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Bejjamwada, Bezawada, Rajendracholapuram
Clockwise from Top Left:Vijayawada City View, Kanakadurga Temple on Indrakeeladri, Prakasam Barrage, Vijayawada Junction Railway Station, VMC Pylon
Clockwise from Top Left:Vijayawada City View, Kanakadurga Temple on Indrakeeladri, Prakasam Barrage, Vijayawada Junction Railway Station, VMC Pylon
Nickname(s): The Place of Victory
Vijayawada is located in Andhra Pradesh
Location of Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates: 16°31′09″N 80°37′50″E / 16.5193°N 80.6305°E / 16.5193; 80.6305Coordinates: 16°31′09″N 80°37′50″E / 16.5193°N 80.6305°E / 16.5193; 80.6305
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
District Krishna
Founded by Arjuna
Named for Victory
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Vijayawada Municipal Corporation
 • MLAs
 • MP Kesineni Srinivas
 • Municipal commissioner G.Veerapandian
 • Mayor Koneru Sridhar
 • Metropolis 61.88 km2 (23.89 sq mi)
 • Metro 110.44 km2 (42.64 sq mi)
Area rank 6th (in state)
Elevation[2] 23 m (75 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • Metropolis 1,034,358
 • Rank th (India)
2nd (Andhra Pradesh)
 • Density 31,289/km2 (81,040/sq mi)
 • Metro[3] 1,494,358
Demonym(s) Vijayawadian[4]
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code +91–866
Vehicle registration AP–16 (AP 17, AP 18 and AP 19 reserved)

Vijayawada is metropolitan city on the banks of the Krishna River, in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipal corporation and the headquarters of Vijayawada (urban) mandal in Krishna district of the state. The city forms a part of Andhra Pradesh Capital Region and the headquarters of Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority is located in the city.[5] The city is one of the major trading and business centres of the state and hence, it is also known as "The Business Capital of Andhra Pradesh".[6][7] The city is one of the two metropolis in the state, with the other being Visakhapatnam.

As of 2011 census, the city had a population of 1,048,240, making it the second largest city in the state in terms of population and it had an urban agglomeration population of 1,491,202.[3] As per the Demographia World Urban Areas:2016, the city is the third most densely populated in terms of urban population in built-up areas of the world.[8] The city has been recognised as a "Global City of the Future" by McKinsey Quarterly.[9] It is one of the commercial hubs of Andhra Pradesh with a nominal GDP of $3 billion in 2010, and is expected to increase to $17 billion by 2025.[10]


There are many legends behind the origin of the name Vijayawada. Goddess Durga killed the demon and relaxed in this place for some time. As she was victorious (vijaya), the place came to be known as Vijayawada (vijaya translates to victory and wada as place/location, literally "The Place of Victory").[11] The epic Mahabharata refers to the Indrakiladri hills as the place where Arjuna secured Pashupatastra from Lord Shiva. The city thereafter came to be known as Vijayavatika and later as Vijayawada.[12] In some legends, Vijayawada was referred to as Rajendracholapura. A tale behind its acquiring the name "Bezawada" is that Goddess Krishnaveni (River Krishna) requested Arjuna to make a passage for her to merge into the Bay of Bengal. Hence, Arjuna made a bejjam (hole) through the mountains and the place came to be known as Bejjamwada which later changed to Bezawada.[13][14]


Vijayawada history reveals that Bezawada (Vijayawada) was ruled by King Madhava Varma (Ancestor of Pusapatis of Vizianagaram).[15] Chinese Buddhist scholar Xuanzang stayed few years in Bezawada (Vijayawada) in around 640 A.D. to copy and study the Abhidhamma Pitaka, the last of the three pitakas (Pali for baskets) constituting the Pali canon, the scriptures of Theravada Buddhism.[16]


