Thịnh Thông Bảo 永聖通寶 1706–1719 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Dụ Tông (黎裕宗) Toda No. 73 永聖通寶.gif An21 Le Du Tong Vinh Thinh 1ar (12174865245).jpg
Bảo Thái Thông Bảo 保泰通寶 1720–1729 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Dụ Tông (黎裕宗) Toda No. 74 保泰通寶.gif An46 TienLe DuTong (15131656996).jpg
Thiên Minh Thông Bảo 天明通寶 1738–1765 Nguyễn lords (阮主) Nguyễn Phúc Khoát (阮福濶) Toda No. 285 天明通寶.png Thiên Minh Thông Bảo (天明通寶) - Scott Semans 02.jpg
Ninh Dân Thông Bảo[44][45][46][47] 寧民通宝[j] 1739–1741 None Nguyễn Tuyển (阮選),
Nguyễn Cừ (阮蘧), and
Nguyễn Diên (阮筵)[k]
Toda No. 246 寧民通宝.png
Cảnh Hưng Thông Bảo 景興通寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 142 景興通寶.gif An43 Le Hien Tong Canh Hung dragon 1ar (13360406495).jpg
Cảnh Hưng Thông Bảo[48] 景興通宝 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 100 景興通宝.gif An25 Le Hien Tong Canh Hung 1ar (12266059635).jpg
Cảnh Hưng Trung Bảo 景興中寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 125 景興中寶.gif
Cảnh Hưng Trung Bảo[49] 景興中宝 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 126 景興中宝.gif
Cảnh Hưng Chí Bảo[50] 景興至寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 129 景興至寶.gif Cảnh Hưng Chí Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Cảnh Hưng Vĩnh Bảo 景興永寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 116 景興永寶.gif Cảnh Hưng Vĩnh Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Cảnh Hưng Đại Bảo 景興大寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 118 景興大寶.gif An29 Le Hien Tong Canh Hung dai bao 1ar (12268140945).jpg
Cảnh Hưng Thái Bảo 景興太寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 120 景興太寶.gif Cảnh Hưng Thái Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Cảnh Hưng Cự Bảo[51] 景興巨寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 115 景興巨寶.gif An22 Le Hien Tong Canh Hung Cubao 1ar (12253524053).jpg
Cảnh Hưng Cự Bảo 景興巨宝 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 112 景興巨宝.gif
Cảnh Hưng Trọng Bảo 景興重寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 121 景興重寶.gif Cảnh Hưng Trọng Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Cảnh Hưng Tuyền Bảo 景興泉寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 123 景興泉寶.gif Cảnh Hưng Tuyền Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 03.png
Cảnh Hưng Thuận Bảo 景興順寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 122 景興順寶.gif An24 Le Hien Tong Canh Hung Thuan Hoa 1ar (12265854823).jpg
Cảnh Hưng Nội Bảo 景興內寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 127 景興內寶.gif
Cảnh Hưng Nội Bảo 景興內宝 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 128 景興內宝.gif Cảnh Hưng Nội Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Cảnh Hưng Dụng Bảo 景興用寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 119 景興用寶.gif
Cảnh Hưng Dụng Bảo[52] 景興踊寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) None
Cảnh Hưng Lai Bảo 景興來寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) None
Cảnh Hưng Thận Bảo 景興慎寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) None
Cảnh Hưng Thọ Trường 景興壽長 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) None
Cảnh Hưng Chính Bảo[53] 景興正寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 117 景興正寶.gif Cảnh Hưng Chính Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Cảnh Hưng Anh Bảo 景興英寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) None
