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Vietnamese people

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Vietnamese people (người Việt)
Kinh people (người Kinh)
Girl wearing white Áo dài and Nón lá holding pink lotus flower.jpg
A Kinh girl in traditional áo dài dress and nón lá hat
Total population
c. 89 million
Regions with significant populations
 Vietnam82,085,826 (2019)[1]
 United States2,067,527 (2016)[2]
 Cambodia400,000–1,000,000[3][4][5]
 Japan448,053[6][better source needed]
 France~400,000[7][8]
 Taiwan320,000 (2019)[9]
 Australia>300,000 (2018)[10]
 Canada240,514[11]
 South Korea224,518 (2020)[12]
 Germany188,000 (2019)[13]
 Russia150,000[14]
 Laos122,000[15]
 Thailand100,000[16]
 Czech Republic90,000[17]
 Malaysia80,000[18]
 Poland60,000-80,000[19]
 United Kingdom50,000-100,000[20]
 Angola45,000[21]
 Ukraine10,000–50,000[22][23]
 Mainland China36,205[a][24]
 Philippines27,600[citation needed]
 Norway27,366 (2020)[25]
 Netherlands23,488 (2019)[26][better source needed]
 Sweden20,676 (2020)[27]
 Macau~20,000 (2018)[28]
 United Arab Emirates20,000[29]
 Saudi Arabia20,000[30][31][32]
 Denmark15,953 (2020)[33]
 Belgium14,000 (2012)[34]
 Finland12,051[35]
 Singapore12,000 (2012)[36]
 Cyprus~12,000[37][38]
 Slovakia5,565–20,000[39][40]
 New Zealand10,086 (2018)[41]
  Switzerland~8,000[42]
 Hungary7,304 (2016)[43]
 Italy5,000[44]
 Austria5,000[45]
 Romania3,000[46]
 Bulgaria2,500[47]
Languages
Vietnamese
Religion
Predominantly Vietnamese folk religion syncretized with Mahayana Buddhism. Minorities of Christians (mostly Roman Catholics) and other groups.[48]
Related ethnic groups
Other Vietic ethnic groups
(Gin, Muong, Chứt, Thổ peoples)

The Vietnamese people or Kinh people (Vietnamese: người Kinh) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group originally native to modern-day Northern Vietnam and South China. The native language is Vietnamese, the most widely spoken Austroasiatic language. Although the Vietnamese language is Austroasiatic in origin, it was heavily sinicized throughout history and its vocabulary was influenced by Chinese.

Vietnamese Kinh people account for just over 85.32% of the population of Vietnam in the 2019 census, and are officially known as Kinh people (người Kinh) to distinguish them from the other minority groups residing in the country such as the Hmong, Cham or Muong. The earliest recorded name for the ancient Kinh people in Vietnamese history books is Lạc or Lạc Việt. The Vietnamese are one of the four main groups of Vietic speakers in Vietnam, the others being the Muong, Thổ and Chứt people.

Terminology

Việt

The term "Việt" (Yue) (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuè; Cantonese Yale: Yuht; Wade–Giles: Yüeh4; Vietnamese: Việt) in Early Middle Chinese was first written using the logograph "戉" for an axe (a homophone), in oracle bone and bronze inscriptions of the late Shang dynasty (c. 1200 BC), and later as "越".[49] At that time it referred to a people or chieftain to the northwest of the Shang.[50] In the early 8th century BC, a tribe on the middle Yangtze were called the Yangyue, a term later used for peoples further south.[50] Between the 7th and 4th centuries BC Yue/Việt referred to the State of Yue in the lower Yangtze basin and its people.[49][50] From the 3rd century BC the term was used for the non-Chinese populations of south and southwest China and northern Vietnam, with particular ethnic groups called Minyue, Ouyue, Luoyue (Vietnamese: Lạc Việt), etc., collectively called the Baiyue (Bách Việt, Chinese: 百越; pinyin: Bǎiyuè; Cantonese Yale: Baak Yuet; Vietnamese: Bách Việt; "Hundred Yue/Viet"; ).[49][50] The term Baiyue/Bách Việt first appeared in the book Lüshi Chunqiu compiled around 239 BC.[51] By the 17th and 18th centuries AD, educated Vietnamese apparently referred to themselves as người Việt (Viet people) or người nam (southern people).[52]

Kinh

Beginning in the 10th and 11th centuries, a strand of Proto-Viet-Muong with influence from Annamese Middle Chinese started to become what is now the Vietnamese language. Its speakers called themselves the "Kinh" people, meaning people of the "metropolitan" centered around the Red River Delta with Hanoi as its capital. Historic and modern Chữ Nôm scripture classically uses the Han character '京', pronounced "Jīng" in Mandarin, and "Kinh" with Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation. Other variants of Proto-Viet-Muong were driven to the lowlands by the Kinh and were called Trại (寨 Mandarin: Zhài), or "outpost" people," by the 13th century. These became the modern Muong people.[53] According to Victor Lieberman, người Kinh may be a colonial-era term for Vietnamese speakers inserted anachronistically into translations of pre-colonial documents, but literature on 18th century ethnic formation is lacking.[52]

