Vijayawada

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Vijayawada
విజయవాడ
Bejjamwada, Bezawada, Rajendracholapuram
Metropolis
Clockwise from Top Left:Vijayawada City View, Kanakadurga Temple on Indrakeeladri, Prakasam Barrage, Vijayawada Junction Railway Station, VMC Pylon
Clockwise from Top Left:Vijayawada City View, Kanakadurga Temple on Indrakeeladri, Prakasam Barrage, Vijayawada Junction Railway Station, VMC Pylon
Nickname(s): The Place of Victory
Vijayawada is located in Andhra Pradesh
Vijayawada
Vijayawada
Location of Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates: 16°31′09″N 80°37′50″E / 16.5193°N 80.6305°E / 16.5193; 80.6305Coordinates: 16°31′09″N 80°37′50″E / 16.5193°N 80.6305°E / 16.5193; 80.6305
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
District Krishna
Founded by Arjuna
Named for Victory
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Vijayawada Municipal Corporation
 • MLAs
 • MP Kesineni Srinivas
 • Municipal commissioner G.Veerapandian
 • Mayor Koneru Sridhar
Area[1]
 • Metropolis 61.88 km2 (23.89 sq mi)
 • Metro 110.44 km2 (42.64 sq mi)
Area rank 6th (in state)
Elevation[2] 23 m (75 ft)
Population (2011)[3][4][5]
 • Metropolis 1,494,358
 • Rank th (India)
2nd (Andhra Pradesh)
 • Density 31,289/km2 (81,040/sq mi)
 • Metro[3] 1,721,202
Demonym(s) Vijayawadian[6]
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 520 XXX
Telephone code +91–866
Vehicle registration AP–16 (AP 17, AP 18 and AP 19 reserved)
Website vijayawada.cdma.ap.gov.in

Vijayawada is a city on the banks of the Krishna River, in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipal corporation and the headquarters of Vijayawada (urban) mandal in Krishna district of the state. The city forms a part of Andhra Pradesh Capital Region and the headquarters of Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority is located in the city.[7] The city is one of the major trading and business centres of the state and hence, it is also known as "The Business Capital of Andhra Pradesh".[8][9] The city is one of the two metropolis in the state, with the other being Visakhapatnam.

As of 2011 census, the city had a population of 1,048,240, making it the second largest city in the state in terms of population and it had an urban agglomeration population of 1,491,202.[3] As per the Demographia World Urban Areas:2016, the city is the third most densely populated in terms of urban population in built-up areas of the world.[10] The city has been recognised as a "Global City of the Future" by McKinsey Quarterly.[11] It is one of the commercial hubs of Andhra Pradesh with a GDP of $3 billion in 2010, and is expected to increase to $17 billion by 2025.[12]

Toponomy[edit]

There are many legends behind the origin of the name Vijayawada. Goddess Durga killed the demon and relaxed in this place for some time. As she was victorious (vijaya), the place came to be known as Vijayawada (vijaya translates to victory and wada as place/location, literally "The Place of Victory").[13] The epic Mahabharata refers to the Indrakiladri hills as the place where Arjuna secured Pashupatastra from Lord Shiva. The city thereafter came to be known as Vijayavatika and later as Vijayawada.[14] In some legends, Vijayawada was referred to as Rajendracholapura. A tale behind its acquiring the name "Bezawada" is that Goddess Krishnaveni (River Krishna) requested Arjuna to make a passage for her to merge into the Bay of Bengal. Hence, Arjuna made a bejjam (hole) through the mountains and the place came to be known as Bejjamwada which later changed to Bezawada.[15][16]

History[edit]

Vijayawada history reveals that Bezawada (Vijayawada) was ruled by King Madhava Varma (Ancestor of Pusapatis of Vizianagaram).[17] Chinese Buddhist scholar Xuanzang stayed few years in Bezawada (Vijayawada) in around 640 A.D. to copy and study the Abhidhamma Pitaka, the last of the three pitakas (Pali for baskets) constituting the Pali canon, the scriptures of Theravada Buddhism.[18]

Geography[edit]