Vijayawada is located at 16°31′09″N 80°37′50″E / 16.5193°N 80.6305°E / 16.5193; 80.6305 and has an altitude of 11 m (36 ft).[2] It lies on the banks of Krishna River and is also surrounded on the north by Budameru River. The northern, northwestern, and southwestern parts of the city are covered by a low range of hills, while the central, southwestern and northwestern parts are covered by rich and fertile agriculture lands with three major irrigation canals. The topography of Vijayawada is flat, with a few small to medium-sized hills. The Krishna River runs along the city. These hills are part of the Eastern Ghats cut through by the Krishna river. Three canals originating from the north side of the Prakasham barrage reservoir, Eluru, Bandar and Ryves, run through the city.[17]


Vijayawada has a tropical climate with hot summers and a monsoon season. Temperatures can reach 47 °C (117 °F) in May–June, while the winter temperatures rarely fall below 15 °C (59 °F)

. The average humidity is 78%, and the average annual rainfall is 921.5 millimetres (36 in). Vijayawada gets its rainfall from both the southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon. With its hot and humid conditions, the city is often referred as Blazewada.[18]

Climate data for Vijayawada (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.2
Average low °C (°F) 18.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1
Average precipitation days 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.8 2.5 6.8 12.1 10.5 8.8 7.7 2.5 0.8 54.5
Source #1: India Meteorological Department[19]
Source #2:[20]


Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1871 8,206 —    
1881 9,366 +14.1%
1891 20,224 +115.9%
1901 24,224 +19.8%
1911 32,867 +35.7%
1921 44,159 +34.4%
1931 60,427 +36.8%
1941 86,184 +42.6%
1951 161,198 +87.0%
1961 234,360 +45.4%
1971 344,607 +47.0%
1981 543,008 +57.6%
1991 845,756 +55.8%
2001 1,039,518 +22.9%
2011 1,491,202 +43.5%
Since 1871, the population is that of Vijayawada Urban Agglomeration

Sources: Rao, Kondapalli Ranga; 1. Rao, M. S. A. (1984). Cities and Slums: A study of a Squatters' Settlement in the City of Vijayawada. Concept Publishing Company. p. 12. 

2. Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011 City Name:VIJAYAWADA

As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 1,048,240. The total population constitute, 524,918 males and 523,322 females —a sex ratio of 997 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000.[21] 92,848 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 47,582 are boys and 45,266 are girls—a ratio of 951 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 82.59% (male 86.25%; female 78.94%) with 789,038 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.[3][22]

The Vijayawada urban agglomeration had a population of 1,491,202.[3] The city's population is expected to reach 2.5 million by 2025.[9]

In 2016, Vijayawada had a projected population of 17.7 lakh living in 57 square kilometres of land area – 31,200 people in every square km. It is third most density populated city in the world in 1022 cities as per UN data.[23]


Civic administration[edit]

Vijayawada Municipal Corporation is the civic governing body of the city. It was constituted on 1 April 1888, and was upgraded to selection grade municipality in 1960 and finally to corporation in the year 1981. The jurisdictional area of the corporation is spread over an area of 61.8 km2 (23.9 sq mi) with 59 wards.[24] The present municipal commissioner of the city is G.Veerapandian.[25] While, the present mayor is Koneru Sridhar.[26]

As per the G.O. 104 (dated:23-03-2017), the Municipal Administration and Urban Development has declared Vijayawada as metropolitan area. Its jurisdiction covers areas of Vijayawada municipal corporation and its contiguous areas such as, Ambapuram, Buddavaram, Done Atkuru, Enikepadu, Ganguru, Gannavaram, Gollapudi, Gudavalli, Jakkampudi, Kanuru, Kesarapalle, Nidamanuru, Nunna, Pathapadu, Penamaluru, Phiryadi Nainavaram, Poranki, Prasadampadu, Ramavarappadu, Tadigadapa, Yanamalakuduru.[27][28] While, in Guntur district the urban agglomeration ares of Vijayawada are, Tadepalle municipality and its out growth of Undavalli, Mangalagiri municipality and its out growths of Navuluru and Atmakur.[29]