Cảnh Hưng Tống Bảo 景興宋寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 124 景興宋寶.gif
Cảnh Hưng Thông Dụng 景興通用 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Toda No. 135 景興通寶.gif
Cảnh Hưng Lợi Bảo[54] 景興利寶 1740–1786 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) None
Thái Đức Thông Bảo 泰德通寶 1778–1788 Tây Sơn (西山) Thái Đức (泰德) Toda No. 180 泰德通寶.png An33 Tay Son Tay Duc Van Thue 1ar (12388573404).jpg
Nam Vương Thông Bảo 南王通寶 1782–1786 Trịnh lords (鄭主) Trịnh Khải (鄭楷) None
Nam Vương Cự Bảo 南王巨寶 1782–1786 Trịnh lords (鄭主) Trịnh Khải (鄭楷) None
Minh Đức Thông Bảo 明德通寶 1787 Tây Sơn (西山) Thái Đức (泰德) None
Chiêu Thống Thông Bảo 昭統通寶 1787–1789 Revival Lê (黎中興) Lê Mẫn Đế (黎愍帝) Toda No. 162 昭統通寶.gif Chieu Thong Thong Bao.JPG
Quang Trung Thông Bảo 光中通寶 1788–1792 Tây Sơn (西山) Quang Trung (光中) Toda No. 194 光中通寶.png Quang Trung Thong Bao.png
Quang Trung Thông Bảo 光中通宝 1788–1792 Tây Sơn (西山) Quang Trung (光中) Toda No. 186 光中通宝.png
Quang Trung Đại Bảo 光中大宝 1788–1792 Tây Sơn (西山) Quang Trung (光中) Toda No. 188 光中大宝.png Quang Trung dai bao.png
Càn Long Thông Bảo
An Nam[l] (中)
乾隆通寶
安南
1788–1789 Thanh (清) Càn Long Emperor (乾隆帝) Toda No. 212 乾隆通寶 - 安南.gif Qianlong Tongbao. Annan.jpg
Cảnh Thịnh Thông Bảo 景盛通寶 1793–1801 Tây Sơn (西山) Cảnh Thịnh (景盛) Toda No. 205 景盛通寶.png Canh Thinh thong bao.png
Cảnh Thịnh Đại Bảo 景盛大寶 1793–1801 Tây Sơn (西山) Cảnh Thịnh (景盛) None An39 Tay Son Quang Toan Canh Thinh 1ar (12698446333).jpg
Bảo Hưng Thông Bảo 寶興通寶 1801–1802 Tây Sơn (西山) Cảnh Thịnh (景盛) Toda No. 211 寶興通寶.png Bảo Hưng Thông Bảo (寶興通寶) - Scott Semans 03.jpg
Gia Hưng Thông Bảo 嘉興通寶 1802–1820 Nguyễn (阮) Gia Long (嘉隆) None
Gia Long Thông Bảo 嘉隆通寶 1802–1820 Nguyễn (阮) Gia Long (嘉隆) Toda No. 224 嘉隆通寶.png 7van GiaLong 2tien 38ar85 (8563825101).jpg
Gia Long Cự Bảo 嘉隆巨寶 1802–1820 Nguyễn (阮) Gia Long (嘉隆) None
Minh Mạng Thông Bảo 明命通寶 1820–1841 Nguyễn (阮) Minh Mạng (明命) Toda No. 227 明命通寶.png 6van MinhMang zinc 32ar85 (8565985992).jpg
Trị Nguyên Thông Bảo 治元通寶 1831–1834 None Lê Văn Khôi (黎文𠐤) Toda No. 240 治元通寶.gif Trị Nguyên Thông Bảo (治元通寶) - Scott Semans 01.jpg
Trị Bình Thông Bảo (中) 治平通寶 1831–1834 None Lê Văn Khôi (黎文𠐤) Toda No. 288 治平通寶.png
Nguyên Long Thông Bảo 元隆通寶 1833–1835 None Nông Văn Vân (農文雲) Toda No. 243 元隆通寶.gif
Thiệu Trị Thông Bảo 紹治通寶 1841–1847 Nguyễn (阮) Thiệu Trị (紹治) Toda No. 229 紹治通寶.png 9van ThieuTri C141 4ar85 (8575317600).jpg
Tự Đức Thông Bảo 嗣德通寶 1847–1883 Nguyễn (阮) Tự Đức (嗣德) Toda No. 234 嗣德通寶.png 6van TuDuc C2012 1ar85 (8560716125).jpg
Tự Đức Bảo Sao 嗣德寶鈔 1861–1883 Nguyễn (阮) Tự Đức (嗣德) Toda No. 236 嗣德寶鈔.png Annam TuDuc monnaiebillet 60van 2ar85 (8547268957).jpg
Kiến Phúc Thông Bảo 建福通寶 1883–1884 Nguyễn (阮) Kiến Phúc (建福) None
Hàm Nghi Thông Bảo 咸宜通寶 1884–1885 Nguyễn (阮) Hàm Nghi (咸宜) None Hàm Nghi Thông Bảo (咸宜通寶) - Lục Văn (六文) 04.png
Đồng Khánh Thông Bảo 同慶通寶 1885–1888 Nguyễn (阮) Đồng Khánh (同慶) None 同慶通寶 Dong-Khanh-Thong-Bao.gif
Thành Thái Thông Bảo 成泰通寶 1888–1907 Nguyễn (阮) Thành Thái (成泰) None 1tien ThanhThai Y2 1ar85 (8560709631).jpg
Duy Tân Thông Bảo 維新通寶 1907–1916 Nguyễn (阮) Duy Tân (維新) None 1tien DuyTan Y3 1ar85 (8560702713).jpg
Khải Định Thông Bảo 啓定通寶 1916–1925 Nguyễn (阮) Khải Định (啓定) None KhaiDinh Y51 1ar85 (8560731419).jpg
Bảo Đại Thông Bảo 保大通寶 1926–1945[m] Nguyễn (阮) Bảo Đại (保大) None Bao-Dai-Thong-Bao.png

