Vikersundbakken

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Vikersundbakken
VikersundbakkenWorld Cup Ski flying 2011.jpg
Location Vikersund
Norway
Opened 29 Jan 1936 (LH test)
16 Feb 1936 (LH official)
12 Mar 1966 (FH conver.)
Renovated 1956, 1966, 1977, 1990, 2000, 2011
Size
K-spot K-200
Hill size HS 225
Hill record 251.5 m (825 ft) World record icon.svg
Norway Anders Fannemel
(15 February 2015)
Top events
Ski Flying World Championships 1977, 1990, 2000, 2012
World Cup 1980, 1983, 1986, 1995,
1998, 2007, 2009, 2011,
2013, 2015, 2016

Vikersundbakken is a ski flying hill at Vikersund in Modum, Norway. It is the largest in the world. Seven world records have been set on the hill, with the current of 251.5 meters being set by Anders Fannemel.[1] The complex also consists of a large hill, a normal hill and several training hills.

The hill opened in 1936 as a large hill. It was rebuilt to become a ski flying hill in 1964 and has later been converted in 1989, 1999 and 2010. The large hill was built in 1988. The hill was the first to receive floodlights in 2006. It has hosted the FIS Ski Flying World Championships four times, in 1977, 1990, 2000, 2012.

History[edit]

Vikersundbakken.jpg

In 1894, Vikersund SK was established and started with ski jumping. Until the 1930s, they used six different ski jumping hills around the area. By then, the club had fostered sufficiently good jumpers that it was proposed to build a proper hill. A committee was established on 19 March 1935 and led by Gustav N. Hovde. At first they found a suitable location north of Heggen. However, they failed to reach an agreement with the land owner. Instead, Hovde proposed using the steep hill close to Heggen Church. After purchasing the land, construction started later in 1935. The original hill was designed by Thunold Hansen. Construction cost 6,290 Norwegian krone (NOK), of which NOK 1000 was borrowed and the rest of financed through private donations.[2]

The first hill had a length from the top of the in-run to the bottom of the out-run of 425 meters (1,394 ft) and an elevation difference of 130 meters (430 ft). The in-run was 115 meters (377 ft) long and had an elevation difference of 46 meters (151 ft).[2] The hill was inaugurated on 29 January 1936 with a 50-meter jump by Birger Henriksen. The longest jump on the opening day was made by Reidar Andersen, who jumped 86 meters. At the most he was 10 to 12 meters (33 to 39 ft) above the landing slope, so the take-off was lowered 40 centimeters (16 in) from 6 to 11 degrees.[3]

The main logistical issue with the events was the poor transport service, with only a narrow road to the hill. During the 1950s, the attendance rose well beyond the former 5,000, forcing the road to upgraded in 1955.[4] By the 1950s, ski jumps were being built larger and in 1954, Kristian Hovde proposed to expand Vikersundbakken, which he hoped would allow jumps of 100 meters (330 ft). The plans were passed by the club's annual meeting on 13 September, with construction starting in the summer of 1955. The lower part of the landing slope was dug down 1.75 meters (5 ft 9 in), the in-run was raised up to 85 centimeters (33 in) and a new jury tower and stairway was built. Additional expansion was passed on 27 April 1956: a 12-meter (39 ft) tall scaffolding in-run was built on top of the old in-run. The hill was designed by Carl Borgen. Contractors were Brødrene Teigen and since the club did not have sufficient funds, they were willing to wait with the payment until they had. The new hill was inaugurated on 10 March 1956.[5]

The new hill was too large to be regarded as a large hill, but was not large enough to be categorized as a ski flying hill. In 1964, the club appointed a committee led by Ottar Grøtterud to consider an expansion of the hill.[6] There was only to be built one ski flying hill in the Nordic Countries, with the main alternative being Renabakken in Rena.[7] Construction cost NOK 445,000 and was in part financed with a NOK 75,000 grant and NOK 150,000 loan from Modum Municipality, NOK 20,000 from volunteer work, NOK 80,000 from the club, grants from companies and banks and from Buskerud County Municipality, and NOK 100,000 in betting funds.[8] Construction was done by Entreprenør Gunnar Sterkebye. The hill received a new 23-meter (75 ft) tall in-run and a new jury tower 70 meters (230 ft) form the jump. On the landing slope and out-run, 200,000 cubic meters (7,100,000 cu ft) of earthwork had to be moved. Work was made more difficult because of high snowfall and temperatures down to −28 °C (−18 °F). The hill was inaugurated on 13 March 1966.[9]