Utility services

Water supply, maintenance of roads, drainage and Solid waste management services are provided by the Vijayawada Municipal Corporation. There exists underground drainage system in the city since 1967–68. Many green parks are maintained by the corporation to protect the environment such as, Raghavaiah park, Rajiv Gandhi park, Dr.B.R Ambedkar park, Mahatma Gandhi park etc.[30] As per National Urban Sanitation Policy, the city was ranked 24th in the country in 2009–10, with a total of 24.580 points.[31] The corporation won many awards and achievements such as, National Urban Water Award (2009), Siti e-Governance Project by CRISIL, CSI Nihilent runner-up, finalists in Stockholm Challenge, ISO 9001 certification for Quality Management System.[1]

Law and order[edit]

The Vijayawada City Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service officer of Additional Director General of Police rank along with one joint commissioner of police andfour Deputy Commissioners of Police who are also IPS officers. The present Police commissioner is Goutham Savangh.[32] This city also has its own Commissionarate.


A view of PVP Mall on M.G.Road
Trendset Mall near Benz Circle

The sectors that contribute to the economy of the city are, hospitality, registrations, construction, industries, education, food processing, transport, entertainment etc.[33] Vijayawada is famous for processing of agricultural products, automobile body building, hardware, textile, consumer goods and small scale industries. GDP of Vijayawada for 2008 was estimated at Rs 55.26 billion and it was $3 billion (Rs. 180 billion) in 2010.[9][34] The fact that Vijayawada is well connected through rail and road, makes it one of the main hubs of commercial activities.

The city is promoting the usage of renewable energy sources. It is one of the city in the state to use biodiesel, alongside Visakhapatnam.[35] The city is covered under Solar/Green Cities scheme launched by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and is one of the 15 cities in the country listed in Pilot Solar Cities.[36]

Agro-based industries such as cotton, turmeric, and Virginia tobacco are located in the surrounding areas. There are also oil, dal and rice mills located at Kondapalli.

Industrial estates

The two well equipped industrial estates in Vijayawada are Auto-Nagar and another near Kondapalli. The Jawahar Lal Nehru Auto Nagar Industrial Estate in Vijayawada is one of the largest auto industry hubs of Asia. The industrial estate in Kondapalli suburb is spread over 450 acres (1.8 km2), and is base to more than 800 industries. The Kondapalli Estate houses thermal power plants, and is base to more than 800 industrial units. Kondapalli suburb also houses Andhra Pradesh Heavy Machinery and Engineering Limited (APHMEL) factory.[37] It is also a hub for storage, bottling and transportation of petroleum products of all major companies like BPCL, HPCL, IOC etc.[38]


Vijayawada – Kanaka Durga Temple

The city has good history in art, literature and culture. There exists many religions, languages with different traditions and festivals.[39][40] Durga Pooja and a special Theppotsavam in Krishna river are important events of Hindu festival of Dussera in the city, mainly due to the existence of self manifested Kanaka Durga Temple.[41] Hazarat Bal Mosque is a Muslim shrine housing the holy relic of the Prophet Mohammed.[42] The Gunadala Mary Matha Church is an important shrine for the Christians and illuminates during the eve of Christmas.[43] The city corporation organises Happy Sunday, an event organised on the first Sunday of every month at M.G. Road for promoting activities such as, sports, games, cultural events, yoga etc.[44] The clothing of the locals include, traditional men wearing dhoti and women wearing saree, salwar kameez. Western clothing is also a predominant one.[45]

Arts, crafts and artefacts

Vijayawada Art Society promotes Telugu arts.[46] The city had hosted Poetic Prism-2015, a multi-lingual poet's meet in the city on 19 September 2015.[40] All these activities are organised in collaboration with Cultural Centre of Vijayawada. Kondapalli Toys are an handmade toys by the local artisans of Kondapalli, a suburb of Vijayawada.[47] Victoria Jubilee Museum is an archaeological museum in the city, which houses sculptures, paintings and artefacts of Buddhist and Hindu relics, dated back to 2nd and 3rd centuries.[48]