History

Origins and pre-history

The origin of ethnic Vietnamese were Proto-Vietic people who descended from Proto-Austroasiatic people that possibly originated from somewhere in Southern China, Yunnan, the Lingnan, or the Yangtze River, together with the Monic, who settled further to the west and the Khmeric migrated further south. Most archaeologists and linguists, and other specialists like Sinologists and crop experts, believe that they arrived no later than 2000 BC bringing with them the practice of riverine agriculture and in particular the cultivation of wet rice.[54][55][56][57][58] Some linguistic scholars (James Chamberlain, Joachim Schliesinger) suggested that the Vietic-speaking people migrated from southern Red River Delta to the delta itself which originally inhabited by Tai-speakers.[59][60][61][62] However, Michael Churchman found no records of population shifts in Jiaozhi (centered around the Red River Delta) in Chinese sources, indicating that a faily stable population of Austroasiatic speakers, ancestral to modern Vietnamese, inhabited in the delta during the Han-Tang periods.[63] In the 1930s, clusters of Vietic-speaking communities were discovered in the hills of eastern Laos, are believed to be the earliest inhabitants of that region.[64]

According to Vietnamese legend The Tale the Hồng Bàng Clan written in the 15th century, the first Vietnamese descended from the dragon lord Lạc Long Quân and the fairy Âu Cơ. They married and had one hundred eggs, from which hatched one hundred children. Their eldest son ruled as the Hùng king.[65] The Hùng kings were claimed to be descended from the mythical figure Shen Nong.[66]

Early history and Chinese rule

Proposed location of the Văn Lang polity in 500 BC
Motif of the Dongson Ngoc Lu drum (~300 BC)
Viet bricks with Bodhisattva decorations, Nghe An, 7th-9th centuries

The earliest reference of the proto-Vietnamese or the Vietic in Chinese annals was the Lạc (Chinese: Luo), Lạc Việt, or the Dongsonian,[67] an ancient ethnic group of Mon-Khmer (Austroasiatic) stock occupied the Red River Delta.[68] The Lạc developed the sophisticated metal age Dong Son Culture and the Văn Lang chiefdom, ruled by the semi-mythical Hùng kings.[69] To the south of the Dongsonians was the Sa Huynh Culture of the Austronesian proto-Cham people.[70] Around 400–200 BC, the Lạc came to contact with the Âu Việt Tai people and the Sinitic people from the north.[68] According to a late third or early fourth century AD Chinese chronicle, the leader of the Âu Việt, Thục Phán, conquered Văn Lang and deposed the last Hùng king.[71] Having submissions of Lạc lords, Thục Phán proclaimed himself King An Dương of Âu Lạc kingdom.[69]

In 179 BC, Zhao Tuo, a Chinese general who has established the Nanyue state in modern-day Southern China, annexed Âu Lạc, and began the Sino-Vietic interaction that lasted in a millennium.[72] In 111 BC, the Han Empire conquered Nanyue, brought the Lac Viet region under Han rule.[73] By 2 AD, nearly one million people lived in northern Vietnam and central Vietnam (981,735 people according to Han census).[74] The Han Chinese began conducting their civilizing mission over the local people, which ultimately resulted in a violent uprising of the local Lac people led by Trung sisters in 40s AD.[75][76] The sisters' stronghold was annihilated in 43 AD, the rebelled Lạc lords were butchered, five thousand people were decapitated, and some hundred families were deported to China.[77] After 43 AD, the Han dynasty imposed direct imperial rule over the region. The Lạc Việt elites started adopting Chinese culture, techniques, and life style, while retaining their own customs.[78] Mahayana Buddhism arrived from India via sea routes in the 1st and 2nd centuries, while Taoism and Confucianism made their ways to early Vietnamese society at the same time.[79]

The Han empire declined in the late 2nd century and gave ways to the Three Kingdoms era. Chinese eyewitness reports in 231 stated that "In the two districts of Mê Linh in Jiaozhi and Do Long in Jiuzhen, it is usual for a younger brother to marry the widow of an older brother. Even the local officials cannot prevent it."[80] By the 7th century to 9th century AD, as the Tang Empire ruled over the region, historians such as Henri Maspero proposed that ethnic Vietnamese became separated from other Vietic groups such as the Muong and Chut due to heavier Chinese influences on the Vietnamese.[81] Other argue that a Vietic migration from north central Vietnam to the Red River Delta in the seventh century replaced the original Tai-speaking inhabitants.[82] At least 6 monks from northern Vietnam traveled to China, Srivijaya, India and Sri Lanka during the Tang period.[83] A bronze bell inscription dated 798 inscribes names of 100 female members of a local Buddhist sect that have the middle syllable thị (C. shi) that corresponding to the most common form of name for Vietnamese women.[84] In 816, Liêu Hữu Phương, a native Vietnamese scholar, traveled to Chinese capital Chang'an and passed the Imperial examination.[85] In the mid-9th century, local rebels aided by Nanzhao tore the Tang Chinese rule to nearly collapse.[86] The Tang reconquered the region in 866, causing half of the local rebels to flee into the mountains, which historians believe that was the separation between the Muong and the Vietnamese took at the end of Tang rule in Vietnam.[81][87] In 938, the Vietnamese leader Ngo Quyen who was a native of Thanh Hoa, led Viet forces defeated the Chinese Southern Han armada at Bạch Đằng River and proclaimed himself king, became the first Vietnamese king of the classical period.[88]