Unidentified Vietnamese coins from 1600 and later[edit]

At various times many rebel leaders proclaimed themselves as Lords (), Kings (), and Emperors (), and had produced their own coinage with their reign names and titles on them, but as their rebellions would prove unsuccessful or brief their reigns and titles would go unrecorded in Vietnamese history, therefore coins produced by their rebellions cannot easily be classified. Coins were also often privately cast and these coins were sometimes of high quality or well-made imitations of imperial coinage, though often they would bear the same inscriptions as already circulating coinage, sometimes they would have "newly invented" inscriptions.[56] The Nguyễn lords that ruled over Southern Vietnam had also produced their own coinage at various times as they were the de facto kings of the South, but as their rule wasn't official, it is currently unknown what coins can be attributed to which Nguyễn lord. Though since Edouard Toda has made his list in 1882 several of the coins that he had described as "originating from the Quảng Nam province" have been ascribed to the Nguyễn lords that the numismatists of his time couldn't identify. During the rule of the Nguyễn lords many foundries for private mintage were also opened and many of these coins bear the same inscriptions as government cast coinage or even bear newly invented inscriptions making it hard to attribute these coins.[57]

The following list contains Vietnamese cash coins whose origins cannot be (currently) established:

Inscription
(chữ Quốc ngữ)
Inscription
(Hán tự)
Notes Toda image Image
Thiệu Thánh Nguyên Bảo 紹聖元寶 Toda No. 245 紹聖元寶.png
Minh Định Tống Bảo 明定宋寶 "Tống Bảo" () is written in Seal script. Toda No. 247 明定宋寶.png Minh Định Tống Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Cảnh Nguyên Thông Bảo 景元通寶 Appears in both Regular script, and Seal script. Toda No. 248 景元通寶.png An52 Canh Nguyen Toda 248 (15819482067).jpg
Thánh Tống Nguyên Bảo 聖宋元寶 Toda No. 250 聖宋元寶.png Thánh Tống Nguyên Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Càn Nguyên Thông Bảo 乾元通寶 Produced in the upper parts of Northern Vietnam. Toda No. 251 乾元通寶.png
Phúc Bình Nguyên Bảo 福平元寶 Written in Seal script. Toda No. 252 福平元寶.png
Thiệt Quý Thông Bảo 邵癸通寶 Written in both Running hand and Seal script. Toda No. 253 邵癸通寶.png
Dương Nguyên Thông Bảo 洋元通寶 Appear in multiple sizes. Toda No. 254 洋元通寶.png Dương Nguyên Thông Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Thiệu Phù Nguyên Bảo 紹符元寶 Written in Seal script. Toda No. 256 紹符元寶.png
Nguyên Phù Thông Bảo 元符通寶 Written in Seal script. Toda No. 257 元符通寶.png Nguyên Phù Thông Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Đại Cung Thánh Bảo 大工聖寶 Toda No. 258 大工聖寶.png
Đại Hòa Thông Bảo 大和通寶 The reverse is rimless. Toda No. 261 大和通寶.png Đại Hòa Thông Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Cảnh Thì Thông Bảo 景底通寶 The "" closely resembles a "" Toda No. 262 景底通寶.png
Thiên Nguyên Thông Bảo 天元通寶 A variant exists where the "" is written in Seal script. Toda No. 263 天元通寶.png
Nguyên Trị Thông Bảo 元治通寶 The characters "" and "" are written in Seal script. Toda No. 265 元治通寶.png
Hoàng Hi Tống Bảo 皇熙宋寶 Toda No. 266 皇熙宋寶.png
Khai Thánh Nguyên Bảo 開聖元寶 Toda No. 267 開聖元寶.png
Thiệu Thánh Thông Bảo 紹聖通寶 Toda No. 268 紹聖通寶.png
Thiệu Thánh Bình Bảo 紹聖平寶 the reverse is rimless. Toda No. 269 紹聖平寶.png
Thiệu Tống Nguyên Bảo 紹宋元寶 Toda No. 270 紹宋元寶.png
Tường Tống Thông Bảo 祥宋通寶 Toda No. 272 祥宋元寶.png
Tường Thánh Thông Bảo 祥聖通寶 Toda No. 273 祥聖通寶.png
Hi Tống Nguyên Bảo 熙宋元寶 Toda No. 274 熙宋元寶.png
Ứng Cảm Nguyên Bảo 應感元寶 Toda No. 275 應感元寶.png
Thống Phù Nguyên Bảo 統符元寶 Toda No. 276 統符元寶.png
Hi Thiệu Nguyên Bảo 熙紹元寶 Toda No. 277 熙紹元寶.png
Chính Nguyên Thông Bảo 正元通寶 Variants exist with rimmed and rimless reverses, as well as one where there's a dot or a crescent on the reverse. Toda No. 278 正元通寶.png
Thiên Đức Nguyên Bảo 天德元寶 Toda No. 283 天德元寶.png
Hoàng Ân Thông Bảo 皇恩通寶 Toda No. 284 皇恩通寶.png
Thái Thánh Thông Bảo 太聖通寶 Toda No. 286 太聖通寶.png
Đại Thánh Thông Bảo 大聖通寶 Toda No. 287 大聖通寶.png
Chánh Hòa Thông Bảo 政和通寶 A variant exists where there's a crescent a dot on the reverse, and another one with only the crescent. Toda No. 290 政和通寶.png
Thánh Cung Tứ Bảo[n] 聖宮慈寶 None
Thánh Trần Thông Bảo 聖陳通寶 None
Đại Định Thông Bảo 大定通寶 None Đại Định Thông Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Chính Long Nguyên Bảo 正隆元寶 None
Hi Nguyên Thông Bảo 熙元通寶 None
Cảnh Nguyên Thông Bảo 景元通寶 None Cảnh Nguyên Thông Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Tống Nguyên Thông Bảo 宋元通寶 None Tống Nguyên Thông Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Thiên Thánh Nguyên Bảo 天聖元寶 None An3 PhamSuOn 1ar85 (10331089343).jpg
Thánh Nguyên Thông Bảo 聖元通寶 None Thánh Nguyên Thông Bảo - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png
Chính Pháp Thông Bảo 正法通寶 None
Tây Dương Phù Bảo 西洋符寶 None
Tây Dương Bình Bảo 西洋平寶 None
An Pháp Nguyên Bảo 安法元寶 Most often attributed to Lê Lợi (黎利).[58][59] Toda No. 41 安法元寶.gif An5 AnPhap 1ar (10358117106).jpg
Bình Nam Thông Bảo 平南通寶 Often attributed to the Nguyễn lords (阮主). None

Machine-struck cash coins made by the French government[edit]

Various cash coins produced by the French government for circulation in Vietnam.

During the time that Vietnam was under French administration, the French started minting cash coins for circulation first for within the colony of Cochinchina and then for the other regions of Vietnam. These coins were minted in Paris and were all struck as opposed to the contemporary cast coinage that already circulated within Vietnam.[60][61][62][63]