Panorama of Vijayawada
Benz Circle in Vijayawada

The city of Vijayawada has old and new town areas. The I–Town area of the city is known as Old city area, comprising areas such as, Islampet, Jendachettu Centre, Kamsalipet, Rajarajeswaripet, Kothapet, Ajithsinghnagar, Jendachettu Centre and Winchipet.[49] The new city areas includes areas such as, Autonagar, Benz circle, Chuttugunta, Labbipet, Machavaram Down, Mogalrajapuram, NTR circle, Tikkle Road, Governorpet, Pinnamaneni Polyclinic Road and Suryaraopet.[49][50][51]

Brindavan Colony, Commercial Taxes Colony, Gunadala, Veterinary Colony are some of the residential areas in the city.[50] While, Bank Colony, Bharati Nagar, Currency Nagar, Satyanarayana Puram, Gurunanak Colony, LIC Colony, Patamata and MG Road are the upscale residential areas.[52][53] The major commercial areas in the city include the stretch of MG Road and from Benz Circle to Ramavarappadu Ring.[50][53] Other commercial centres are Besant Road, Rajagopalachari street, One town market area covering Kaleswara Rao Market and Vastralatha.[54][55][56]

Idol of Krishnaveni on the banks of Krishna River

The city has many landmarks which include, Prakasham Barrage across the Krishna river;[57] Krishnaveni Mandapam (River Museum) depicting the history of Krishna river and a nearby idol of the river known as, Krishnaveni statue; Gandhi Hill, the first Gandhi Memorial in the country, located at an elevation of 500 ft on the on a hill; Bhavani Island, one of the largest river island amidst Krishna River.

Prakasam Barrage

Nearby landmarks in the surrounding suburbs include Mogalarajapuram Caves (5th century AD), Undavalli Caves (7th century AD Buddhist landmark), Kondapalli Fort (7th century AD) in Kondapalli village etc., Lord Narasimha temple in Mangalagiri, located 14 km from the city, is the abode of Lord Narasimha. Kondapalli Forest, located 20 km from Vijayawada, is spread over 121.5 square kilometres (30,000 acres). The fauna include of this forest include leopards, wild dogs, jackals, wild boar, wolves etc.[58]


Public transport[edit]

APSRTC Amaravathi bus at Vijayawada bus station

The RTC House at Pandit Nehru Bus Station of the city is the headquarters of APSRTC.[59][60] It operates city, suburban and district buses from the terminal.[61] City buses and auto rickshaws are the primary modes of public transport in the city. Apart from these, the other types of public transit covers, motorcycles, cycle rickshaws, bicycles etc.[62] Most of the city commuters uses private transit when compared to public.[62]:44 Vijayawada Bus Rapid Transit System is a dedicated bus corridor operating in five different routes of the city.[63] There are close to 8,500 autos operating in the city,[64] which may be close to 13,000 with the suburbs included, still providing environmental friendly transit with the use of CNG.[65] The civic authority has also introduced women driven autos named as, She Autos.[66]

There are more than 700,000 vehicles on the city roads and the increase in the vehicular traffic is leading to traffic jams.[67] The high density of the traffic is observed on Bandar road.[62]:38


The Deccan Queen, a 1932 model Albion vehicle

Vijayawada is well connected to the major destinations through various national and state highways. National Highway 16, a part of Asian Highway 45 and Golden Quadrilateral network, is a major highway that bypasses the city and connects Kolkata and Chennai.[68][69] Other important national highways such as, National Highway 65 linking the cities of Pune and Machilipatnam; National Highway 30 connecting Jagdalpur of Chhattisgarh also bypasses the city.[70][69]

The city has a total road length of 1,264.24 km (785.56 mi).[71] Inner Ring Road connects both NH 16 and 65 to serves the main purpose of easing city traffic congestion.[72] Canal Road, M.G.Road and Eluru Road are the major internal arterial roads of the city.[73][74]


Main article: Vijayawada Junction
Vijayawada Railway Station

Vijayawada railway station is an important junction in South Central Railway zone of Indian Railways. It is situated along the Howrah-Chennai main line and Delhi–Chennai line and categorised as an A-1 station under the jurisdiction of Vijayawada railway division.[75] It is one of the busiest station, handling more than 320 trains (both passenger and freight trains) per day next to Howrah and Mumbai. It has an Electric Loco Shed with a capacity to maintain 100 Electric Locomotives and a Wagon workshop at Guntupalli, near Vijayawada. Madhuranagar, Gunadala, Rayanapadu, Kondapalli, Nidamanuru, Krishna Canal, Ramavarappadu, Kolanukonda, Mangalagiri, Gannavaram are the other railway stations in the city.