Classical and early modern period

Sung Chinese depiction of Tangut people (left) and Vietnamese people (right)

Ngo Quyen died in 944 and his kingdom collapsed into chaos and disturbances between 12 Viet warlords and chiefs.[89] In 968, the Việt leader Đinh Bộ Lĩnh united them and established the Đại Việt (Great Việt) kingdom.[90] With assistance of powerful Buddhist monks, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh chose Hoa Lư in the southern edge of the Red River Delta as the capital instead of Tang-era Dai La, adopted Chinese-style imperial titles, coinage, and ceremonies and tried to preserve the T’ang administrative framework.[91] In 979 Dinh Bo Linh was assassinated, and Queen Duong Van Nga married with Dinh's general Le Hoan, appointed him as king. Disturbances in Dai Viet attracted attentions from neighbouring Chinese Song dynasty and Champa Kingdom, but they were defeated by Le Hoan.[92] In 982 the Vietnamese attacked and destroyed Champa's capital Indrapura and Đại Việt was recorded in Arab chronicle Al-Fihrist as the Luqin (Long Biên) kingdom.[93] A Khmer inscription dated 987 records the arrival of Vietnamese merchants (Yawana) in Angkor.[94] Chinese writers, Song Hao, Fan Chengda and Zhou Qufei, both reported that the Việt "tattooed their foreheads, crossed feet, black teeth, bare feet and blacken clothing."[95]

Successive Vietnamese royal families from the Đinh, Lê, Lý dynasties and Hoa-Chinese ancestry Trần and Hồ dynasties ruled the kingdom peacefully from 968 to 1407. King Lý Thái Tổ (r. 1009–1028) relocated the Vietnamese capital from Hoa Lư to Hanoi, the center of the Red River Delta in 1010.[96] They practiced elitist marriage alliances between clans and nobles in the country. Mahayana Buddhism became state religion, Vietnamese music instruments, dancing and religious worshipping were influenced by both Cham, Indian and Chinese styles,[97] while Confucianism slowly gained attention and influence.[98] The earliest surviving corpus and text in Vietnamese language dated early 12th century, and surviving chữ nôm script inscriptions dated early 13th century.[99]

The Mongol Yuan dynasty unsuccessful invaded Dai Viet in the 1250s and 1280s, though they sacked Hanoi.[100] The Ming dynasty of China conquered Dai Viet in 1406, brought the Vietnamese under Chinese rule for 20 years, before they were driven out by Vietnamese leader Lê Lợi. The Chinese brought several thousands of Vietnamese artisans, skilled workers to China, resettled them in Beijing.[101] During the 15th century, Dai Viet's population skyrocketed from 1.9 million to 4.4 million.[102] The fourth grandson of Lê Lợi, king Lê Thánh Tông (r. 1460–1497), is considered one of the greatest monarchs in Vietnamese history. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, education, and fiscal reforms he instituted, and a cultural revolution that replaced the old traditional aristocracy with a generation of literati scholars, adopted Confucianism, and transformed a Dai Viet from a Southeast Asian style polity to a bureaucratic state, and flourished. Thánh Tông's forces, armed with gunpowder, overwhelmed the long-term rival Champa in 1471, occupied the Laotian and Lan Na kingdoms in the 1480s.[103]

16th century – Modern period

Ethnic Vietnamese nobles from northern Vietnam in 1590s Manila from the Boxer Codex
Vietnamese nobles from southern Vietnam in 1590s Manila from the Boxer Codex
Vietnamese opera house, somewhere in Phu Yen, 1793
Vietnamese soldiers in 1828
Vietnamese nobles in 1884

With the death of Thánh Tông in 1497, the Dai Viet kingdom swiftly declined. Climate extremes, failing crops, regionalism and factionism tore the Vietnamese apart.[104] From 1533 to 1790s, four powerful Vietnamese families: Mạc, Lê, Trịnh and Nguyễn, each ruled on their own domains. In northern Vietnam (Dang Ngoai–outer realm), the Lê kings barely sat on the throne while the Trịnh lords held power of the court. The Mạc controlled northeast Vietnam, Trà Kiệu and sometimes the Cambodian court. The Nguyễn lords ruled the southern polity of Dang Trong (inner realm).[105] Thousands of ethnic Vietnamese migrated south, settled on the old Cham lands.[106] European missionaries and traders from the sixteenth century brought new religion, ideas and crops to the Vietnamese (Annamites). By 1639, there were 82,500 Catholic converts throughout Vietnam. In 1651, Alexandre de Rhodes published a 300-pages catechism in Latin and romanized-Vietnamese (chu quoc ngu) or the Vietnamese alphabet.[107]

The Vietnamese Fragmentation period ended in 1802 as Emperor Gia Long, who was aided by French, Siamese, Malays,... defeated the Tay Son regime and reunited Vietnam. By 1847, the Vietnamese state under Emperor Thieu Tri, ethnic Vietnamese accounted for nearly 80 percent of the country's population (6.3 million people out of 8 million), while rest were Chams, Chinese, and Khmers.[108] This demographic model continues to persist through the French Indochina, Japanese occupation and modern day.