After the French had annexed Cochinchina from the Vietnamese, cash coins would remain to circulate in the region and depending on their weight and metal (as Vietnamese cash coins made from copper, tin, and zinc circulated simultaneously at the time at fluctuating rates) were accepted at 600 to 1000 cash coins for a single Mexican or Spanish 8 real coin or 1 piastre. In 1870 the North German company Dietrich Uhlhorn started privately minting machine-struck Tự Đức Thông Bảo (嗣德通寶) coins as the demand for cash coins in French Cochinchina was high. The coin weighed 4 grams which was close to the official weight of 10 phần (3.7783 grams) which was the standard used by the imperial government at the time. Around 1875 the French introduced holed 1 cent coins styled after the Vietnamese cash. In 1879 the French introduced the Cochinchinese Sapèque with a nominal value of ​1500 piastre, but the Vietnamese population at the time still preferred the old Tự Đức Thông Bảo coins despite their lower nominal value. The weight and size of the French Indochinese 1 cent coin was reduced and the coin was holed in 1896 in order to appear more similar to cash coins, this was done to reflect the practice of stringing coins together and be carried on a belt or pole because Oriental garments at the time did not have pockets. The French production of machine-struck cash coins was halted in 1902. As there were people in Hanoi and Saigon that did not want to give up on the production of machine-struck cash coins, a committee decided to strike zinc Sapèque coins with a nominal value of ​1600 piastre, these coins were produced at the Paris Mint and were dated 1905 despite being put into circulation only in 1906. These coins corroded and broke quite easily which made them unpopular and their production quickly ceased.

"Annamites are not content with the current state of affairs. They complain about the mode of the farms and monopolies, which obliges them to pay fees, paralyses the small trade and is an obstacle to much of trades of which a great part of the population live. The embarrassment is still increased by the progressive disappearance of the zinc currency, adapted so well to the condition of the needy Annamites. It still remains the base of all the small transactions. With two or three sapèques, the poor one can buy a fruit, a cake and thus calm the pains of the hunger. But, as the Government does not manufacture them any more, those which were in circulation become increasingly rare, and the market feels it, with the great detriment of all."
- The 1907 Annual Report by missionary Mgr. Gendreau of the Groupe des Mission du Tonkin.

After Khải Định became Emperor in 1916, Hanoi reduced the funds to cast Vietnamese cash coins which had a dissatisfying effect on the Vietnamese market as the demand for cash coins remained high, so another committee was formed in Hanoi that ordered the creation of machine-struck copper-alloy Khải Định Thông Bảo (啓定通寶) cash coins to be minted in Haiphong, these coins weighed more than the old French Sapèques and were around 2.50 grams and were accepted at ​1500 piastre. There were 27 million Khải Định Thông Bảo of the first variant produced, while the second variant of the machine-struck Khải Định Thông Bảo had a mintage of 200 million, which was likely continued after the ascension of Emperor Bảo Đại in 1926 which was normal as previous Vietnamese emperors also kept producing cash coins with the inscription of their predecessors for a period of time. Emperor Bảo Đại had ordered the creation of cast Bảo Đại Thông Bảo (保大通寶) cash coins again which weighed 3.2 gram in 1933, while the French simultaneously began minting machine-struck coins with the same inscription that weighed 1.36 grams and were probably valued at ​11000 piastre. There were two variants of this cash coins where one had a large "大" (Đại) while the other had a smaller "大".[64]

Denomination Obverse inscription
Hán tự
(chữ Quốc ngữ)
Reverse inscription Metal Years of mintage Image
2 Sapèque
(​1500 piastre)
當二 – 大法國之安南
(Đáng Nhị – Đại Pháp Quốc chi An Nam)
Cochinchine Française copper 1879–1885 French Cochinchina Sapeque 1879.jpg
2 Sapèque
(​1500 piastre)
當二 – 大法國之安南
(Đáng Nhị – Đại Pháp Quốc chi An Nam)
Indo-Chine Française copper 1887–1902 French Indochina Sapeque 1902.jpg
1 Sapèque
(​1600 piastre)
六百分之一 – 通寶
(Lục Bách Phân chi Nhất – Thông Bảo)
Protectorat du Tonkin zinc 1905 Tonkin Sapeque 1905.jpg
1 Sapèque
(​1500 piastre)
啓定通寶 (Khải Định Thông Bảo)[65] Copper-alloy 1921–1925 Khai Dinh Thong Bao.jpg
1 Sapèque
(​11000 piastre)
保大通寶 (Bảo Đại Thông Bảo) Copper-alloy 1933–1945 BaoDai 1ar85 (8560725857).jpg

Recovery of cash coins in modern Vietnam[edit]

A lump of ancient Vietnamese cash coins in the National Museum of Vietnamese History, Hanoi.