Vijayawada is located at 16°31′09″N 80°37′50″E / 16.5193°N 80.6305°E / 16.5193; 80.6305 and has an altitude of 11 m (36 ft).[2] It lies on the banks of Krishna River and is also surrounded on the north by Budameru River. The northern, northwestern, and southwestern parts of the city are covered by a low range of hills, while the central, southwestern and northwestern parts are covered by rich and fertile agriculture lands with three major irrigation canals. The topography of Vijayawada is flat, with a few small to medium-sized hills. The Krishna River runs along the city. These hills are part of the Eastern Ghats cut through by the Krishna river. Three canals originating from the north side of the Prakasham barrage reservoir, Eluru, Bandar and Ryves, run through the city.[19]

Climate[edit]

Vijayawada has a tropical climate with hot summers and a monsoon season. Temperatures can reach 47 °C (117 °F) in May–June, while the winter temperatures rarely fall below 15 °C (59 °F)

. The average humidity is 78%, and the average annual rainfall is 921.5 millimetres (36 in). Vijayawada gets its rainfall from both the southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon. With its hot and humid conditions, the city is often referred as Blazewada.[20]

Climate data for Vijayawada (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.2
(86.4)
32.9
(91.2)
35.7
(96.3)
37.9
(100.2)
40.0
(104)
37.6
(99.7)
33.9
(93)
32.8
(91)
33.1
(91.6)
32.1
(89.8)
31.2
(88.2)
30.2
(86.4)
34.0
(93.2)
Average low °C (°F) 18.6
(65.5)
20.3
(68.5)
22.7
(72.9)
25.4
(77.7)
27.2
(81)
27.0
(80.6)
25.4
(77.7)
25.1
(77.2)
24.9
(76.8)
23.7
(74.7)
21.2
(70.2)
18.9
(66)
23.4
(74.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1
(0.04)
4
(0.16)
5
(0.2)
15
(0.59)
71
(2.8)
136
(5.35)
250
(9.84)
197
(7.76)
164
(6.46)
169
(6.65)
45
(1.77)
10
(0.39)
1,067
(42.01)
Average precipitation days 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.8 2.5 6.8 12.1 10.5 8.8 7.7 2.5 0.8 54.5
Source #1: India Meteorological Department[21]
Source #2: Climate-Data.org[22]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1871 8,206 —    
1881 9,366 +14.1%
1891 20,224 +115.9%
1901 24,224 +19.8%
1911 32,867 +35.7%
1921 44,159 +34.4%
1931 60,427 +36.8%
1941 86,184 +42.6%
1951 161,198 +87.0%
1961 234,360 +45.4%
1971 344,607 +47.0%
1981 543,008 +57.6%
1991 845,756 +55.8%
2001 1,039,518 +22.9%
2011 1,491,202 +43.5%
Since 1871, the population is that of Vijayawada Urban Agglomeration

Sources: Rao, Kondapalli Ranga; 1. Rao, M. S. A. (1984). Cities and Slums: A study of a Squatters' Settlement in the City of Vijayawada. Concept Publishing Company. p. 12. 

2. Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011 City Name:VIJAYAWADA

As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 1,048,240. The total population constitute, 524,918 males and 523,322 females —a sex ratio of 997 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000.[23] 92,848 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 47,582 are boys and 45,266 are girls—a ratio of 951 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 82.59% (male 86.25%; female 78.94%) with 789,038 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.[3][24]

The Vijayawada urban agglomeration had a population of 1,491,202.[3] The city's population is expected to reach 2.5 million by 2025.[11]

In 2016, Vijayawada had a projected population of 17.7 lakh living in 57 square kilometres of land area – 31,200 people in every square km. It is third most density populated city in the world in 1022 cities as per UN data.[25]

Governance[edit]

Civic administration[edit]

Vijayawada Municipal Corporation is the civic governing body of the city. It was constituted on 1 April 1888, and was upgraded to selection grade municipality in 1960 and finally to corporation in the year 1981. The jurisdictional area of the corporation is spread over an area of 61.8 km2 (23.9 sq mi) with 59 wards.[26]

Vijayawada urban agglomeration is spread over an area of 110.44 km2 (42.64 sq mi) in two districts of Krishna and Guntur.[1] Its constituents in Krishna district are Vijayawada municipal corporation, out growths of Gollapudi, Jakkampudi, Ambapuram, Phiryadi Nainavaram, Pathapadu, Nunna, Enikepadu, Nidamanuru, Done Atkuru, Ganguru, Penamaluru, census towns of Ramavarappadu, Prasadampadu, Kanuru, Poranki, Tadigadapa, Yenamalakuduru. While, in Guntur district are Tadepalle municipality and its out growth of Undavalli, Mangalagiri municipality and its out growths of Navuluru and Atmakur.[27]