Between 1862 and 1867, the southern third of the country became the French colony of Cochinchina.[109] By 1884, the entire country had come under French rule, with the central and northern parts of Vietnam separated into the two protectorates of Annam and Tonkin. The three Vietnamese entities were formally integrated into the union of French Indochina in 1887.[110][111] The French administration imposed significant political and cultural changes on Vietnamese society.[112] A Western-style system of modern education introduced new humanist values into Vietnam.[113]

Vietnamese soldiers in Albania, 1917

The French developed a plantation economy to promote the export of tobacco, indigo, tea and coffee.[114] However, they largely ignored the increasing demands for civil rights and self-government. A nationalist political movement soon emerged, with leaders like Phan Bội Châu, Phan Châu Trinh, Phan Đình Phùng, Emperor Hàm Nghi, and Hồ Chí Minh fighting or calling for independence.[115] This resulted in the 1930 Yên Bái mutiny by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDĐ), which the French quashed. The mutiny caused an irreparable split in the independence movement that resulted in many leading members of the organisation becoming communist converts.[116][117][118]

The French maintained full control over their colonies until World War II, when the war in the Pacific led to the Japanese invasion of French Indochina in 1940. Afterwards, the Japanese Empire was allowed to station its troops in Vietnam while permitting the pro-Vichy French colonial administration to continue.[119][120] Japan exploited Vietnam's natural resources to support its military campaigns, culminating in a full-scale takeover of the country in March 1945. This led to the Vietnamese Famine of 1945, which resulted in up to two million deaths.[121][122]

In 1941, the Việt Minh, a nationalist liberation movement based on a Communist Ideology, led by Hồ Chí Minh. The Việt Minh sought independence for Vietnam from France and the end of the Japanese occupation.[123][124] Following the military defeat of Japan and the fall of its puppet Empire of Vietnam in August 1945, anarchy, rioting, and murder were widespread, as Saigon's administrative services had collapsed.[125] The Việt Minh occupied Hanoi and proclaimed a provisional government, which asserted national independence on 2 September.[124]

But as the French were weakened by the German occupation, British-Indian forces and the remaining Japanese Southern Expeditionary Army Group were used to maintain order and to help France reestablish control through the 1945–1946 War in Vietnam.[126] Hồ initially chose to take a moderate stance to avoid military conflict with France, asking the French to withdraw their colonial administrators and for French professors and engineers to help build a modern independent Vietnam.[124] But the Provisional Government of the French Republic did not act on these requests, including the idea of independence, and dispatched the French Far East Expeditionary Corps to restore colonial rule. This resulted in the Việt Minh launching a guerrilla campaign against the French in late 1946.[123][124][127] The resulting First Indochina War lasted until July 1954. The defeat of French colonialists and Vietnamese loyalists in the 1954 battle of Điện Biên Phủ allowed Hồ to negotiate a ceasefire from a favourable position at the subsequent Geneva Conference.[124][128]

Ethnolinguistic map of Indochina, 1970. Vietnamese (Kinh) = Green

The colonial administration was thereby ended and French Indochina was dissolved under the Geneva Accords of 1954. Vietnam was further divided into North and South administrative regions at the Demilitarised Zone, roughly along the 17th parallel north, pending elections scheduled for July 1956.[n 1] A 300-day period of free movement was permitted, during which almost a million northerners, mainly Catholics, moved south, fearing persecution by the communists. This migration was in large part aided by the United States military through Operation Passage to Freedom.[133][134] The partition of Vietnam by the Geneva Accords was not intended to be permanent, and stipulated that Vietnam would be reunited after the elections.[135] But in 1955, the southern State of Vietnam's prime minister, Ngô Đình Diệm, toppled Bảo Đại in a fraudulent referendum organised by his brother Ngô Đình Nhu, and proclaimed himself president of the Republic of Vietnam.[135] At that point the internationally recognised State of Vietnam effectively ceased to exist and was replaced by the Republic of Vietnam in the south—supported by the United States, France, Laos, Republic of China and Thailand—and Hồ's Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the north, supported by the Soviet Union, Sweden,[136] Khmer Rouge, and the People's Republic of China.[135]

On 2 July 1976, North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Việt Nam.[137] The war left Vietnam devastated, with the total death toll between 966,000 and 3.8 million.[138][139][140] In its aftermath, under Lê Duẩn's administration, there were no mass executions of South Vietnamese who had collaborated with the US or the defunct South Vietnamese government, confounding Western fears,[141] but up to 300,000 South Vietnamese were sent to reeducation camps, where many endured torture, starvation, and disease while being forced to perform hard labour.[142] The government embarked on a mass campaign of collectivisation of farms and factories.[143] In 1978, in response to the Khmer Rouge government of Cambodia ordering massacres of Vietnamese residents in the border villages in the districts of An Giang and Kiên Giang,[144] the Vietnamese military invaded Cambodia and removed them from power after occupying Phnom Penh.[145] The intervention was a success, resulting in the establishment of a new, pro-Vietnam socialist government, the People's Republic of Kampuchea, which ruled until 1989.[146]