In modern Vietnam the supply of undiscovered cash coins is rapidly declining as large amounts of Vietnamese cash coins were excavated during the 1980s and 1990s, in Vietnam the excavation of antiques such as cash coins is an industry in itself and the cash coins are mostly being dug up by farmers. After the Vietnam War ended in 1975 a large number of metal detectors numbering in the many thousands were left behind in the former area of South Vietnam which helped fuel the rise of this industry. The antique bronze industry is mostly concentrated in small rural villages where farmers rent metal detectors to search their own lands for bronze antiques to then either sell as scrap or to dealers, these buyers purchase lumps of cash coins by either kilogramme or ton to then hire skilled people to search through these lumps of cash coins for sellable specimens, these coins are then sold to other dealers in Vietnam, China, and Japan. During the zenith of the coin recovery business in Vietnam the number of bulk coins found on a monthly basis was fifteen tons but only roughly fifteen kilogrammes of those coins were sellable and the rest of the coins would melted down as scrap metal. As better metal detectors that could search deeper more Vietnamese cash coins were discovered but in modern times the supply of previously undiscovered Vietnamese cash coins is quickly diminishing.[66][67]

In modern times many Vietnamese cash coins are found in sunken shipwrecks which are mandated by Vietnamese law to be the property of the Vietnamese government as salvaged ships of which the owner was unknown belong to the state.[68][69]