The present municipal commissioner of the city is G.Veerapandian.[28] While, the present mayor is Koneru Sridhar.[29]

Utility services

Water supply, maintenance of roads, drainage and Solid waste management services are provided by the Vijayawada Municipal Corporation. There exists underground drainage system in the city since 1967–68. Many green parks are maintained by the corporation to protect the environment such as, Raghavaiah park, Rajiv Gandhi park, Dr.B.R Ambedkar park, Mahatma Gandhi park etc.[30] As per National Urban Sanitation Policy, the city was ranked 24th in the country in 2009–10, with a total of 24.580 points.[31] The corporation won many awards and achievements such as, National Urban Water Award (2009), Siti e-Governance Project by CRISIL, CSI Nihilent runner-up, finalists in Stockholm Challenge, ISO 9001 certification for Quality Management System.[1]

Law and order[edit]

The Vijayawada City Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service officer of Additional Director General of Police rank along with two Deputy Commissioners of Police who are also IPS officers. The present Police commissioner is Goutham Savangh.[32] This city also has its own Commissionarate.

Economy[edit]

A view of PVP Mall on M.G.Road
Trendset Mall near Benz Circle

Vijayawada is the second largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh of India. It is one of the Tier-II cities and categorized under B-1 grade cities of India .[1][2] Factors contributing to its economic growth include agricultural exports, tourism, resources, industries and transportation etc., with the economy depends largely on trade and commerce, providing entrepreneurial growth. About 70% of the working people are involved in tertiary activities. The GDP of Vijayawada in 2010 was $3 billion (Rs. 18,000 crore) and is expected to grow up to $17 billion (Rs. 1,02,000 crore) by 2025.[3] Agriculture[edit] Farms and plantations in the area are irrigated using water from the Krishna River and Prakasham Barrage. The city is one of the largest exporters of mango in the state of Andhra Pradesh and earns revenue from the mango plantations. Other important crops include rice and sugarcane.[4]

Industrial sector[edit] Industrial sector is based mainly on agro products processing, textile, automobile body building, hardware, consumer goods, fertilizers, and small industries. The two well equipped industrial estates in Vijayawada are Auto-Nagar and other near Kondapalli.[4]

Agro-based and textile industries

Vijayawada is the hub of agricultural markets of Krishna district. The trade and exports agro commodities such as, Tobacco, cotton, turmeric and mangoes etc., and solvent extract plants, oil, dal and rice mills are located around the city.[3] There are textile markets at Old Town, Kaleswara Rao market area, Governorpet and Besant Road for textile trade.[4]

Automobile and heavy industries

Auto Nagar industrial estate, also known as Jawahar Lal Nehru Auto Nagar Estate, is an industrial park dedicated to the automobile industry. It is one of the largest of its kind in Asia.[4]

The industrial estate in Kondapalli has an 450 acres (1.8 km2) industrial park with more than 800 industries.[5]

Industrial parks

There are some of the industrial parks present and proposed in and around the city. Apparel Park, is an industrial development project, spread over an area 1,000 acres (400 ha), is located at 25 km from the city. L&T Hitech City Limited, a proposed IT/ITES SEZ project, spread over an area of 30 km2 (12 sq mi), is located near Gannavaram airport. IT park, proposed in an area of 40 km2 (15 sq mi), is located in Mangalagiri town, near Vijayawada.[3]

Transportation[edit]

Vijayawada Railway Station The city is well connected to the rest of the country by National Highways, Railways, boosting trade. Vijayawada railway station with A-1 status, is one of the important railway junctions in India contributing the highest revenues in the South Central Railway.[6] It also has a domestic airport at Gannavaram, which is the headquarters for regional airliner Air Costa.[7]

Resources[edit] Power plants

Kondapalli Estate houses thermal plant namely Vijayawada Thermal Power Station is one of the coal based power plants of the APGENCO. It has a capacity of 1760 MW with 6 units of 210 MW and 1 unit of 500 MW currently under operation.[8] Another power plant in the estate is Lanco Kondapalli Power Ltd., a gas based plant with a capacity of 732 MW serve the power needs of the city and state.[9] Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) in agreement with APGENCO will to take up technology demonstration project plant of 182 MW capacity.[10]

Tourism[edit]

Kanaka Durga Temple, Vijayawada The important tourism city of Vijayawada after Visakhapatnam in the state has certain landmarks and visitor attractions in and around the city such as Prakasam barrage, parks, museums, caves, river island and religious sites etc.