At the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) in December 1986, reformist politicians replaced the "old guard" government with new leadership.[147][148] The reformers were led by 71-year-old Nguyễn Văn Linh, who became the party's new general secretary.[147] He and the reformers implemented a series of free-market reforms known as Đổi Mới ("Renovation") that carefully managed the transition from a planned economy to a "socialist-oriented market economy".[149][150] Though the authority of the state remained unchallenged under Đổi Mới, the government encouraged private ownership of farms and factories, economic deregulation, and foreign investment, while maintaining control over strategic industries.[150][151] The Vietnamese economy subsequently achieved strong growth in agricultural and industrial production, construction, exports, and foreign investment, although these reforms also caused a rise in income inequality and gender disparities.[152][153][154]

Religions

Religion in Vietnam (2019)[1]

  Vietnamese folk religion or non religious (86.32%)
  Catholicism (6.1%)
  Buddhism (4.79%)
  Hoahaoism (1.02%)
  Protestantism (1%)
  Others (0.77%)

According to the 2019 Census, the religious demographics of Vietnam are as follows:[1]

It is worth noting here that the data is highly skewered, as a large majority of Vietnamese may declare themselves atheist, yet practice forms of traditional folk religion or Mahayana Buddhism.[155]

Estimates for the year 2010 published by the Pew Research Center:[156]

  • Vietnamese folk religion, 45.3%
  • Unaffiliated, 29.6%
  • Buddhism, 16.4%
  • Christianity, 8.2%
  • Other, 0.5%

Diaspora

Traditional Vietnamese dress.
Vietnamese New Year parade, San Jose, California

Originally from northern Vietnam and southern China, the Vietnamese have conquered much of the land belonging to the former Champa Kingdom and Khmer Empire over the centuries. They are the dominant ethnic group in most provinces of Vietnam, and constitute a portion of the population in neighbouring Cambodia.

Beginning around the sixteenth century, groups of Vietnamese migrated to Cambodia and China for commerce and political purposes. Descendants of Vietnamese migrants in China form the Gin ethnic group in the country and primarily reside in and around Guangxi Province. Vietnamese form the largest ethnic minority group in Cambodia, at 5% of the population.[157] Under the Khmer Rouge, they were heavily persecuted and survivors of the regime largely fled to Vietnam.

During French colonialism, Vietnam was regarded as the most important colony in Asia by the French colonial powers, and the Vietnamese had a higher social standing than other ethnic groups in French Indochina.[158] As a result, educated Vietnamese were often trained to be placed in colonial government positions in the other Asian French colonies of Laos and Cambodia rather than locals of the respective colonies. There was also a significant representation of Vietnamese students in France during this period, primarily consisting of members of the elite class. A large number of Vietnamese also migrated to France as workers, especially during World War I and World War II, when France recruited soldiers and locals of its colonies to help with war efforts in Metropolitan France. The wave of migrants to France during World War I formed the first major presence of Vietnamese people in France and the Western world.[159]

Congregation Of The Mother Coredemptrix in Carthage, Missouri

When Vietnam gained its independence from France in 1954, a number of Vietnamese loyal to the colonial government also migrated to France. During the partition of Vietnam into North and South, a number of South Vietnamese students also arrived to study in France, along with individuals involved in commerce for trade with France, which was a principal economic partner with South Vietnam.[159]

Forced repatriation in 1970 and deaths during the Khmer Rouge era reduced the Vietnamese population in Cambodia from between 250,000 and 300,000 in 1969 to a reported 56,000 in 1984.[160]

The Fall of Saigon and end of the Vietnam War prompted the start of the Vietnamese diaspora, which saw millions of Vietnamese fleeing the country from the new communist regime. Recognizing an international humanitarian crisis, many countries accepted Vietnamese refugees, primarily the United States, France, Australia and Canada.[161] Meanwhile, under the new communist regime, tens of thousands of Vietnamese were sent to work or study in Eastern Bloc counties of Central and Eastern Europe as development aid to the Vietnamese government and for migrants to acquire skills that were to be brought home to help with development.[162] However, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, a vast majority of these overseas Vietnamese decided to remain in their host nations.[citation needed]

DNA and genetics analysis

Anthropometry

Stephen Pheasant (1986), who taught anatomy, biomechanics and ergonomics at the Royal Free Hospital and the University College, London, said that East Asian and Southeast Asian people have proportionately shorter lower limbs than European people and black African people. Pheasant said that the proportionately short lower limbs of East Asian and Southeast Asian people is a difference that is most characterized in Japanese people, less characterized in Korean and Chinese people, and least characterized in Vietnamese and Thai people.[163][164]

Nguyen Manh Lien (1998) of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission indicated the average sitting height to body height ratios of Vietnamese 17-19 year olds to be 52.59% for males and 52.57% for females.[165]