The next upgrade of the venue were minor upgrades ahead of the 1977 World Championships.[9] Ahead of the 1990 World Championships, the venue was again renovated. However, to secure better recruitment, the venue also received a new normal hill with a K point of K-90.[10]

The hill was rebuilt for the 2012 Ski Flying World Championships. It was the first in the world with a hill size of 225 meters, making Vikersundbakken the largest ski flying hill in the world at the time. It has been built further into the terrain with sidewalls made of natural gravel to avoid wind problems during competitions. Furthermore, it has been slanted slightly to the south from the inrun area to further reduce wind problems. The hill was ready for the 2011 Trial Ski Flying World Championships held on 11–13 February 2011.

The old inrun was demolished in 2010. Architects of the new and larger hill were Slovenians Janez Gorišek and his son Sebastjan. Janez, together with his brother Lado, is most famous for creating Letalnica Bratov Gorišek in Planica, previously the largest hill in the world at HS 215, before Vikersundbakken was reprofiled and enlarged in 2011. Janez is usually named as the 'father' of modern ski flying and is also known as an expert on ski flying hills.

At the trial ski flying championship, Johan Remen Evensen jumped 243 meters to set a new world record during the first official training on 11 February 2011. Later, during qualification, Evensen improved the world record to 246.5 meters.

During autumn 2011 the hill was further improved with a different radius at HS 225, increasing the ability to stand on greater lengths. Additionally the jump itself was cut a meter short because of decreased inrun speed needed by the jumpers. During the 2011 event, it was deemed necessary to add several inrun gates the hill below gate 1 due to better conditions not anticipated by the organisers during construction in 2010. A total of five gates were added. Gregor Schlierenzauer praised the hill during interviews, calling it the best hill in the world.[citation needed] Evensen was also extremely satisfied with the hill, calling it "perfect".[citation needed] The K point was increased from K-195 in 2012 to K-200 in time for the 2015 event,[11] resulting in two new world records on the same weekend: Peter Prevc jumped 250 m (820 ft) and became to first to ever surpass the 250 m mark, and this was followed by Anders Fannemel with 251.5 m (825 ft) the next day. In a training round prior to Fannemel's jump, Dimitry Vassiliev jumped 254 m (833 ft) but fell hard upon landing, rendered his jump invalid as a world record.

Events[edit]

Opened as large hill in 1936 and converted into flying hill in 1966.