Real estate[edit] The growing population and economy have resulted in rising real estate prices.[11] Real-estate companies are building housing projects in the city outskirts with many residential townships.

Culture[edit]

Vijayawada – Kanaka Durga Temple

The city has good history in art, literature and culture. There exists many religions, languages with different traditions and festivals.[33] Dussera celebrations are noticeable which involves Durga Pooja, Theppotsavam[34] mainly due to the existence of self manifested Kanaka Durga Temple, other festivals like Ganesh Chaturthi, Diwali etc., of Hindus, Eid ul-Fitr of Muslims and Christmas of Christians. The clothing includes traditional men wearing dhoti and women wearing saree and salwar kameez. Western clothing is also predominant in the urban areas.[35]

Arts, crafts and artefacts

Vijayawada Art Society promotes Telugu arts.[36] The city had hosted Poetic Prism-2015, a multi-lingual poet's meet in the city on 19 September 2015. All these activities are organised in collaboration with organisations like the Cultural Centre of Vijayawada.[37] Kondapalli Toys are an example handmade toys by local artisans at Kondapalli village, a suburb of Vijayawada.[38] Victoria Jubilee Museum is an archaeological museum which has sculptures, paintings and artefacts of Buddhist and Hindu relics, dated back to 2nd and 3rd centuries.[39]

Cityscape[edit]

Panorama of Vijayawada
Benz Circle in Vijayawada

The city of Vijayawada has old and new town areas. The I–Town area of the city is known as Old city area, comprising areas such as, Islampet, Jendachettu Centre, Kamsalipet, Rajarajeswaripet, Kothapet, Ajithsinghnagar, Jendachettu Centre and Winchipet.[40] The new city areas includes areas such as, Autonagar, Benz circle, Chuttugunta, Labbipet, Machavaram Down, Mogalrajapuram, NTR circle, Tikkle Road, Governorpet, Pinnamaneni Polyclinic Road and Suryaraopet.[40][41][42]

Brindavan Colony, Commercial Taxes Colony, Gunadala, Veterinary Colony are some of the residential areas in the city.[41] While, Bank Colony, Bharati Nagar, Currency Nagar, Satyanarayana Puram, Gurunanak Colony, LIC Colony, Patamata and MG Road are the upscale residential areas.[43][44] The major commercial areas in the city include the stretch of MG Road and from Benz Circle to Ramavarappadu Ring.[41][44] Other commercial centres are Besant Road, Rajagopalachari street, One town market area covering Kaleswara Rao Market and Vastralatha.[45][46][47]

Idol of Krishnaveni on the banks of Krishna River

The city has many landmarks which include, Prakasham Barrage across the Krishna river;[48] Krishnaveni Mandapam (River Museum) depicting the history of Krishna river and a nearby idol of the river known as, Krishnaveni statue; Gandhi Hill, the first Gandhi Memorial in the country, located at an elevation of 500 ft on the on a hill; Bhavani Island, one of the largest river island amidst Krishna River. There are also landmarks of religious importance such as, Kanaka Durga Temple on Indrakeeladri hill;[14] Hazarat Bal Mosque, a holy relic of the Prophet Mohammed; and the Gunadala Mary Matha Church installed by St. Joseph's Orphanage.

Prakasam Barrage

Nearby landmarks in the surrounding suburbs include Mogalarajapuram Caves (5th century AD), Undavalli Caves (7th century AD Buddhist landmark), Kondapalli Fort (7th century AD) in Kondapalli village etc., Lord Narasimha temple in Mangalagiri, located 14 km from the city, is the abode of Lord Narasimha. Kondapalli Forest, located 20 km from Vijayawada, is spread over 121.5 square kilometres (30,000 acres). The fauna include of this forest include leopards, wild dogs, jackals, wild boar, wolves etc.[49]

Transport[edit]

The city is known for traffic Jams both on Roads and in Railways.[50]

Road[edit]

Departure Block
1932 model bus India named as Deccan Queen and was used in passenger service by the Nizam govt. of Hyderabad kingdom
Asian Highway 45 over River Krishna, Vijayawada