Neville Moray (2005) indicated that modifications in basic cockpit geometry are required to accommodate Japanese and Vietnamese pilots. Moray said that the Japanese have longer torsos and a higher shoulder point than the Vietnamese, but the Japanese have about similar arm lengths to the Vietnamese, so the control stick would have to be moved 8 cm closer to the pilot for the Japanese and 7 cm closer to the pilot for the Vietnamese. Moray said that, due to having shorter legs than Americans (of European and African descent), rudder pedals must be moved closer to the pilot by 10 cm for the Japanese and 12 cm for the Vietnamese.[166]

Craniometry

Ann Kumar (1998) said that Michael Pietrusewsky (1992) said that, in a craniometric study, Borneo, Vietnam, Sulu, Java, and Sulawesi are closer to Japan, in that order, than Mongolian and Chinese populations are close to Japan. In the craniometric study, Michael Pietrusewsky (1992) said that, even though Japanese people cluster with Mongolians, Chinese and Southeast Asians in a larger Asian cluster, Japanese people are more closely aligned with several mainland and island Southeast Asian samples than with Mongolians and Chinese.[167][168]

Hirofumi Matsumura et al. (2001) and Hideo Matsumoto et al. (2009) said that the Japanese and Vietnamese people are regarded to be a mix of Northeast Asians and Southeast Asians who are related to today Austronesian peoples. But the amount of northern genetics is higher in Japanese people compared to Vietnamese who are closer to other Southeast Asians (Thai or Bamar people).[169][170]

Bradley J. Adams, a forensic anthropologist in the Office of Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York, said that Vietnamese people could be classified as Mongoloid.[171][172]

A 2009 book about forensic anthropology said that Vietnamese skulls are more gracile and less sexually dimorphic than the skulls of Native Americans.[173]

Matsumura and Hudson (2005) said that a broad comparison of dental traits indicated that modern Vietnamese and other modern Southeast Asians derive from a northern source, supporting the immigration hypothesis, instead of regional continuity hypothesis, as the model for the origins of modern Southeast Asians.[174]

Genetics

Vietnamese show a close genetic relationship with other Southeast Asians.[175] The reference population for Vietnamese (Kinh) used in the Geno 2.0 Next Generation is 83% Southeast Asia & Oceania, 12% Eastern Asia and 3% Southern Asia.[176]

Jin Han-jun et al. (1999) said that the mtDNA 9‐bp deletion frequencies in the intergenic COII/tRNALys region for Vietnamese (23.2%) and Indonesians (25.0%), which are the two populations constituting Southeast Asians in the study, are relatively high frequencies when compared to the 9-bp deletion frequencies for Mongolians (5.1%), Chinese (14.2%), Japanese (14.3%) and Koreans (15.5%), which are the four populations constituting East Asians in the study. The study said that these 9-bp deletion frequencies are consistent with earlier surveys which showed that 9-bp deletion frequencies increase going from Japan to mainland Asia to the Malay Peninsula, which is supported by the following studies: Horai et al. (1987); Hertzberg et al. (1989); Stoneking & Wilson (1989); Horai (1991); Ballinger et al. (1992); Hanihara et al. (1992); and Chen et al. (1995). The Cavalli-Sforza's chord genetic distance (4D), from Cavalli-Sforza & Bodmer (1971), which is based on the allele frequencies of the intergenic COII/tRNALys region, between Vietnamese and other East Asian populations in the study, from least to greatest, are as follows: Vietnamese to Indonesian (0.0004), Vietnamese to Chinese (0.0135), Vietnamese to Japanese (0.0153), Vietnamese to Korean (0.0265) and Vietnamese to Mongolian (0.0750).[177]

Kim Wook et al. (2000) said that, genetically, Vietnamese people more probably clustered with East Asians of which the study analyzed DNA samples of Chinese, Japanese, Koreans and Mongolians rather than with Southeast Asians of which the study analyzed DNA samples of Indonesians, Filipinos, Thais and Vietnamese. The study said that Vietnamese people were the only population in the study's phylogenetic analysis that did not reflect a sizable genetic difference between East Asian and Southeast Asian populations. The study said that the likely reason for Vietnamese people more probably clustering with East Asians was genetic drift and distinct founder populations. The study said that the alternative reason for Vietnamese people more probably clustering with East Asians is a recent range expansion from South China. The study mentioned that the majority of its Vietnamese DNA samples were from Hanoi which is the closest region to South China.[178]

Schurr & Wallace (2002) said that Vietnamese people display genetic similarities with certain peoples from Malaysia. The study said that the aboriginal groups from Malaysia, the Orang Asli, are somewhat genetically intermediate between Malay people and Vietnamese. The study said that mtDNA haplogroup F is present at its highest frequency in Vietnamese and a high frequency of this haplogroup is also present in the Orang Asli, a people with whom Vietnamese have a linguistic connection (Austroasiatic languages).[179]