Main article: Vijayawada Airport
Air Costa at Vijayawada Airport

Vijayawada Airport is located at Gannavaram. It which was renamed after the state capital, Amaravati and serves the city and nearby areas.[76]


NTR University of Health Sciences
Administrtive office of V.R. Siddhartha Engineering College

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[77][78] As per the school information report for the academic year 2015–16, the city limits have more than one lakh students enrolled in approximately 500 schools.[79][80] The state and CBSE syllabus are followed by schools for the Secondary School Certificate.[81][82] The medium of instruction followed by schools are English, Telugu and Urdu.[83]

Andhra Pradesh Library Association has its headquarters located at Vijayawada.[84]

Colleges & Universities

The first college built in Vijayawada was SRR & CVR Government College. Andhra Loyola College was established in 1953. The Govt Polytechnic College was established here in 1960. The first private engineering college in Andhra Pradesh, V R Siddhartha Engineering College, is located here. School of Planning and Architecture, Vijayawada (SPAV) was established in 2008, a higher education institute in Vijayawada. It is one of the three School of Planning and Architecture (SPAs) established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development in 2008 as an autonomous institute and a fully Central funded Institution.

There are many other colleges namely MIC College of Technology, Prasad V. Potluri Siddhartha Institute of Technology, Nalanda Degree College, Maris Stella College, P.B. Siddhartha College of Arts and Sciences, Andhra Loyola Institute of Engineering & Technology, Potti Sriramulu College of Engineering & Technology.


The major Telugu newspapers in city are Eenadu, [Andhrajyothi] Sakshi, Andhra Bhoomi, Andhra Prabha, Vaartha, Suryaa, Prajasakti and Vishalandra. The major English newspapers in the city are The Hindu, The Times of India, Deccan Chronicle, The Hindu Business Line, The New Indian Express and The Hans India. Electronic Media include HMTV, ETV, [ABN Andhrajyothi] and Sakshi.

Saptagiri Doordarshan TV channel for Andhra Pradesh is aired from Vijayawada Doordarshan Kendra.

Vijayawada All India Radio is oldest radio stations in combined Andhra Pradesh. This radio station was started much before Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam ones.


Vijayawada PWD Ground

Indira Gandhi Stadium of the city is the headquarters of Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh.[85] Mangalagiri International Cricket Stadium is being built in a 20-acre (8.1 ha) site at Mangalagiri of Guntur district, located at 15 km from the city of Vijayawada. It'll serve as the Andhra Cricket Association stadium.[86] Only one international cricket match was played between India and West Indies on 24 November 2002 at Indira Gandhi stadium. It was won by West Indies. The biggest cricket bat record in Guinness Book of World Records currently held by the 100-feet cricket bat installed at this Stadium was kept on display during this match. On 12 December 1997 Women's Cricket Worldcup group match was played between England Women's Cricket Team and Pakistan women's cricket team, and it was won by England. . Vijaya Madhavi Tennis Academy is situated in Layola College, led by Shri. Radha Krishna Murthy, a prominent tennis player. Loyola Grounds also hosted many national level events which includes a Ranji match. This stadium has a gallery facility which can accommodate 10000 people at a time.[citation needed]

Railway sports stadium near railway station hosted several national level railway and few non railway events. This stadium has gallery facility of over 10000 people. Makineni Basava Punnaiah stadium is another open stadium in the city. Dandamudi Raja Gopal Rao indoor stadium is one of the famous badminton stadiums in AP. It hosted several national level badminton and table tennis championships [87][88]

ACA–KDCA Cricket Ground is on the out skirts of Vijayawada City. It recently hosted International women's cricket matches between India and West Indies.

See also[edit]


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