Vijayawada is well connected to the major destinations through various national and state highways. National Highway 16, a part of Asian Highway 45 and Golden Quadrilateral is a major highway that passes through the city and connects Kolkata and Chennai.[51] While, other highways such as, National Highway 65 links the city with PuneMachilipatnam route and National Highway 221 with Jagdalpur of Chhattisgarh. Inner Ring Road connects both NH 16 and 65 and serves the main purpose of easing city traffic congestion.[52] Canal Road, M.G.Road and Eluru Road are the major internal arterial roads of the city.[53][54] It is connected to other areas of the district by district roads and the city has a total road length of 1,264.24 km (785.56 mi).[55]

Garuda Plus bus service of the APSRTC
Metro Luxury bus at Vijayawada bus station

The Pandit Nehru Bus Station was inaugurated on 23 September 1990 and was officially named as Telugu Satavahana Prayana Pranganam later renamed to its current name. It is Fourth largest and busiest bus terminals in India alongside Delhi, CMBT (Chennai) and MGBS (Hyderabad). State run APSRTC buses are operated from the terminal. APSRTC runs more than 450 city buses in the city which include Ordinary, Metro Express and City Sheetal (A/C Buses). It is the first city in the south India to introduce CNG buses in its fleet. Vijayawada Municipal Corporation (VMC) has a BRTS circuit of 15.5 km in the city.[56][57]

Private bus operators also provide transport services. Motor-driven auto-rickshaws and manual-driven cycle-rickshaws are the other alternative means of transport within Vijayawada. Private lorries, cars and two-wheelers are common.

Rail[edit]

Main article: Vijayawada Junction
Vijayawada Railway Station

Vijayawada railway station is an important junction in South Central Railway zone of Indian Railways. It is situated along the Howrah-Chennai main line and Delhi–Chennai line and categorised as an A-1 station under the jurisdiction of Vijayawada railway division.[58] It is one of the busiest station, handling more than 320 trains (both passenger and freight trains) per day next to Howrah and Mumbai. It has an Electric Loco Shed with a capacity to maintain 100 Electric Locomotives and a Wagon workshop at Guntupalli, near Vijayawada. Madhuranagar, Gunadala, Rayanapadu, Kondapalli, Nidamanuru, Krishna Canal, Ramavarappadu, Kolanukonda, Mangalagiri, Gannavaram are the other railway stations in the city.

Air[edit]

Main article: Vijayawada Airport
Air Costa at Vijayawada Airport

Vijayawada Airport is located at Gannavaram. It connects the city Hyderabad, Bangalore, Coimbatore, Chennai, Delhi, Visakhapatnam, Tirupati and Kadapa. Vijayawada Airport is served by Air India, SpiceJet, TruJet and Air Costa. To cater to the increasing passenger traffic, the foundation stone for a new terminal building was laid in October 2015.The terminal was completed in 14 months and inaugurated on 12 January 2017.The structure, built at a cost of rupees 135 Crores, will act as an interim terminal before the International terminal is built.

The interim terminal and the ceremonial lounge spread over 12, 999 square metres will include check-in area, arrival hall, meet and greet service staircase, aviation lounge, and baggage make up area. The lounge is spread over 3,613 square metres. The terminal can handle up to 500 passengers at any point of time and have 18 check-in counters.

Education[edit]

NTR University of Health Sciences
Administrtive office of V.R. Siddhartha Engineering College

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[59][60] As per the school information report for the academic year 2015–16, the city limits have more than one lakh students enrolled in approximately 500 schools.[61][62] The state and CBSE syllabus are followed by schools for the Secondary School Certificate.[63][64] The medium of instruction followed by schools are English, Telugu and Urdu.[65]

Andhra Pradesh Library Association has its headquarters located at Vijayawada.[66]

Colleges & Universities

The first college built in Vijayawada was SRR & CVR Government College. Andhra Loyola College was established in 1953. The Govt Polytechnic College was established here in 1960. The first private engineering college in Andhra Pradesh, V R Siddhartha Engineering College, is located here. School of Planning and Architecture, Vijayawada (SPAV) was established in 2008, a higher education institute in Vijayawada. It is one of the three School of Planning and Architecture (SPAs) established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development in 2008 as an autonomous institute and a fully Central funded Institution.