Date Hillsize Competition Winner Second Third
LARGE HILL (original)
16 Feb 1936 OP Norway Hilmar Myhra
1937 VIKC Norway Reidar Andersen
1938 VIKC
1939 VIKC
1940 VIKC Norway Reidar Andersen
17 Feb 1946 VIKC Norway Arnholdt Kongsgård Norway Reidar Andersen Norway Vidar Lindboe-Hansen
9 Mar 1947 VIKC Norway Thorleif Schjelderup Norway Svein Haakonsen Norway Hans Kaarstein
14 Mar 1948 VIKC Norway Arnholdt Kongsgård Norway Ivar Nilsen Norway Christian Mohn
1949 VIKC cancelled
19 Mar 1950 VIKC Norway Hans Bjørnstad Norway Ivar Nilsen Norway Birger Arnesen
18 Feb 1951 VIKC Norway Kjell Knarvik Norway Arne Hoel Norway Reidar Andersen
2 Mar 1952 VIKC Norway Arnfinn Bergmann Norway Arne Hoel Norway Svein Lien
8 Mar 1953 VIKC Norway Georg Thrane Norway Per Thyness Norway Thorleif Schjelderup
28 Feb 1954 VIKC Norway Asgeir Dølplads
3 Apr 1954 NRA
13 Mar 1955 VIKC cancelled; wind, rescheduled to 26 Mar
26 Mar 1955 VIKC Norway Arnfinn Karlstad Norway Simon Slåttvik Norway Erling Kroken
4 Mar 1956 VIKC Norway Asbjørn Osnes
10 Mar 1957 VIKC Norway Arne Hoel Norway Simon Slåttvik Norway Asbjørn Osnes
15 Mar 1958 VIKC
1 Mar 1959 VIKC Norway Arne Hoel Norway Odd A. Brevik Norway Olinius Skaaret
27 Mar 1960 VIKC Finland Markku Maatela Finland Paavo Lukkariniemi Norway Asbjørn Osnes
5 Mar 1961 VIKC Norway Olinius Skaaret
4 Mar 1962 VIKC Norway Asbjørn Osnes Finland Pekka Remes Finland Vesa Ekholm
10 Mar 1963 VIKC Norway Torbjørn Yggeseth Norway Torgeir Brandtzæg Finland Raimo Vitikainen
8 Mar 1964 VIKC Norway Toralf Engan Norway Bjørn Wirkola Norway Christoffer Selbekk
FLYING HILL (converted)
13 Mar 1966 VIKC Norway Bjørn Wirkola Norway Toralf Engan Norway Christoffer Selbekk
11-12 Mar 1967 ISFW Austria Reinhold Bachler Czechoslovakia Jiří Raška Norway Bjørn Wirkola
10 Mar 1968 KOP cancelled; strong winds
8-9 Mar 1969 KOP Norway Bjørn Wirkola Czechoslovakia Jiří Raška Czechoslovakia Zbyněk Hubač
27-28 Feb 1971 KOP Norway Frithjof Prydz Czechoslovakia Zbyněk Hubač Norway Bent Tomtum
11-18 Feb 1973 KOP cancelled; lack of snow
22-23 Feb 1975 KOP Austria Reinhold Bachler Austria Hans Wallner Austria Edi Federer
18 Feb 1977 K-150 SFWC Switzerland Walter Steiner Austria Anton Innauer East Germany Henry Glaß
2 Mar 1980 K-155 WC Norway Per Bergerud Poland Stanisław Bobak Czechoslovakia Ján Tánczos
18 Feb 1983 K-155 WC Finland Matti Nykänen Czechoslovakia Pavel Ploc Austria Hans Wallner
19 Feb 1983 K-155 WC Finland Matti Nykänen Canada Horst Bulau Finland Tuomo Ylipulli
20 Feb 1983 K-155 WC Finland Matti Nykänen Norway Olav Hansson Czechoslovakia Pavel Ploc
15 Feb 1986 K-155 WC Austria Andreas Felder Finland Matti Nykänen Poland Piotr Fijas
16 Feb 1986 K-155 WC Austria Andreas Felder Austria Ernst Vettori Finland Matti Nykänen
25 Feb 1990 K-175 SFWC West Germany Dieter Thoma Finland Matti Nykänen East Germany Jens Weißflog
20 Mar 1993 K-175 WC cancelled
21 Mar 1993 K-175 WC cancelled
18 Feb 1995 K-175 WC Austria Andreas Goldberger Japan Takanobu Okabe Norway Lasse Ottesen
19 Feb 1995 K-175 WC Austria Andreas Goldberger Japan Takanobu Okabe Italy Roberto Cecon
28 Feb 1998 K-175 WC cancelled; postponed on next day
1 Mar 1998 K-175 WC Austria Andreas Widhölzl Germany Sven Hannawald Japan Akira Higashi
1 Mar 1998 K-175 WC Japan Takanobu Okabe Japan Hiroya Saito Japan Noriaki Kasai
12-13 Feb 2000 K-185 SFWC original date; strong winds, posponed to 14 Feb
14 Feb 2000 K-185 SFWC Germany Sven Hannawald Austria Andreas Widhölzl Finland Janne Ahonen
6 Mar 2004 K-185 CC Austria Roland Müller Norway Olav Magne Dønnem Austria Balthasar Schneider
7 Mar 2004 K-185 CC Austria Roland Müller Austria Balthasar Schneider Austria Martin Koch
13 Jan 2007 HS 207 WC cancelled
14 Jan 2007 Moon by Adam Cebula.jpg HS 207 WC Norway Anders Jacobsen Austria Thomas Morgenstern Finland Matti Hautamäki
14 Mar 2009 Moon by Adam Cebula.jpg HS 207 WC-T  Austria
Martin Koch
Wolfgang Loitzl
Thomas Morgenstern
Gregor Schlierenzauer
 Finland
Matti Hautamäki
Kalle Keituri
Ville Larinto
Harri Olli
 Norway
Johan Remen Evensen
Bjørn Einar Romøren
Anders Bardal
Anders Jacobsen
15 Mar 2009 HS 207 WC Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer Switzerland Simon Ammann Russia Dimitry Vassiliev
12 Feb 2011 Moon by Adam Cebula.jpg HS 225 WC Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer
Norway Johan Remen Evensen
Switzerland Simon Ammann
13 Feb 2011 HS 225 WC Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer Norway Johan Remen Evensen Poland Adam Małysz
25 Feb 2012 Moon by Adam Cebula.jpg HS 225 SFWC-I Slovenia Robert Kranjec Norway Rune Velta Austria Martin Koch
26 Feb 2012 HS 225 SFWC-T  Austria
Thomas Morgenstern
Andreas Kofler
Gregor Schlierenzauer
Martin Koch
 Germany
Andreas Wank
Richard Freitag
Maximilian Mechler
Severin Freund
 Slovenia
Jernej Damjan
Jurij Tepeš
Jure Šinkovec
Robert Kranjec
26 Feb 2013 Moon by Adam Cebula.jpg HS 225 WC Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer Switzerland Simon Ammann Slovenia Robert Kranjec
27 Feb 2013 HS 225 WC Slovenia Robert Kranjec Germany Michael Neumayer Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer
14 Feb 2015 Moon by Adam Cebula.jpg HS 225 WC Slovenia Peter Prevc Norway Anders Fannemel Japan Noriaki Kasai
15 Feb 2015 HS 225 WC Germany Severin Freund Norway Anders Fannemel Norway Johann André Forfang

