Vigna subterranea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Vigna subterranea
Vigna subterranea.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Vigna
Species: V. subterranea
Binomial name
Vigna subterranea
(L.) Verdc.
  • Arachis africana Burm. f.
  • Glycine subterranea L.
  • Voandzeia subterranea (L.) Thouars
  • Voandzeia subterranea (L.) DC.

Vigna subterranea (also known by its common names Bambara groundnut, Bambara-bean,[2] Congo goober,[2] earth pea,[3] ground-bean,[2] or hog-peanut[2]) is a member of the family Fabaceae. The plant originated in West Africa. Vigna subterranea ripens its pods underground, much like the peanut (also called a groundnut). They can be eaten fresh or boiled after drying.

Names in other languages[edit]

The name for the Bambara groundnut in the Bambara language of Mali (Bamanankan) is tiganingɛlɛn or tiganinkurun, literally "little hard peanut" (peanut is tiga). Among other West African languages it is known by other names; in Hausa it is variously referred to as Gurjiya or Kwaruru. In Goemai, Kwam; and in Kanuri, Ngangala; in Ibo, Okpa and in Ga, Akwei. In the Upper East Region of Ghana, it is referred to as "Suma".

Bambara groundnuts are also known as jugo beans or in Swahili, njugumawe. In the Republic of Zambia, bambara groundnuts are known as either Lituhu (siLozi), ntoyo (ciBemba),katoyo (kiKaonde), or mbwiila (chiTonga). In the Angolan plateau the plant is known as viẽlõ in the local Umbundu language, while in Angolan Portuguese it is mostly called feijão-gengibre (meaning ginger-bean). In Chichewa, Bambara nuts are called mzama. In Shangaan they are known as tindluwa. In N-Sotho they are known as Ditloo. In Malagasy, the language of Madagascar, they are known as voanjobory, which translates to "round peanut." Interestingly enough, in the Ghanaian Ewe language, they are known as azi nogui, which also translates to "round peanut." Also, in the Dagbani language of the Dagombas in Northern Ghana, it is called 'simkpla', which also translates literally as 'round peanuts'. In Indonesia it is called "kacang bogor", which literally means "Bogor peanut", because this plant is widely cultured in Bogor, West Java. It is called "kacang poi" in Malay language, not to be confused with "kacang pool" which serves as one of popular dishes in the southern region of Malaysia. In the Shona language of Zimbabwe it is known as "Nyimo", and "indlubu" in the ndebele language. In Silozi, they are called 'Lituu.' In Oshiwambo language of Namibia, it is called "ofukwa" for singular or "eefukwa" for plural.

Agronomic aspects[edit]

Freshly harvested Bambara nuts
Bambara plants in the field
Vigna subterranea - MHNT

Origin and regions of cultivation[edit]

The origin of the Bambara groundnut is West Africa[4] and the region of cultivation is Sub-Saharan Africa's warm tropics.[5]

Importance in the world food system[edit]

Bambara groundnut represents the third[6] most important grain legume in semi-arid Africa. “It is resistant to high temperature and is suitable for marginal soils where other leguminous crops cannot be grown”.[7] In addition, it makes very little demand on the soil[8] and has a high nutritive value with 65% carbohydrate[9] and 18% protein[9] content. For these reasons it is not prone to the risk of total harvest failure even in low and uncertain rainfall regions. "Due to its high protein value it is a very important crop for people in Africa[8] Despite its nutritional value, it is still considered as one of the prioritized neglected and underutilized species in Benin.[10]

Culinary use[edit]

The seeds are used for food and beverage because of its high protein content[11] and for digestive system applications.[11] The entire plant is known for soil improvement[11] because of nitrogen fixation. In West Africa, the nuts are eaten as a snack, roasted and salted, or as a meal, boiled similar to other beans.

In South Eastern Nigeria, particularly in Enugu, the dried bambara beans are ground into a fine powder, then mixed with palm oil, water and pumpkin leaves and then poured into banana leaf wraps or 1 litre cellophane bags before being boiled into a kind of cakey pudding to make Enugu's most popular delicacy called "okpa" okpa is the number 1 breakfast item in Enugu, Nsukka and Ngwo Nigeria.

during the rainy season in many parts of central Nigeria like Jos, the fresh bambara beans are cooked with their shells still on them. the beans are then eaten as a snack just like boiled groundnuts.

Soil requirements[edit]

Optimal soils for Bambara groundnut production are sandy soils to prevent waterlogging. Optimal soil depth is between 50 and 100 cm,[11] with a light soil texture.[11] soil fertility should be low[11] and soil pH is best suited between 5 and 6.5[11] and should not be lower than 4.3[11] or higher than 7.[11]

Climate requirements[edit]

The production is best suited between a latitude of 20° - 30°,[11] i.e. the tropical wet and dry (Aw)[11] and the subtropical dry summer (Cs)[11] climate zones. Optimal temperature is between 19 °C[11] and 30 °C.[11] Temperatures below 16 °C[11] and above 38 °C[11] are not suited for the production of bambara groundnut. The bambara groundnut is very drought resistant.[5] The minimal annual rainfall requirement is about 300 mm[11] and optimal annual rainfall is between 750 mm[11] and 1400 mm[11] and should not exceed 3000 mm.[11]

Cropping system[edit]

The cropping system is semi-permanent[11] and the Bambara groundnut can be cultivated as single crop or as intercrop.[11] Best suited intercrops are sorghum,[11] millet,[11] maize,[11] groundnut,[11] yams[11] and cassava.[11]

Bambara groundnut is mainly cultivated as intercrop, however the planting density varies between 6 and 29 plants per square meter.[12] For woodland savannas of Côte d'Ivoire the highest yield is attainable with a plant density of 25[13] plants per square meter.