There are many other colleges namely MIC College of Technology, Prasad V. Potluri Siddhartha Institute of Technology, Nalanda Degree College, Maris Stella College, P.B. Siddhartha College of Arts and Sciences, Andhra Loyola Institute of Engineering & Technology, Potti Sriramulu College of Engineering & Technology.

Media[edit]

The major Telugu newspapers in city are Eenadu, [Andhrajyothi]Sakshi, Andhra Bhoomi, Andhra Prabha, Vaartha, Suryaa, Prajasakti and Vishalandra. The major English newspapers in the city are The Hindu, The Times of India, Deccan Chronicle, The Hindu Business Line, The New Indian Express and The Hans India. Electronic Media include HMTV, ETV, [ABN Andhrajyothi] and Sakshi.

Saptagiri Doordarshan TV channel for Andhra Pradesh is aired from Vijayawada Doordarshan Kendra.

Vijayawada All India Radio is oldest radio stations in combined Andhra Pradesh. This radio station was started much before Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam ones. Many great artists worked at this All India Radio Kendra.

Rainbow FM, S FM and Radio Mirchi are two other FM radio channels that are aired from Vijayawada.

Sports[edit]

Vijayawada PWD Ground

Indira Gandhi Stadium of the city is the headquarters of Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh.[67] Mangalagiri International Cricket Stadium is being built in a 20-acre (8.1 ha) site at Mangalagiri of Guntur district, located at 15 km from the city of Vijayawada. It'll serve as the Andhra Cricket Association stadium.[68] Only one international cricket match was played between India and West Indies on 24 November 2002 at Indira Gandhi stadium. It was won by West Indies. The biggest cricket bat record in Guinness Book of World Records currently held by the 100-feet cricket bat installed at this Stadium was kept on display during this match. On 12 December 1997 Women's Cricket Worldcup only a group match was played between England Women's Cricket Team and Pakistan women's cricket team, and it was won by England. Indian women's cricket academy is located in Guntur the twin city of vijayawada. Vijaya Madhavi Tennis Academy is situated in Layola College, led by Shri. Radha Krishna Murthy, a prominent tennis player.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Vijayawada, India". fallingrain.com. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Andhra Pradesh (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". 
  4. ^ "Census 2011". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
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  6. ^ "Amidst land rush, malls vacant". Deccan Chronicle. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  7. ^ Special Correspondent. "AP Capital Region Development Authority comes into being". The Hindu. 
  8. ^ "About Vijayawada". vgtmuda. Archived from the original on 2015-07-22. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
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  10. ^ "Vijayawada is third densely packed city; 31,200 people in every square km". Retrieved 2016-08-25. 
  11. ^ a b "Global cities of the future: An interactive map | McKinsey & Company". Mckinseyquarterly.com. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  12. ^ "Economy of the City" (PDF). City Development Initiative For Asia. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  13. ^ Ross. Corporate Finance 8E. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-07-009124-5. Retrieved 30 March 2016. 
  14. ^ a b "Vijayawada Region". AP Tourism. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  15. ^ Ayyar, P. V. Jagadisa (1993). South Indian Shrines (Rev. and enl. ed.). New Delhi [u.a.]: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0151-3. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  16. ^ Reddy, V.V. Subba (2009). Temples of South India. New Delhi: Gyan Pub. House. p. 80. ISBN 978-81-212-1022-5. Retrieved 7 June 2015. 
  17. ^ Sculptures in a cavern at Bezawara [Vijayawada] supposed to belong to the Jain Religion. 21 August 1815, retrieved 2 September 2013 
  18. ^ "Xuan Zang stayed in Vijayawada to study Buddhist scriptures". 
  19. ^ "Andhra Pradesh / Vijayawada News : Canal bunds hot beds for growth of slums spotlight". The Hindu. 23 August 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  20. ^ "Vijayawada weather". Deccan Chronicle. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  21. ^ "Vijayawada Climatological Table Period: 1981–2010". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  22. ^ "Climate: vijayawada". Retrieved 19 February 2016. 
  23. ^ "Sex Ratio". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  24. ^ "Chapter–3 (Literates and Literacy rate)" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  25. ^ "Vijayawada is third densely packed city; 31,200 people in every square km". 
  26. ^ "Vijayawada Municipal Corporation". Ourvmc.org. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  27. ^ "Name of Urban Agglomeration and its State constituent Units-2011" (PDF). Census of India. p. 11,22–23. Retrieved 21 September 2015. 
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