Jung Jongsun et al. (2010) said that genetic structure analysis found significant admixture in "Vietnamese (or Cambodian) with unknown Southern original settlers." The study said that it used Cambodians and Vietnamese to represent "Southern people," and the study used Cambodia (Khmer) and Vietnam (Kinh) as its populations for "South Asia." The study said that Chinese people are located between Korean and Vietnamese people in the study's genome map. The study also said that Vietnamese people are located between Chinese and Cambodian people in the study's genome map.[180]

He Jun-dong et al. (2012) did a principal component analysis using the NRY haplogroup distribution frequencies of 45 populations, and the second principal component showed a close affinity between Kinh and Vietnamese who were most likely Kinh with populations from mainland southern China because of the high frequency of NRY haplogroup O-M88. The study said that Kinh often have NRY haplogroup O-M7 which is the characteristic Chinese haplogroup. Out of the study's sample of seventy-six Kinh NRY haplogroups, twenty-three haplogroups (30.26%) were O-M88 and eight haplogroups (10.53%) were O-M7. The study said that, in ancient northern Vietnam, it is suggested that there has been considerable assimilation of inhabitants from present-day southern China through immigration into the Kinh people.[181]

A 2015 study revealed that Vietnamese (Kinh) test subjects showed more genetic variants in common with Chinese compared to Japanese.[182]

Sara Pischedda et al. (2017) stated that modern Vietnamese have a major component of their ethnic origin coming from the now-called southern China region and a minor component from a Thai-Indonesian composite. The study said that admixture analysis indicates that Vietnamese Kinh have a major part which is most common in Chinese and two minor parts which have the highest prevalence in the Bidayuh of Malaysia and the Proto-Malay. The study said that multidimensional scaling analysis indicates that Vietnamese Kinh have a closeness to Malay people, Thai and Chinese, and the study said that Malays and Thai are the samples which could be admixed with Chinese in the Vietnamese gene pool. The study said that Vietnamese mtDNA genetic variation matches well with the pattern seen in Southeast Asia, and the study said that most Vietnamese people had mtDNA haplotypes that clustered in clades M7 (20%) and R9’F (27%) which are clades that also dominate maternal lineages in Southeast Asia more generally.[183]

Genome sequencing by Vietnamese researchers

Vinh S. Le et al. (2019) elucidated that Kinh and present‐day Southeast Asian (SEA) populations mainly originated from SEA ancestries, while Southern Han Chinese (CHS) and Northern Han Chinese (CHB) populations were mixed from both Southeast Asian and East Asian ancestries. The results are generally compatible with that from the 1KG project (2015 Genomes Project Consortium et al., 2015) and the HUGO Pan‐Asian SNP Consortium (Abdulla et al., 2009). The results from both phylogenetic tree reconstruction and PCA also reinforce the hypothesis that a population migration from Africa to Asia following the South‐to‐North route (Abdulla et al., 2009; Chu et al., 1998). Interestingly, it was discovered that Kinh and Thai people "had similar genomic structures and close evolutionary relationships".[184]

Y-chromosome DNA

Kayser et al. (2006) found four members of O-M95, four members of O-M122(xM134), one member of C-M217, and one member of O-M119 in a sample of ten individuals from Vietnam.[185]

He Jun-dong et al. (2012) found that the NRY haplogroup profile for a sample of 76 Kinh in Hanoi, Vietnam was as follows: twenty-three (30.26%) belonged to O-M88, nine (11.84%) belonged to O-M95*(xM88), nine (11.84%) belonged to C-M217, eight (10.53%) belonged to O-M7, seven (9.21%) belonged to O-M134, seven (9.21%) belonged to O-P200*(xM121, M164, P201, 002611), five (6.58%) belonged to O-P203, two (2.63%) belonged to N-M231, two (2.63%) belonged to O-002611, two (2.63%) belonged to O-P201*(xM7, M134), one (1.32%) belonged to K-P131*(xN-M231, O-P191, Q-P36, R-M207), and one (1.32%) belonged to R-M17.[181]

Having analyzed the Y-DNA of another sample of 24 males from Hanoi, Vietnam, Trejaut et al. (2014) found that six (25.0%) belonged to O-M88, three (12.5%) belonged to O-M7, three (12.5%) belonged to O-M134(xM133), two (8.3%) belonged to O-M95(xM88), two (8.3%) belonged to C-M217, two (8.3%) belonged to N-LLY22g(xM128, M178), one (4.2%) belonged to O-PK4(xM95), one (4.2%) belonged to O-JST002611, one (4.2%) belonged to O-M133, one (4.2%) belonged to O-M159, one (4.2%) belonged to O-M119(xP203, M50), and one (4.2%) belonged to D-M15.[186]

A study published in 2010 reported the following data obtained through analysis of the Y-DNA of a sample from Vietnam (more precisely, Austro-Asiatic speakers from Southern Vietnam according to He Jun-dong et al.): 20.0% (14/70) O-M111, 15.7% (11/70) O-M134, 14.3% (10/70) O-JST002611, 7.1% (5/70) O-M95(xM111), 7.1% (5/70) Q-P36(xM346), 5.7% (4/70) O-M7, 5.7% (4/70) O-P203, 4.3% (3/70) C-M217, 2.9% (2/70) D-M15, 2.9% (2/70) N-LLY22g(xM178, M128), 2.9% (2/70) O-P197*(xJST002611, P201), 2.9% (2/70) O-47z, 1.4% (1/70) J2-M172, 1.4% (1/70) J-M304(xM172), 1.4% (1/70) O-P201(xM7, M134), 1.4% (1/70) O-P31(xM176, M95), 1.4% (1/70) O-M176(x47z), 1.4% (1/70) R-M17.[187]