Notable recent large finds of cash coins in Vietnam include 100 kilogrammes of Chinese cash coins and 35 kilogrammes of Vietnamese cash coins being unearthed in the province of Quảng Trị in 2007,[70][71] 52.9 kilogrammes of Chinese and Vietnamese cash coins being unearthed in a cemetery in Haiphong in 2008,[72] 50 kilogrammes of cash coins in the province of Hà Nam in 2015,[73] and some Nagasaki trade coins in the province of Hà Tĩnh in 2018.[74][75]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The term văn (文) was first used in Vietnam in 1861 and the coins were referred to as đồng tiền (銅錢, copper coins) or simply as coins. Denominations of the Vietnamese cash coins were based on their weight and metal alloys and their value was determined by these aspects and their individual quality.[4][5] In English these types of coins are referred to as "cash coins".
  2. ^ These coins may alternatively be referred to as sous in French, which is also the French nickname name for the French 1 centime coin making it an equivalent to the English term "Penny".[6]
  3. ^ The colour turns purple if you have visited the page in the past.
  4. ^ The reign title was "Thái Bình" (太平) but the actual inscription of the coinage reads "Đại Bình Hưng Bảo" (大平興寶).
  5. ^ during the Chinese (Minh dynasty) occupation these coins were issued as payments to Chinese soldiers, Giao Chỉ Thông Bảo coins are poorly made from lead and sand.
  6. ^ Coins issued during the Lam Sơn uprising were cast as payment for the anti-Chinese rebels.
  7. ^ Despite bearing the reign title "Thái Hòa Thông Bảo" all coins actually bear the inscription "Đại Hòa Thông Bảo" (大和通寶).
  8. ^ From this point onwards the monarchs of the Mạc dynasty were only in control of the Cao Bằng Province, which they had declared as an independent country for 75 years.
  9. ^ The "Tường Phù Nguyên Bảo" (祥符元寶), "Trị Bình Thông Bảo" (治平通寶), and "Trị Bình Nguyên Bảo" (治平元寶) were Japanese trade coins minted in Nagasaki for trade with Vietnam and the Netherlands.[41] In Vietnam they were imported by the Nguyễn lords.[42]
  10. ^ The character "" is an abbreviated version of "" commonly found in Semi-cursive script. Note from Eduardo Toda y Güell's Annam and its minor currency where the coin was described of being "of doubtful origin" but has been identified since.
  11. ^ The leaders of the Ninh Xá rebellion Nguyễn Tuyển and Nguyễn Cừ were brothers while Nguyễn Diên was their nephew.
  12. ^ Cast as payments for Chinese soldiers stationed in Vietnam during the Battle of Ngọc Hồi-Đống Đa.
  13. ^ The production of these coins probably lasted into 1941 or 1942 because the occupying Japanese forces wanted the copper and were acquiring all of the cash coins they could find and stockpiling them in Haiphong for shipment to Japan for the production of war materials.[55]
  14. ^ The coins from this part of the list and below are from Dr. R. Allan Barker (2004) while the coins above are from Edouard Toda (1882).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vietnamnet – Sử Việt, đọc vài quyển Chương IV "Tiền bạc, văn chương và lịch sử" (in Vietnamese)
  2. ^ "Definition of guàn (貫)". Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  3. ^ Hán-Việt từ điển của Thiều Chửu. Nhà Xuất Bản TP. Hồ chí Minh. 2002 (in Vietnamese)
  4. ^ Dai Nam Hoi Dien Su Le" (Administrative statute of Dai Nam) published by Thuận Hóa, Viet Nam 1993. (in Vietnamese)
  5. ^ "Dai Nam Thuc Luc" (A veritable chronicle of Đại Nam) published by Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi, Hanoi 1962, written by the Cabinet of Nguyễn dynasty. (in Vietnamese)
  6. ^ Le bas-monnayage annamite au niên hiệu de Gia Long (1804-1827) by François Joyaux. Retrieved: 22 April 2018. (in French)
  7. ^ a b Toda 1882, p. 6.
  8. ^ Manuel de Rivas, Idea del Imperio de Anam. Published: 1858 Manila, Spanish East Indies (in Castilian)
  9. ^ Toda 1882, p. 9.
  10. ^ Alotrip.com – We book, you travel. Ancient Vietnamese coins – Episode 1. Published: Thursday, 12 Mar 2015 . Last updated: Thursday, 25 Jun 2015 09:01 Retrieved: 29 June 2017.
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  14. ^ Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Nhà xuất bản Khoa học xã hội, 1998, tập 2,trang 189 (in Vietnamese)