*OP - opening; VIKC - Vikersund race; NRA - National race; ISFW/KOP - Ski Flying Week; SFWC - Ski Flying World Championships; CC - Continental Cup; WC - World Cup; T - team; I - individual

The inaugural competition was held on 25 February 1936 in front of 5,000 spectators.[3] Hilmar Myhra won the race, setting the first official hill record at 86 meters (282 ft).[12] The hill was used for a single major competition each year, Vikersundrennet. Arnold Kongsgård beat the hill record in 1946 when he jumped 87.5 meters (287 ft) and then beat it with another meter two years later. The ultimate hill record in the original hill was 98 meters (322 ft), which was also a new Norwegian record, set by Arne Hoel in 1951.[13] After the opening of the new jump in 1957, Hoel set a new hill record of 100.5 meters (330 ft).[5] The following year, Asbjørn Osnes set a new hill record of 108.5 meters (356 ft) and then again in 1960 by Paavo Lukkariniemi of 116.5 meters (382 ft).[4]

On the first ski flying competition on 14 March 1966 saw Bjørn Wirkola set a new world record at 146 meters (479 ft).[9] Starting on 12 March 1967, the club introduced the International Ski Flying Week. The inaugural tournament was held on 12 March 1967[14] and saw Austria's Reinhold Bachler set a world record of 154 meters (505 ft). On 11 March 1968, the tournament was canceled due to strong winds, although 22,500 people had come to spectate.[15] In 1973, the International Ski Flying Week was canceled because of lack of snow.[9] On this hill were also two Continental Cup competitions in 2004 both won by Austrian Roland Müller.

In the late 1960s, the International Ski Federation (FIS) started planning a world championship in ski flying. The Norwegian Ski Federation was opposed to this.[16] Vikersundbakken was awarded the fourth FIS Ski Flying World Championships, held in 1977. Switzerland's Walter Steiner won the race, while Czechoslovakia's František Novák set a new hill record of 157 meters (515 ft). Vikersundbakken was used in the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup in 1980, 1983 and 1986.[17]

The normal hill was used for the Norwegian Ski Championships in 1989. As there was no snow, 3,000 cubic meters (110,000 cu ft) was freighted by train from Finse via the Bergen Line and up from Vikersund Station by truck.[18]

Hill record[edit]

Men[edit]