The individuals who comprise the KHV (Kinh in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) sample of the 1000 Genomes Project have been found to belong to the following Y-DNA haplogroups: 26.1% (12/46) O-M88/M111, 13.0% (6/46) O-M7, 8.7% (4/46) O-JST002611, 8.7% (4/46) O-F444 (= O-M134(xM117)), 8.7% (4/46) O-M133, 6.5% (3/46) O-M95(xM88/M111), 4.3% (2/46) O-P203.1, 4.3% (2/46) O-F2159 (= O-KL2(xJST002611)), 4.3% (2/46) Q-Y529, 2.2% (1/46) O-CTS9996 (= O-K18(xM95)), 2.2% (1/46) O-CTS1754 (= O-M122(xM324)), 2.2% (1/46) O-F4124 (= O-N6 or O-P164(xM134)), 2.2% (1/46) C-F845, 2.2% (1/46) F-Y27277(xM427, M428), 2.2% (1/46) N1b2a-M1811, 2.2% (1/46) N1a2a-M128.[188][189]

Macholdt et al. (2020) tested a sample of Kinh (n=50, including 42 from Hanoi, three from Nam Trực District, two from Yên Phong District, one from Ngô Quyền District, one from Bắc Hà District, and one from Nghĩa Hưng District) and found that they belonged to the following Y-DNA haplogroups: 44% haplogroup O1b1a1a-M95, 30% haplogroup O2a-M324, 10% haplogroup C2c1-F2613, 4% haplogroup O1a1a-M307.1, 4% haplogroup N1-M2291, 4% haplogroup Q1a1a1-M120, 2% haplogroup O1b1a2a1-F1759, and 2% haplogroup H1a2a-Z4487.[190]

Mitochondrial DNA

Schurr & Wallace (2002) displayed the mtDNA haplogroup profile for a sample of 28 Vietnamese as follows: 17.9% belonged to B/B*, 32.1% belonged to F, 32.1% belonged to M and 17.9% belonged to other haplogroups.[179]

He Jun-dong et al. (2012) found that the mtDNA haplogroup profile for a sample of 139 Kinh was as follows: twenty-four (17.27%) belonged to B4, nineteen (13.67%) belonged to B5, one (0.72%) belonged to B6, four (2.88%) belonged to D, twenty-nine (20.86%) belonged to F, one (0.72%) belonged to G, seven (5.04%) belonged to M*, twenty-one (15.11%) belonged to M7, twelve (8.63%) belonged to M8, four (2.88%) belonged to M9a'b, one (0.72%) belonged to M10, two (1.44%) belonged to M12, one (0.72%) belonged to N*, two (1.44%) belonged to N9a, ten (7.19%) belonged to R9 and one (0.72%) belonged to W4.[181]

Sara Pischedda et al. (2017) found that the mtDNA haplogroup profile for a sample of 399 Kinh was as follows: 1% belonged to A, 23% belonged to B, 2% belonged to C, 4% belonged to D, 35% belonged to M (xD,C), 8% belonged to N(xB,R9'F,A) and 27% belonged to R9'F.[183]

Genetic contribution to Koreans

Bhak Jong-hwa, a professor in the biomedical engineering department at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), said that the ancient Vietnamese, which was a population that flourished with rapid agricultural development after 8,000 BC, slowly travelled north to ancient civilizations in the Korean Peninsula and the Russian Far East. Bhak said that Korean people were formed from the admixture of agricultural Southern Mongoloids from Vietnam who went through China, hunter-gatherer Northern Mongoloids in the Korean Peninsula and another group of Southern Mongoloids. Bhak said, "We believe the number of ancient dwellers who migrated north from Vietnam far exceeds the number of those occupying the peninsula," making Koreans inherit more of their DNA from southerners.[191][192]

In later history, there was intermarriage between the aristocracies of Korea and Vietnam, especially with that involving an heir of the Lý Dynasty, Lý Long Tường, who was exiled to Goryeo and who was to become the progenitor of the Hwasan Lee clan that would take root on the Korean peninsula.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Neither the American government nor Ngô Đình Diệm's State of Vietnam signed anything at the 1954 Geneva Conference. The non-communist Vietnamese delegation objected strenuously to any division of Vietnam; however, the French accepted the Việt Minh proposal[129] that Vietnam be united by elections under the supervision of "local commissions".[130] The United States, with the support of South Vietnam and the United Kingdom, countered with the "American Plan",[131] which provided for United Nations-supervised unification elections. The plan, however, was rejected by Soviet and other communist delegations.[132]
  1. ^ Excluding Gin people, who are usually classified as a separate but closely related ethnic group.

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