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  26. ^ Art-Hanoi CURRENCY TYPES AND THEIR FACE VALUES DURING THE TỰ ĐỨC ERA. This is a translation of the article "Monnaies et circulation monetairé au Vietnam dans l'ère Tự Đức (1848–1883) by François Thierry Published in Revue Numismatique 1999 (volume # 154). Pgs 267-313. This translation is from pages 274-297. Translator: Craig Greenbaum. Retrieved: 24 July 2017.
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  35. ^ "Khai Dinh Trong Bao charm". Tony Luc and Vladimir Belyaev (Charm.ru - Chinese Coinage Website). 29 April 1998. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
  36. ^ Asian Numismatic Museum (Sudoku One). Vietnamese Thien Tu and Kai Yuan Style. Thiên Tư Nguyên Bảo 天資元寶 Thư pháp, viết theo phong cách, Trung Quốc Ka Yuan. Retrieved: 19 July 2017.
  37. ^ Scott Seman's World Coins – VIETNAM CASH 970 AD — 1945. Retrieved: 07 June 2018.
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  40. ^ Travel is easier with Linh Nhà Mạc (chữ Hán: 莫朝 – Mạc triều). Archived 2018-02-28 at the Wayback Machine. (in Vietnamese) Xin visa du lịch – Đặt phòng & vé máy bay – Hỗ trợ 24/7 Retrieved: 24 June 2017.
  41. ^ "Nagasaki export coins". Luke Roberts at the Department of History – University of California at Santa Barbara. 24 October 2003. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  42. ^ Charms.ru Japan early trade coin and the commercial trade between Vietnam and Japan in the 17th century. Thuan Luc, May 1999. Retrieved: 24 June 2017.
  43. ^ Chinese Coins (1268 coins from all Chinese dynasties.) – Korea, Japan, Vietnam by Lars Bo Christensen (Ancient Chinese Coins). Retrieved: 09 July 2018.
  44. ^ Zeno.ru (The Zeno Oriental Coinage Database) Ninh Xá 寧舍 Rebellion 1739-1741 (Home » SOUTHEAST ASIA » Cash coins » Vietnam cash » Official and semi-official coins » Ninh Xá 寧舍 Rebellion 1739–1741). Retrieved: 22 April 2018.
  45. ^ Miura Gosen (Miura Gosen 三浦吾泉, Annan senpu 安南錢譜, 3 vol. Tokyo 1965–1971, Terui, p. 93-3). (in Japanese)
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  47. ^ François Thierry, « Les monnaies Ninh Dân thông bảo », Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique, No 10, décembre 2010, pp. 285-288. Coin of the French National Library Collection (see François Thierry, Catalogue des monnaies vietnamiennes, Bibliothèque nationale, Paris 1988, n° 1136). (in French)
  48. ^ Numista Canh Hung Thong Bao Country Vietnam – Empire (Lê dynasty – Vietnam). Quote: "The 25th King – LE HIEN TONG 1740–1786 ascended the throne, and during his reign a larger quantity of cash were cast than during that of any former king. This is one of them." Retrieved: 09 June 2018.
  49. ^ Numista Canh Hung Trung Bao Country Vietnam – Empire (Lê dynasty – Vietnam). Quote: "The 25th King – LE HIEN TONG 1740–1786 ascended the throne, and during his reign a larger quantity of cash were cast than during that of any former king. This is one of them." Retrieved: 09 June 2018.
  50. ^ Numista Canh Hung Tri Bao Country Vietnam – Empire (Lê dynasty – Vietnam). Quote: "The 25th King – LE HIEN TONG 1740–1786 ascended the throne, and during his reign a larger quantity of cash were cast than during that of any former king. This is one of them." Retrieved: 09 June 2018.
  51. ^ Numista 1 Văn - Cảnh Hưng Cự Bảo Country Vietnam – Empire (Lê dynasty – Vietnam). Quote: "The 25th King – LE HIEN TONG 1740–1786 ascended the throne, and during his reign a larger quantity of cash were cast than during that of any former king. This is one of them." Retrieved: 09 June 2018.
  52. ^ Charm.ru Vietnamese Coin Canh Hung Dung Bao by Vladimir Belyaev. Published: October 04, 1998. Retrieved: 29 March 2018.
  53. ^ Numista Canh Hung Chinh Bao Country Vietnam – Empire (Lê dynasty – Vietnam). Quote: "The 25th King – LE HIEN TONG 1740–1786 ascended the throne, and during his reign a larger quantity of cash were cast than during that of any former king. This is one of them." Retrieved: 09 June 2018.
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  58. ^ Charms.ru WHO CAST THE AN PHAP NGUYEN BAO COIN? [1 .] Luc Duc Thuan Retrieved: 24 June 2017.
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Sources[edit]