Since Vigna subterranea is usually intercropped, no fertilizer is applied. A yield of 1000 kg seed and 925 kg leaves remove 55.7 kg N,[14] 26.2 kg K,[14] 25.1 kg C,[14] 7.8 kg P[14] and 6.6 kg Mg.[14] Since Bambara groundnut is a legume, phosphor is the most important nutrient. An application rate of 60 kg/ha[15] of P2O5 is recommended for bambara groundnut in Yola, Adamawa State Nigeria.


World production of Vigna subterranea increased from 29'800 tonnes in 2015.[16] in 1972 to 79'155 tonnes[16]

Production Year 2013 (Source FAOSTAT)[16] Area Harvested (Ha) Yield (kg/ha) Production (tonnes)
 Mali 120,000 9,498 113,981
 Niger 68,000 4,412 30,000
 Burkina Faso 55,000 8,909 49,000
 Cameroon 43,392 8,444 36,639
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 4,828 750 14,000
World 315,392 7,724 243,620

Pest and diseases[edit]

Pest and diseases are not considered to be a serious problem for Vigna subterranea.[14]

Reported diseases:[14]

  • Leaf spot (Cerscospora canescens & Phyllosticta voandzeia)
  • Powdery mildew (Erysiphe sp.)
  • Wilt (Fusarium sp.)
  • Leaf blotch (Phomopsis sp.)
  • Stem rot (Scleorotium rolfsii)

Reported pests:[14]

  • Aphids (Aphis sp.)
  • Bruchids (Callosobruchus sp.)
  • Leaf hoppers (Hilda patruelis)
  • Termites
  • Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica)
  • Rodents
  • Parasitic plants (Alectra vogelii and Striga gesnerioides)



The growth cycle is between (min-max) 90–170 days[11] and under optimal conditions the cycle is about 120–150 days[5] to pod maturity. Flowers appear 40–60 days[5] after planting. 30 days[5] after pollination the pod reaches maturity and during another 55 days[5] the seeds fully develop. Every 30 days they are produced again.

Generative reproduction[edit]

Generative reproduction is for the Bambara groundnut autogamous[5] (self-fertilization) and cleistogamous[5] (self-pollinating).


  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". 
  2. ^ a b c d "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". 
  3. ^ "Definition And Classification Of Commodities (Draft): 4. Pulses And Derived Products". Food and Agriculture Organization. 1994. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  4. ^ Hepper, FN (1963). "Plants of the 1957-58 West Africa Expedition II: The bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea) and Kersting's groundnut (Kerstingiella geocarpa) wild in West Africa". Kew Bulletin. 16 (3): 395–407. doi:10.2307/4114681. JSTOR 4114681. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Nichterlein, Karin. "Vigna subterranea". Ecoport. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 
  6. ^ Ocran, V. K, (1998). Seed Management Manual for Ghana. Accra Ghana: MOFA. 
  7. ^ Yamaguchi, M (1983). World Vegetables. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 
  8. ^ a b Baryeh, E.A. (2001). "Physical properties of bambara groundnuts" (PDF). Journal of food engineering. 47: 321–326. doi:10.1016/s0260-8774(00)00136-9. Retrieved 3 May 2011. 
  9. ^ a b Doku, E.V. (1995). Proceedings of the Workshop on Conservation and Improvement of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.). Harare Zimbabwe: University of Ghana. 
  10. ^ Dansi, A.; R. Vodouhe; P. Azokpota; et al. (19 April 2012). "Diversity of the Neglected and Underutilized Crop Species of Importance in Benin". The Scientific World Journal. 2012: 932947. doi:10.1100/2012/932947. PMC 3349165Freely accessible. PMID 22593712. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac "Data sheet Vigna subterranea". Ecocrop. FAO. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 
  12. ^ Rassel, A (1960). "Voandzou, Voandzeia subterranea Thouars, and its cultivation in Kwango". Bull. agric. Congo belge. 51: 1–26. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 
  13. ^ Kouassi, N’. J; I. A. Zoro Bi (2010). "Effect Of Sowing Density And Seedbed Type On Yield And Yield Components In Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea) In Woodland Savannas Of Cote D'ivoire". Experimental Agriculture. 46: 99–110. doi:10.1017/S0014479709990494. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Mkandawire, Ceasar H (2007). "Review of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) Production in Sub-Sahara Africa". Agricultural Journal. 2 (4): 464–470. doi:10.3923/aj.2007.464.470. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 
  15. ^ Toungos, M.D.; A.A. Sajo; D.T. Gungula (2009). "Recommended Fertilizer Levels on Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L) Verde) in Yola Adamawa State, Nigeria". Agricultural Journal. 4 (1): 14–21. doi:10.3923/aj.2009.14.21. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 
  16. ^ a b c "FAOSTAT". FAO. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 

External links[edit]