Date Ski Jumper Length
Feb 1936 Norway Hilmar Myhra 85.0 m (279 ft)
1946 Norway Arnold Kongsgård 87.5 m (287 ft)
1948 Norway Arnold Kongsgård 88.5 m (290 ft)
1951 Norway Arne Hoel 98.0 m (321 ft)
1957 Norway Arne Hoel 100.5 m (330 ft)
1958 Norway Asbjørn Osnes 108.5 m (356 ft)
1960 Finland Paavo Lukkariniemi 116.5 m (382 ft)
Mar 1966 Norway Bjørn Wirkola 145.0 m (476 ft) World record icon.svg
Mar 1966 Norway Bjørn Wirkola 146.0 m (479 ft) World record icon.svg
12 Mar 1967 Austria Reinhold Bachler 154.0 m (505 ft) World record icon.svg
20 Feb 1977 Czechoslovakia František Novák 157.0 m (515 ft)
15 Feb 1986 Poland Piotr Fijas 163.0 m (535 ft)
25 Feb 1990 Finland Matti Nykänen 171.0 m (561 ft)
25 Feb 1990 Germany Dieter Thoma 171.0 m (561 ft)
18 Feb 1995 Norway Lasse Ottesen 175.0 m (574 ft)
Date Ski Jumper Length
18 Feb 1995 Austria Andreas Goldberger 179.0 m (587 ft)
18-19 Feb 1995 Norway Espen Bredesen 185.0 m (607 ft)
19 Feb 1995 Finland Janne Ahonen 187.0 m (613 ft)
19 Feb 1995 Austria Andreas Goldberger 188.0 m (617 ft)
1 Mar 1998 Japan Takanobu Okabe 194.0 m (636 ft)
11 Feb 2000 Austria Andreas Goldberger 207.0 m (679 ft)
12 Jan 2007 Germany Michael Uhrmann 214.5 m (704 ft)
14 Mar 2009 Austria Martin Koch 216.5 m (710 ft)
14 Mar 2009 Finland Harri Olli 219.0 m (718 ft)
11 Feb 2011 Japan Daiki Ito 220.0 m (722 ft)
11 Feb 2011 Norway Johan Remen Evensen 243.0 m (797 ft) World record icon.svg
11 Feb 2011 Norway Johan Remen Evensen 246.5 m (809 ft) World record icon.svg
14 Feb 2015 Slovenia Peter Prevc 250.0 m (820 ft) World record icon.svg
15 Feb 2015 Norway Anders Fannemel 251.5 m (825 ft) World record icon.svg

Invalid[edit]

Date Ski Jumper Length
1969 Czechoslovakia Ladislav Divila 166.0 m (545 ft) WR
15 Feb 2015 Russia Dmitri Vassiliev 254.0 m (833 ft)WR
  • world record jumps with fall; Vassilev's is longest ever.

Women[edit]

Date Ski Jumper Length
6 Mar 2004 Norway Anette Sagen 174.5 m (672 ft)
7 Mar 2004 Norway Helena Olsson Smeby 174.5 m (672 ft)

Technical data[edit]

Specifications
Inrun length 134 m[19]
Inrun angle 36°
Top to bottom height difference N/A
Take-off table to bottom height difference 272 m
Take-off table height N/A
Landing zone angle 24° - 35°
Hillsize 225 m
K-point 200 m

References[edit]

Bibliography
  1. ^ http://www.aftenposten.no/100Sport/hopp/Prevc-hoppet-250-meter-og-smadret-verdensrekorden-492019_1.snd (Norwegian)
  2. ^ a b Drolsum: 42
  3. ^ a b Drolsum: 43
  4. ^ a b Drolsum: 47
  5. ^ a b Drolsum: 46
  6. ^ Drolsum: 49
  7. ^ Drolsum: 54
  8. ^ Drolsum: 55
  9. ^ a b c d Drolsum: 53
  10. ^ Drolsum: 61
  11. ^ "Vikersundbakken now a K200". skisprungschanzen.com. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
  12. ^ Drolsum: 44
  13. ^ Drolsum: 45
  14. ^ Drolsum: 56
  15. ^ Drolsum: 57
  16. ^ Drolsum: 58
  17. ^ Drolsum: 60
  18. ^ Drolsum: 50
  19. ^ "The Skiflying Hill - Technical Data". Retrieved 16 March 2015. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 59°56′18″N 10°00′22″E / 59.93833°N 10.00611°E / 59.93833; 10.00611