  • ED. TODA. (1882) ANNAM and its minor currency. Hosted Art-Hanoi. (Wikimedia Commons)
  • Dr. R. Allan Barker. (2004) The historical Cash Coins of Viet Nam. ISBN 981-05-2300-9
  • Pham Quoc Quan, Nguyen Dinh Chien, Nguyen Quoc Binh and Xiong Bao Kang: Tien Kim Loai Viet Nam. Vietnamese Coins. Bao Tang Lich Su Viet Nam. National Museum of Vietnamese History. Ha noi, 2005. (in Vietnamese)
  • Hội khoa học lịch sử Thừa Thiên Huế, sách đã dẫn. (in Vietnamese)
  • Trương Hữu Quýnh, Đinh Xuân Lâm, Lê Mậu Hãn, sách đã dẫn. (in Vietnamese)
  • Lục Đức Thuận, Võ Quốc Ky (2009), Tiền cổ Việt Nam, Nhà xuất bản Giáo dục. (in Vietnamese)
  • Đỗ Văn Ninh (1992), Tiền cổ Việt Nam, Nhà xuất bản Khoa học xã hội. (in Vietnamese)
  • Trương Hữu Quýnh, Đinh Xuân Lâm, Lê Mậu Hãn chủ biên (2008), Đại cương lịch sử Việt Nam, Nhà xuất bản Giáo dục. (in Vietnamese)
  • Viện Sử học (2007), Lịch sử Việt Nam, tập 4, Nhà xuất bản Khoa học xã hội. (in Vietnamese)
  • Trần Trọng Kim (2010), Việt Nam sử lược, Nhà xuất bản Thời đại. (in Vietnamese)
  • Catalogue des monnaies vietnamiennes (in French), François Thierry
  • Yves Coativy, "Les monnaies vietnamiennes d'or et d'argent anépigraphes et à légendes (1820–1883)", Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique, février 2016, p. 57-62, (in French)
  • Tien Kim Loai Viet Nam (Vietnamese Coins), Pham Quoc Quan, Hanoi, 2005. (in Vietnamese)
  • W. Op den Velde, "Cash coin index. The Cash Coins of Vietnam", Amsterdam, 1996.

External links[edit]

Preceded by:
Chinese cash
Reason: independence
Currency of Vietnam
970 – 1948
Succeeded by:
French Indochinese piastre,
North Vietnamese đồng

Reason: abolition of the monarchy